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Presently, An independent country UK HISTORY OF N.I. United Kingdom and Republic of IrelandUnited Kingdom and Republic of Ireland UK : BRITAIN England,

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Presentation on theme: "Presently, An independent country UK HISTORY OF N.I. United Kingdom and Republic of IrelandUnited Kingdom and Republic of Ireland UK : BRITAIN England,"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Presently, An independent country UK

4 HISTORY OF N.I. United Kingdom and Republic of IrelandUnited Kingdom and Republic of Ireland UK : BRITAIN England, Scotland, Wales and N.I.UK : BRITAIN England, Scotland, Wales and N.I. Let’s tour Britain.Let’s tour Britain.

5 HISTORY OF N.I. Before 12 th centuryBefore 12 th century In the 12 th centuryIn the 12 th century

6 12 TH CENTURY Before 12 th centuryBefore 12 th century –N.I. & Republic of Ireland = IRELAND In the 12 th centuryIn the 12 th century –Ireland conquered and colonised by England Colonised!

7 1690 (17 th CENTURY) King James II of England, a Catholic Forced to flee to north of Ireland. Why? Because he failed to force Catholicism on the Protestants in England There, he tried to defeat the locals PROTESTANTNew King of England, William of Orange PROTESTANT arrived in north of Ireland and defeated King James Battle of Boyne King William remains a hero to Protestants to this day

8 King James II: The Protestant do not accept Catholism. I have to flee. King William: I cannot allow this to happen. I’m bringing my men to go to north of Ireland to fight.

9 King William crossing the river Battle of Boyne

10 17 th CENTURY 17 TH century : England ruled Ireland –English landlords in Ireland –brought in Protestant Scottish and English settlers –To increase Protestant population there –Newcomers – settled in northern part of Ireland –Pushed out many local Irish Catholic farmers –Those Irish Catholics who stayed behind given least fertile lands –Northern part of Ireland thus became mainly Protestant

11 Let me bring you over.

12 19 th CENTURY For years, Catholic Irish fought against Protestant Scottish and English settlers without success 1800 : Ireland became part of UK Hostilities between Catholics and Protestants did not end HOME RULE (like our concept of self-government)Late 1800s : some local Irish demanded HOME RULE (like our concept of self-government) Fighting often broke out

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14 20 th CENTURY 1921 : Ireland divided into two separate parts Based on majority religion of each part PROTESTANT NORTHERN IRELANDNorthern part PROTESTANT became known as NORTHERN IRELAND – remained part of UK CATHOLIC IRISH FREE STATESouthern part CATHOLIC became known as IRISH FREE STATE Both had own Parliaments But continued to recognise English monarchy and laws regarding foreign affairs 1949 : Irish Free State cut ties with Britain REPUBLIC OF IRELANDBecame the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

15 1921 Irish Free State 1949

16 1993 : 1,000,000 Protestants –Mostly of English and Scottish origin 600,000 Catholics –Mostly descendants of local Irish inhabitants PEOPLE IN N.I. TODAY

17 Since 1972 –Ruled directly by the British Parliament in London –British PM chooses a Secretary of State MINISTER for N.I. –N.I. Government in charge of finance, commerce, health and education –Britain in charge of foreign affairs and defence –Majority of ministers in N.I. Are Protestants THE N.I. GOVERNMENT

18 1.Divided Loyalties 2.The Education System 3.Employment 4.Housing 5.Voting THE PROTESTANT-CATHOLIC TENSION

19 In N.I. Most protestants regard themselves as BritishIn N.I. Most protestants regard themselves as British Want the country continued as part of UKWant the country continued as part of UK Many afraid of union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic countryMany afraid of union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic country A Catholic government would not be tolerant of Protestant beliefsA Catholic government would not be tolerant of Protestant beliefs 1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES

20 Catholics in N.I. See themselves as IrishCatholics in N.I. See themselves as Irish Want to be united with IrelandWant to be united with Ireland Resent past history of English conquestResent past history of English conquest Many Catholics massacred or treated harshlyMany Catholics massacred or treated harshly Remembered long struggle for Home RuleRemembered long struggle for Home Rule 1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES

21 Protestants – celebrate battle of Boyne as a mark of protestant dominanceProtestants – celebrate battle of Boyne as a mark of protestant dominance Usually march through Catholic residential areasUsually march through Catholic residential areas This sense of loyalty to different countries make them intolerant of each otherThis sense of loyalty to different countries make them intolerant of each other 1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES

22 Pause and Ponder Go to your worksheet. Under the factor ‘Divided Loyalties’, answer the following questions

23 Grievance : Provision of public housing by city councils PARTLY PAID FOR BY GOVTGrievance : Provision of public housing by city councils PARTLY PAID FOR BY GOVT Councils comprise largely ProtestantsCouncils comprise largely Protestants Catholics often delayed in getting public housingCatholics often delayed in getting public housing 1968 : 71% of local houses in Dungannon given to Protestants but 53% of the people there were Catholics1968 : 71% of local houses in Dungannon given to Protestants but 53% of the people there were Catholics 2. UNEQUAL ALLOCATION OF HOUSING

24 Catholics frustrated – shortage of houses means they have to wait many years before getting own houseCatholics frustrated – shortage of houses means they have to wait many years before getting own house Thus find provision of housing unfairThus find provision of housing unfair 2. HOUSING 2. UNEQUAL ALLOCATION OF HOUSING

25 Pause and Ponder Complete worksheet on ‘unequal allocation of housing’

26 Competition for jobs Catholics – feel that they do not have an equal chance of getting the jobs they want, even if they’re as qualified as the Protestants 3. UNEQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

27 1971 : Population survey Catholics males 2 ½ times more likely to be jobless than Protestants males No of Catholic engineers and civil servants – not proportionate to their numbers in N.I. Fewer Catholics in senior positions in public and private sectors 3. EMPLOYMENT 3. UNEQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

28 Pause and ponder Complete worksheet on unequal employment opportunity

29 Before 1968 : Voting rights a problem Each household – 2 votes Companies entitled to more votes depended on size Many companies owned by richer Protestants – thus had more votes Voting districts often drawn to include a larger proportion of Protestants Catholics were of course unhappy about this 4. LACK OF VOTING RIGHTS

30 Since 1969 : Everyone entitled to one vote Must be a British subject and above 18 years old Had to be born in N.I. Or lived in UK for 7 years Voting districts redrawn to ensure fairness 4. LACK OF VOTING RIGHTS

31 Voting rights no longer a problem today But conflicts persist because other issues such as housing and employment not addressed 4. LACK OF VOTING RIGHTS

32 Pause and Ponder Complete worksheet on lack of voting rights

33 Today, public schools are catered for Protestants onlyToday, public schools are catered for Protestants only Private schools that cater for Catholics PARTLY FUNDED BY GOVERNMENTPrivate schools that cater for Catholics PARTLY FUNDED BY GOVERNMENT 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM

34 PROTESTANT CHILDREN Taught British history Play British sports – rugby, hockey, cricket Very loyal to BritainCATHOLICCHILDREN Taught Irish history Play Irish sports – hurling Taught Irish language and culture Regard Britain as a foreign country

35 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM Mixed schoolsMixed schools Set up by private individualsSet up by private individuals Not as popular, only 5% of school populationNot as popular, only 5% of school population Result : Protestant and Catholic children rarely get to meet and know each otherResult : Protestant and Catholic children rarely get to meet and know each other Generations grow up to distrust each otherGenerations grow up to distrust each other Makes them hostile to each otherMakes them hostile to each other

36 Separate residential area Catholics and Protestants have been living in separate areas census, 63% of the population lived in areas that were predominantly Catholic or Protestant. In 2001, this percentage has risen to about 66%

37 Pause and Ponder Complete worksheet


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