Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction"— Presentation transcript:
1Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction Loftus and Palmer (1974)Reconstruction ofAutomobile Destruction
2Experiment into false memory Have a pen and paper ready !!
3What influences the recall of events ? Questioning and post-event contamination.(Loftus and Palmer)Expectations – stereotypes and schemas.(Bartlett)Emotion/Stress – Weapon Focus(Loftus and Burns)Context – Retrieval cues(Malpass and Devine).
5Reconstructive Memory Bartlett (1932) and SchemasMemory is not a direct record of what was witnessedWhat is encoded and how it is retrieved depends on:Information already stored in memoryHow this info is understood, structured and organised
6Schema Driven Processing Yes. I can recognise speech.Can you wreck a nice beach?
8War of the GhostsOne night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said: "What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people". One of the young men said: "I have no arrows". "Arrows are in the canoe", they said. "I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you", he said, turning to the other, "may go with them.“ So one of the young men went, but the other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water, and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say: "Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit". Now he thought: "Oh, they are ghosts". He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac, and the young man went ashore to his house, and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: " Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick". He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried. He was dead.
9ReproductionThe War of this Ghosts Two Indians were out fishing for seals in the Bay of Manpapan, when along came five other Indians in a war-canoe. They were going fighting. "Come with us," said the five to the two, "and fight." "I cannot come," was the answer of the one, "for I have an old mother at home who is dependent upon me." The other also said he could not come, because he had no arms. "That is no difficulty" the others replied, "for we have plenty in the canoe with us"; so he got into the canoe and went with them. In a fight soon afterwards this Indian received a mortal wound. Finding that his hour was come, he cried out that he was about to die. " Nonsense,“ said one of the others, "you will not die." But he did.
10Bartlett (1932) War of the Ghosts When recalled by UK PPs: Shorter Less detailedSome details changed (e.g. seal hunting changed to fishing)More ‘Western’ structure
11EWT: Schema Driven Errors Past experiencesAssumptions about what usually happensStereotypes & beliefs about crime & criminals
12EWT: Arousal EffectsMemory is most effective at moderate arousal levelsIf the witness was in a state of extremely low or high arousal then recall may be poorperformancearousal
13EWT: Weapon FocusWhen a weapon is used to threaten a victim, their attention is likely to focus on itConsequently, their recall of other information is likely to be poor
14EWT: Retrieval CuesRecall typically takes place in a different context to acquisitionLack of retrieval cues (state and context) can inhibit recallReconstruction of the events (either imagination or simulation) can lead to enhanced recall
15PlenaryWhat are the different factors that affect recall that we have discussed today? *
16Loftus and Palmer (1974)Reconstruction of automobile destruction: an example of the interaction between language and memoryField of psychology: CognitiveType of study: Laboratory experiment
17Aim and Context“I do solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm that the evidence I shall give shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth”
18Why is it important? The Innocence project An organisation which works to clear the names of wrongly convicted peopleThey claim that eyewitness misidentification is the greatest single cause of wrongful convictions in the USA, convictions that were later overturned by DNA evidence.The study by Loftus and Palmer took place in Why is this relevant to the context?
19Carmichael (1932)You have a few seconds to remember the pictures on the boardTry to reproduce the imageCompare your drawing with your partners. Are there any differences? How do we explain these results?
20Carmichael (1932)Carmichael’s experiment suggests that memory is not always accurate.Memory is reconstructed from the different elements (the pictures and the words)Also, this experiment suggests that language (the verbal labels) can alter our recall.
21Marshall (1969)Air Force personnel, observed a car travelling at 12 mph.Their estimates ranged from 10 to 50 mph.Range in answers possibly due to leading questions.These results also show us that humans are poor at estimating speed.
22Filmore (1971)Suggested that the words smashed and hit may imply different rates of speed.These words lead the listener to assume different consequences to the impacts to which they are referring, with hit being perceived as gentler than smashed.
23Aims Loftus and Palmer’s experiment was actually two experiments. They wanted to investigate in general how accurate or inaccurate memory was. Specifically they wanted to see the effect of ______________ upon estimates of ______.leading questionsspeed
24AimsExperiment 1See if the speed estimates would be influenced by the wording of the question asked.Hit vs Smashed
25AimsExperiment 2To see if the leading questions just changed the responses given to the questions, or whether the participant’s memories had actually altered as a result of the leading questions.
26ProceduresLoftus and Palmer carried out two experiments. You need to know detailed procedures for both of them, as well as participant numbers.Use the information on pg 107 and the original textTwo groupsComplete table.When outlining the procedure, be as detailed but as clear as you can.
27Procedures Two groups Go back to your pairs, and share procedures Complete table.When outlining the procedure, be as detailed but as clear as you can.Go back to your pairs, and share proceduresIn pairs, answer questions 1-4
28Findings and conclusions Draw two graphsSummarise the resultsWrite in the conclusionsAnswer the questionsWork together
29Evaluating the methodology In pairsMethodReliability and samplingValidityEthicsSpeed learn
30Critically assess with reference to alternative evidence Match up the study with the description of what the results meanUse three colours to highlight research that supports, contradicts, or develops Loftus and Palmer’s research.