Presentation on theme: "New Zealand: Domestic Politics and National Economy Renny Candradewi Mulyosaputri 070810532 Kemal Sundah Prasasti 0710810189."— Presentation transcript:
New Zealand: Domestic Politics and National Economy Renny Candradewi Mulyosaputri Kemal Sundah Prasasti
Previously Historically – Precolonial era: Polynesian descents ‘Maori’ – Colonial era Waitangi Treaty British Colonisation – Organized colonial settlement—European wave immigrations (1840) – British control over NZ – Landowner management – Recognized tribal (Maori) rights – Commonwealth era Clash: – Musket Wars (18 – British colonial government v.s Maori
This presentatioin is to – brief description regarding the NZ political system including the domestic politics and its national economy. – Meanwhile, the significance of NZ positions identity including the national determinants and relations with neighboring countries will be further elaborated in the following lecture
Domestic Politics: Renny Political parties – Age of British Colonialism – Prior to WW I – 1929 Depressions Political system – Monarch and centralized – Multiparty and self governing (dominion) Culture of politics
History of NZ Government Colonial age: – First, New Zealand government colonial government (by surveillance of UK monarch) The head of colonial government is working as a representative of UK monarch functioning to establish, organize, manage and regulate the colonial settlements. Colonial government is authorized and assigned with military such as troops, forts, and colonial business including trades and managing markets in defined area or region.
Prior to WW I Second, – governance transition took place in year 1917 that implements capability and accountability self-governing from ‘colony’ to ‘dominion’. – ‘Prime minister’ is introduced as the head of government. The governance reflects demand for equal opportunity in political and social rights, especially for Maori. – This governance type does not merely allow for creating party (first party, is Liberals Party), but also allows the multiparty to exist subsequently such as ‘Reforms Party’, ‘Labor Party’ and ‘National Party’. – Today NZ politics is dominated by these four party, but also suggest that National and Labor Party are dominating the entire political process.
What this implies? ‘centralized and monarchy gov’ – The age of British colonialism does not reflect the freedom of rights because government policy and action are centralized from monarch. The following change, shows that this trend is changing in ways – stating that individual rights is granted (guaranted) to vote in the election. – 1881 marks the outset of election followed by the women suffrage in 1893.
What happens in Domestic Politics? Prior to Colonial Age Early Colonialization British Colonialisation subsequently Run by Maori Chiefs New Zealand Company Appointed Governor General Dominated by small elite and prospered farmers, landowners Demand equal political and social opportunity (Maori, middle and working class) Prior to and ensuing colonial age
New Zealand Wars Changes status: ‘colony’ to ‘dominion’ Creation ‘Liberal Parties’ Ruling Government: Liberals Policy is aiming to keep tight relationship with British Reform Party took power (successor) Labor Party took power (successor) 1929 Depression National Party took power (quite strong) Labor and National continue competiting in today NZ political system NZ Government prior to WW I till today
Country Profile NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT Type Parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Administrative Divisions16 regions and 1 territory; Constitutionacts of the UK and New Zealand parliaments, The Constitution Act 1986 Legal SystemEnglish law land legislation and land courts for the Maori accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Executive Branch chief of state: Governor General Anand SATYANAND head of government: Prime Minister John KEY Deputy Prime Minister Bill ENGLISH cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister Legislative Branchunicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, serve three-year terms) Judiciary BranchSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; judges appointed by the governor general
NOTES elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections: the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
National Economy: Kemal Goal Pattern Strength
Economy NZ has a fairly good economic conditions. GDP $115.1 billion (2009) NZ's export value in 2009 reached billion USD Export commodities include dairy products, meat, timber, fish and machines. NZ's main export partners include Australia (23.1%), United States (10.1%), Japan (8.4%) and China (5.8%). Another economic strength of NZ lies in the agriculture sector
NZ economy relies on exports. As a result of this pattern appears in the NZ’s economy which so vulnerable toward external changes. The entry of Britain into the European Union was changed the strategy of the NZ economy to build new market in Asia.
Another pattern in the NZ’s economy is pragmatism in its policies. The ruling government in making policy based more on the goal of achieving prosperity compared to prioritize certain ideology. The policies are actually drawn during the reign of the Labor Party which is often considered to adopt mercantilism.
Traditionally, NZ's economy has been helped by strong economic relations with Australia. New Zealand and Australia are partners in "Closer Economic Relations" (CER) Since 1990, CER has created a single market of more than 22 million people, and this has provided new opportunities for New Zealand exporters. NZ's foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies.
Foreign aid for development given New Zealand is managed by semi-autonomous agency NZAID, main objective of NZAID policy is to reduce poverty in the South Pacific countries. In 2004 the total number of NZ's foreign aid reached 260 million USD, 122 million USD directed to South Pacific countries. The main priorities are considered important in NZ's economy foreign policy is a region located in the northwest, the Oceania countries, especially Polynesia to strenghten NZ position in Oceania
References Gillespie, Carol Ann Modern World Nations : New Zealand. New York : Chelsea House Jackson, Keith & Alan Mcrobie Historical Dictionary of New Zealand. Oxford : The Scarecrow Press. CIA The World Fact book Australia-Oceania : New Zealand [online] available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/nz.html [accessed 21 December 2010] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/nz.html US Department of State Background Note: New Zealand. [online] Available at [accessed 21 December 2010]