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AP Biology 2006-2007 Animal Nutrition AP Biology What do animals need to live? O2O2 food ATP  Animals make energy using:  food  oxygen  Animals build.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology 2006-2007 Animal Nutrition AP Biology What do animals need to live? O2O2 food ATP  Animals make energy using:  food  oxygen  Animals build."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AP Biology Animal Nutrition

3 AP Biology What do animals need to live? O2O2 food ATP  Animals make energy using:  food  oxygen  Animals build bodies using:  food for raw materials  amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides  ATP energy for synthesis

4 AP Biology How do animals get their food? filter (suspension) feedingsubstrate feeding fluid feedingbulk feeding

5 AP Biology

6 Getting & Using Food  Ingest  taking in food  Digest  mechanical digestion  breaking up food into smaller pieces  chemical digestion  breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed into cells  enzymes (hydrolysis)  Absorb  absorb across cell membrane  diffusion  active transport  Eliminate  undigested extracellular material passes out of digestive system intracellular digestion extracellular digestion

7 AP Biology Digestive systems Everybody’s got one!

8 AP Biology Human digestive system Alimentary Canal

9 AP Biology Common processes & structures  Movement & Control  peristalsis  push food along by rhythmic waves of smooth muscle contraction in walls of digestive system  sphincters  muscular ring-like valves, regulate the passage of material between sections of digestive system  Accessory glands  salivary glands, pancreas, liver & gall bladder  secrete digestive juices (enzymes & fluid)

10 AP Biology  ?v=zX500a &t=Dige stive-System ?v=zX500a &t=Dige stive-System

11 AP Biology Swallowing (& not choking)  Epiglottis  problem: breathe & swallow through same orifice  flap of cartilage  closes trachea (windpipe) when swallowing  food travels down esophagus  Esophagus  move food along to stomach by peristalsis

12 AP Biology Ingestion  Mouth  mechanical digestion  teeth  breaking up food  chemical digestion  saliva  amylase enzyme digests starch  mucin slippery protein (mucus) protects soft lining of digestive system lubricates food for easier swallowing  buffers neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay  anti-bacterial chemicals kill bacteria that enter mouth with food

13 AP Biology mouth  break up food  moisten food  digest starch  kill germs

14 AP Biology Stomach  Functions  food storage  can stretch to fit ~2L food  disinfect food  HCl = pH 2  kills bacteria  breaks apart cells  chemical digestion  pepsin  enzyme breaks down proteins  secreted as pepsinogen activated by HCl But the stomach is made out of protein! What stops the stomach from digesting itself? mucus secreted by stomach cells protects stomach lining Ooooooh! Zymogen!

15 AP Biology stomach  kills germs  store food  break up food  digest proteins cardiac sphincter pyloric sphincter mouth  break up food  moisten food  digest starch  kill germs

16 AP Biology  Used to think ulcers were caused by stress  tried to control with antacids  Now know ulcers caused by bacterial infection of stomach  Helicobacter pylori  now cure with antibiotics Ulcers inflammation of stomach inflammation of esophagus Colonized by H. pylori Free of H. pylori white blood cells cytokines inflammatory proteins (CagA) cell damaging proteins (VacA) helper T cells neutrophil cells H. pylori Coevolution of parasite & host

17 AP Biology Small intestine  Function  major organ of digestion & absorption  chemical digestion  digestive enzymes  absorption through lining  over 6 meters!  small intestine has huge surface area = 300m 2 (~size of tennis court)  Structure  3 sections  duodenum = most digestion  jejunum = absorption of nutrients & water  ileum = absorption of nutrients & water

18 AP Biology Duodenum  1st section of small intestines  acid food from stomach mixes with digestive juices from accessory glands:  pancreas  liver  gall bladder

19 AP Biology Pancreas  Digestive enzymes  peptidases  trypsin  trypsinogen  chymotrypsin  chimotrypsinogen  carboxypeptidase  procarboxypeptidase  pancreatic amylase  Buffers  reduces acidity  alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate (HCO 3 -)  buffers acidity of material from stomach Explain how this is a molecular example of structure-function theme. Ooooooh! Zymogen! What stops pancreas from digesting itself small intestines

20 AP Biology stomach  kills germs  break up food  digest proteins  store food pancreas  produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch mouth  break up food  moisten food  digest starch  kill germs

21 AP Biology Liver  Digestive System Functions  produces bile  stored in gallbladder until needed  breaks up fats  act like detergents to breakup fats Circulatory System Connection bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver = iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver = iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown

22 AP Biology pancreas  produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch stomach  kills germs  break up food  digest proteins  store food liver  produces bile - stored in gall bladder  break up fats mouth  break up food  moisten food  digest starch  kill germs

23 AP Biology  The Liver and Pancreas - YouTube The Liver and Pancreas - YouTube

24 AP Biology  Digestion 2 - YouTube Digestion 2 - YouTube

25 AP Biology Absorption by Small Intestines  Absorption through villi & microvilli  finger-like projections  increase surface area for absorption Ooooh… Structure-Function theme!

26 AP Biology Absorption of Nutrients  Passive transport  fructose  Active (protein pumps) transport  pump amino acids, vitamins & glucose  against concentration gradients across intestinal cell membranes  allows intestine to absorb much higher proportion of nutrients in the intestine than would be possible with passive diffusion  worth the cost of ATP! nutrients are valuable… grab all you can get!

27 AP Biology  Small Intestine - YouTube Small Intestine - YouTube

28 AP Biology small intestines  breakdown all foods - proteins - starch - fats - nucleic acids  absorb nutrients stomach  kills germs  break up food  digest proteins  store food pancreas  produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch liver  produces bile - stored in gall bladder  break up fats mouth  break up food  moisten food  digest starch  kill germs

29 AP Biology Large intestines (colon)  Function  re-absorb water  use ~9 liters of water every day in digestive juices  > 90% of water reabsorbed  not enough water absorbed back to body diarrhea  too much water absorbed back to body Constipation v=cdijh32NiLs&feature=fvwp v=cdijh32NiLs&feature=fvwp

30 AP Biology Flora of large intestines  Living in the large intestine is a rich flora of harmless, helpful bacteria  Escherichia coli (E. coli)  a favorite research organism  bacteria produce vitamins  vitamin K; biotin, folic acid & other B vitamins  generate gases  by-product of bacterial metabolism  methane, hydrogen sulfide You’ve got company!

31 AP Biology Rectum  Last section of colon (large intestines)  eliminate feces  undigested materials  extracellular waste mainly cellulose from plants roughage or fiber  salts  masses of bacteria appendix Tell them about the rabbits, George!

32 AP Biology  Poop Primer | The Dr. Oz Show Poop Primer | The Dr. Oz Show

33 AP Biology stomach  kills germs  break up food  digest proteins  store food small intestines  breakdown food - proteins - starch - fats  absorb nutrients pancreas  produces enzymes to digest proteins & carbs liver  produces bile - stored in gall bladder  break up fats large intestines absorb water mouth  break up food  moisten food  digest starch  kill germs

34 AP Biology Problems of the Digestive System: (P. 368)  ulcer: a hole or sore inside the stomach or small intestine often caused by H-Pylori bacteria  Our stomachs are covered by mucus which protects the lining.  heartburn: is when stomach acids move up the esophagus. We call it "heartburn" but it is from the esophagus which is behind the heart. Eating too much or irritating foods can cause heartburn. (Also called G.E.R.D)

35 AP Biology Digestive Disorders Continued!  Celiac- cannot tolerate the protein gluten (wheat, rye, and barley), and the immune system responds by damaging the villi in the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food.   Constipation - too much water is removed from waste resulting in stools that are too hard and difficult to excrete (Increase fiber in diet and get enough fluids to prevent this )  Choking - food is trapped in windpipe (failure of epiglottis to close the airway when swallowening)

36 AP Biology Lactose Intolerance  Is the inability to digest a lot of lactose (sugar found in milk).  Caused by a shortage of the enzyme lactase

37 AP Biology Salmonella  Salmonella - Bacteria found on raw chicken and eggs...undercooked meat can cause salmonella poisening which can lead to death  Ecoli - Bacteria that live in the intestinal tracks of animals and birds and is transmitted to humans when we eat food that is contaminated with animal feces.

38 AP Biology Colitis  Is a disease involving the inflammation of the colon or other parts of the large intestine.  Chrons disease is a type of inflammatory colitis. It is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting mostly the small and large intestine.  Occurs when the body’s immune system, attack your body’s own tissues

39 AP Biology Appendicitis  appendix becomes blocked with mucus causing the bacteria that usually lives in your appendix to become infected and then multiply resulting in inflammation.

40 AP Biology Conditions of the digestive system!  Pathology of Crohn's disease – YouTube Pathology of Crohn's disease – YouTube  Lactose Intolerance | Signs and Symptoms | Video | Veria Living - YouTube Lactose Intolerance | Signs and Symptoms | Video | Veria Living - YouTube  Celiac Disease – YouTube Celiac Disease – YouTube  jZIw6fA jZIw6fA

41 AP Biology  hvE5FVFU hvE5FVFU  SGOB-0V8 SGOB-0V8  L4bkoJ8 L4bkoJ8

42 AP Biology  -When you lack certain vitamins it can cause diseases:  Lack of vitamin A loss of night vision where too much can cause hair loss.  Lack of vitamin C can cause scurvy (P. 189 table 9-1)  Do You Know Your Superfoods? | The Dr. Oz Show Do You Know Your Superfoods? | The Dr. Oz Show  RDA: Recommended daily allowance  %DV: Percent daily value. It is the amount (%) of nutrient found compared to 100% which you need everyday.  If you have eaten food with Vitamin A 85%...then you still need to eat food that contains another 15% to get recommended amount.  How to Read a Food Label - Video - Oprah.com How to Read a Food Label - Video - Oprah.com

43 AP Biology  etiquet/nutrition/cons/interactive- eng.php etiquet/nutrition/cons/interactive- eng.php  The Nutrition Facts Table - Consumers - Nutrition Labelling - Health Canada The Nutrition Facts Table - Consumers - Nutrition Labelling - Health Canada  Estimate How Long You Will Live: Lifespan Calculator | The Dr. Oz Show Estimate How Long You Will Live: Lifespan Calculator | The Dr. Oz Show

44 AP Biology Healthy Eating!  Healthy Eating: What to Put on Your Plate - Watch WebMD Video Healthy Eating: What to Put on Your Plate - Watch WebMD Video  Healthiest Foods at the Supermarket - Watch WebMD Video Healthiest Foods at the Supermarket - Watch WebMD Video

45 AP Biology  Food Additives Effects on Kids - Watch WebMD Video Food Additives Effects on Kids - Watch WebMD Video  yUZW8ys&feature=related yUZW8ys&feature=related  RNTjrrbY&feature=related RNTjrrbY&feature=related

46 AP Biology  Go to for quizes and videos….www.neok12.com


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