Presentation on theme: "AP Biology 2006-2007 Animal Nutrition AP Biology What do animals need to live? O2O2 food ATP Animals make energy using: food oxygen Animals build."— Presentation transcript:
AP Biology Animal Nutrition
AP Biology What do animals need to live? O2O2 food ATP Animals make energy using: food oxygen Animals build bodies using: food for raw materials amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides ATP energy for synthesis
AP Biology How do animals get their food? filter (suspension) feedingsubstrate feeding fluid feedingbulk feeding
Getting & Using Food Ingest taking in food Digest mechanical digestion breaking up food into smaller pieces chemical digestion breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed into cells enzymes (hydrolysis) Absorb absorb across cell membrane diffusion active transport Eliminate undigested extracellular material passes out of digestive system intracellular digestion extracellular digestion
AP Biology Digestive systems Everybody’s got one!
AP Biology Human digestive system Alimentary Canal
AP Biology Common processes & structures Movement & Control peristalsis push food along by rhythmic waves of smooth muscle contraction in walls of digestive system sphincters muscular ring-like valves, regulate the passage of material between sections of digestive system Accessory glands salivary glands, pancreas, liver & gall bladder secrete digestive juices (enzymes & fluid)
AP Biology ?v=zX500a &t=Dige stive-System ?v=zX500a &t=Dige stive-System
AP Biology Swallowing (& not choking) Epiglottis problem: breathe & swallow through same orifice flap of cartilage closes trachea (windpipe) when swallowing food travels down esophagus Esophagus move food along to stomach by peristalsis
AP Biology Ingestion Mouth mechanical digestion teeth breaking up food chemical digestion saliva amylase enzyme digests starch mucin slippery protein (mucus) protects soft lining of digestive system lubricates food for easier swallowing buffers neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay anti-bacterial chemicals kill bacteria that enter mouth with food
AP Biology mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs
AP Biology Stomach Functions food storage can stretch to fit ~2L food disinfect food HCl = pH 2 kills bacteria breaks apart cells chemical digestion pepsin enzyme breaks down proteins secreted as pepsinogen activated by HCl But the stomach is made out of protein! What stops the stomach from digesting itself? mucus secreted by stomach cells protects stomach lining Ooooooh! Zymogen!
AP Biology stomach kills germs store food break up food digest proteins cardiac sphincter pyloric sphincter mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs
AP Biology Used to think ulcers were caused by stress tried to control with antacids Now know ulcers caused by bacterial infection of stomach Helicobacter pylori now cure with antibiotics Ulcers inflammation of stomach inflammation of esophagus Colonized by H. pylori Free of H. pylori white blood cells cytokines inflammatory proteins (CagA) cell damaging proteins (VacA) helper T cells neutrophil cells H. pylori Coevolution of parasite & host
AP Biology Small intestine Function major organ of digestion & absorption chemical digestion digestive enzymes absorption through lining over 6 meters! small intestine has huge surface area = 300m 2 (~size of tennis court) Structure 3 sections duodenum = most digestion jejunum = absorption of nutrients & water ileum = absorption of nutrients & water
AP Biology Duodenum 1st section of small intestines acid food from stomach mixes with digestive juices from accessory glands: pancreas liver gall bladder
AP Biology Pancreas Digestive enzymes peptidases trypsin trypsinogen chymotrypsin chimotrypsinogen carboxypeptidase procarboxypeptidase pancreatic amylase Buffers reduces acidity alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate (HCO 3 -) buffers acidity of material from stomach Explain how this is a molecular example of structure-function theme. Ooooooh! Zymogen! What stops pancreas from digesting itself small intestines
AP Biology stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs
AP Biology Liver Digestive System Functions produces bile stored in gallbladder until needed breaks up fats act like detergents to breakup fats Circulatory System Connection bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver = iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver = iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown
AP Biology pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs
AP Biology The Liver and Pancreas - YouTube The Liver and Pancreas - YouTube
AP Biology Absorption by Small Intestines Absorption through villi & microvilli finger-like projections increase surface area for absorption Ooooh… Structure-Function theme!
AP Biology Absorption of Nutrients Passive transport fructose Active (protein pumps) transport pump amino acids, vitamins & glucose against concentration gradients across intestinal cell membranes allows intestine to absorb much higher proportion of nutrients in the intestine than would be possible with passive diffusion worth the cost of ATP! nutrients are valuable… grab all you can get!
AP Biology Small Intestine - YouTube Small Intestine - YouTube
AP Biology small intestines breakdown all foods - proteins - starch - fats - nucleic acids absorb nutrients stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & starch liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs
AP Biology Large intestines (colon) Function re-absorb water use ~9 liters of water every day in digestive juices > 90% of water reabsorbed not enough water absorbed back to body diarrhea too much water absorbed back to body Constipation v=cdijh32NiLs&feature=fvwp v=cdijh32NiLs&feature=fvwp
AP Biology Flora of large intestines Living in the large intestine is a rich flora of harmless, helpful bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) a favorite research organism bacteria produce vitamins vitamin K; biotin, folic acid & other B vitamins generate gases by-product of bacterial metabolism methane, hydrogen sulfide You’ve got company!
AP Biology Rectum Last section of colon (large intestines) eliminate feces undigested materials extracellular waste mainly cellulose from plants roughage or fiber salts masses of bacteria appendix Tell them about the rabbits, George!
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AP Biology stomach kills germs break up food digest proteins store food small intestines breakdown food - proteins - starch - fats absorb nutrients pancreas produces enzymes to digest proteins & carbs liver produces bile - stored in gall bladder break up fats large intestines absorb water mouth break up food moisten food digest starch kill germs
AP Biology Problems of the Digestive System: (P. 368) ulcer: a hole or sore inside the stomach or small intestine often caused by H-Pylori bacteria Our stomachs are covered by mucus which protects the lining. heartburn: is when stomach acids move up the esophagus. We call it "heartburn" but it is from the esophagus which is behind the heart. Eating too much or irritating foods can cause heartburn. (Also called G.E.R.D)
AP Biology Digestive Disorders Continued! Celiac- cannot tolerate the protein gluten (wheat, rye, and barley), and the immune system responds by damaging the villi in the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. Constipation - too much water is removed from waste resulting in stools that are too hard and difficult to excrete (Increase fiber in diet and get enough fluids to prevent this ) Choking - food is trapped in windpipe (failure of epiglottis to close the airway when swallowening)
AP Biology Lactose Intolerance Is the inability to digest a lot of lactose (sugar found in milk). Caused by a shortage of the enzyme lactase
AP Biology Salmonella Salmonella - Bacteria found on raw chicken and eggs...undercooked meat can cause salmonella poisening which can lead to death Ecoli - Bacteria that live in the intestinal tracks of animals and birds and is transmitted to humans when we eat food that is contaminated with animal feces.
AP Biology Colitis Is a disease involving the inflammation of the colon or other parts of the large intestine. Chrons disease is a type of inflammatory colitis. It is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting mostly the small and large intestine. Occurs when the body’s immune system, attack your body’s own tissues
AP Biology Appendicitis appendix becomes blocked with mucus causing the bacteria that usually lives in your appendix to become infected and then multiply resulting in inflammation.
AP Biology Conditions of the digestive system! Pathology of Crohn's disease – YouTube Pathology of Crohn's disease – YouTube Lactose Intolerance | Signs and Symptoms | Video | Veria Living - YouTube Lactose Intolerance | Signs and Symptoms | Video | Veria Living - YouTube Celiac Disease – YouTube Celiac Disease – YouTube jZIw6fA jZIw6fA
AP Biology -When you lack certain vitamins it can cause diseases: Lack of vitamin A loss of night vision where too much can cause hair loss. Lack of vitamin C can cause scurvy (P. 189 table 9-1) Do You Know Your Superfoods? | The Dr. Oz Show Do You Know Your Superfoods? | The Dr. Oz Show RDA: Recommended daily allowance %DV: Percent daily value. It is the amount (%) of nutrient found compared to 100% which you need everyday. If you have eaten food with Vitamin A 85%...then you still need to eat food that contains another 15% to get recommended amount. How to Read a Food Label - Video - Oprah.com How to Read a Food Label - Video - Oprah.com
AP Biology etiquet/nutrition/cons/interactive- eng.php etiquet/nutrition/cons/interactive- eng.php The Nutrition Facts Table - Consumers - Nutrition Labelling - Health Canada The Nutrition Facts Table - Consumers - Nutrition Labelling - Health Canada Estimate How Long You Will Live: Lifespan Calculator | The Dr. Oz Show Estimate How Long You Will Live: Lifespan Calculator | The Dr. Oz Show
AP Biology Healthy Eating! Healthy Eating: What to Put on Your Plate - Watch WebMD Video Healthy Eating: What to Put on Your Plate - Watch WebMD Video Healthiest Foods at the Supermarket - Watch WebMD Video Healthiest Foods at the Supermarket - Watch WebMD Video
AP Biology Food Additives Effects on Kids - Watch WebMD Video Food Additives Effects on Kids - Watch WebMD Video yUZW8ys&feature=related yUZW8ys&feature=related RNTjrrbY&feature=related RNTjrrbY&feature=related
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