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Brain Structures Hindbrain –Functions essential to maintaining life Medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain –Connects hindbrain to forebrain Reticular formation.

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Structures Hindbrain –Functions essential to maintaining life Medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain –Connects hindbrain to forebrain Reticular formation."— Presentation transcript:



3 Brain Structures Hindbrain –Functions essential to maintaining life Medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain –Connects hindbrain to forebrain Reticular formation Forebrain –Higher functioning (thinking, decisions, dreaming) Thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, amygdala



6 Corpus Callosum: Connects the right and left brains to allow integration of information between the brain hemispheres Association Areas: Interpreting, integrating, and acting on info processed by other parts of the brain Thalamus: Relay system to the cerebral cortex for most of the senses (not smell) and pain Hypothalamus: Controls body temperature, food intake, drink, sex drive Pituitary Gland: Stimulates or inhibits the release of hormones Amygdala: Aggression and fear

7 Hippocampus: Short-term memory, spatial navigation Medulla: Involuntary actions, heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing Reticular Formation: Screens incoming sensory information, habituation, and controls arousal (being awake / alert / paying attention) Pons: Waking and sleeping, dreams Cerebellum: Balance, coordination, fine motor movement, learned motor skills Nucleus Accumbens: Reward, laughter, pleasure, addiction, fear

8 Discussion In order to save your life, one part of your brain must be removed. Which part are you willing to live without and why?

9 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobe –Thinking, reasoning, emotions, judgment, decision-making, complex mental tasks, voluntary movement (motor cortex), and speech production (Broca’s Area) Parietal Lobe –Interprets information from the senses (somatosensory cortex: pressure, pain, touch, temperature), recognizing objects

10 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Temporal Lobe –Some kinds of memory, hearing, speaking, remembering, language comprehension (Wernicke’s Area), some emotional control (includes hippocampus) Occipital Lobe –Vision, visual perception, reading ability

11 Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe

12 Brain Damage Localization of function: parts are specialized Neuroplasticity: brain can grow and change Coma vs. “Brain dead” –Reticular formation vs. cerebral cortex

13 MRI fMRI Looking Inside the Brain

14 Sex of a Brain Females: lateralization, perceptual speed & reasoning, language & emotion centers Males: spatial skills, relationship between body parts, hypothalamus

15 Endocrine System: Hormones


17 Neuron Communication Action potential animation –Neurons are negatively charged in a resting state –With enough excitatory messages, sodium channels open which lets in positively charged sodium ions and positively charges the neuron –With enough charge (depolarization), the action potential (message) begins and travels down the axon, opening sodium channels along the way –Sodium channels close behind the action potential and potassium ions leave the cell –Inside of cell is restored to the resting state

18 Neuron Communication Neurotransmitter release animation –When the action potential (electrical message) reaches the terminal button, the vesicles release neurotransmitters (chemical messages) into the synaptic gap –Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors in the receiving cell, causing its sodium channels to open and begin another action potential –The neurotransmitter is broken down by enzymes in the synaptic gap or brought back into the terminal button, ending its action

19 Your Body as a Neuron Your body: Arms (dendrites), head (cell body), face (nucleus), torso (axon), fatty layer around torso (myelin sheath), legs (axon terminal), feet (synaptic knobs), neurotransmitters shoot out of the bottom

20 Questions about Drugs Write down your questions about drugs

21 Normal Neurotransmitter Action Action potential triggers release of NT NT spreads message to next neuron NT is either broken down in the synapse by enzymes or pumped back into the neuron (reuptake), ending its action

22 Drugs Change Normal NT Action Agonist: mimics neurotransmitter action –Ex. Black widow venom ACh agonist Antagonist: blocks neurotransmitter action –Ex. Curare ACh antagonist Can interfere with 1) NT release, 2) NT reuptake, 3) NT breakdown

23 Response to Interference Homeostasis: maintaining preferred state Example: temperature increases = sweat

24 Response to Interference Side effects: unintended NT action Prolonged use: neurons will 1) change NT production, 2) change number of receptors Tolerance: need more & more for effects Withdrawal: physical & emotional symptoms felt when drug is not used Dependence: lack of normal functioning without drug; use required to avoid w/d –Example: Heroin use vs. withdrawal –overdose

25 Example: Amphetamines block Dopamine reuptake. Alcohol?

26 Classes of Drugs Depressants: reduce tension, euphoria, disinhibition, drowsiness, muscle relaxation –alcohol, barbiturates, anti-anxiety, Rohypnol Stimulants: exhilaration, euphoria, high energy, reduced appetite, sociability –cocaine, (meth)amphetamine, MDMA Opiates: euphoria, rush of pleasure, pain relief –Heroin, morphine, Oxycodone Hallucinogens: distorted sensations, euphoria, mild delusions, hallucinations –LSD, mescaline, psilocybin (mushrooms), marijuana

27 Altered Consciousness Meditation: focus attention, block out distractions –Video: Meditation changes brain –Can change brain waves, heart rate, oxygen consumption, sweat gland activity –Increases emotional control, positive emotions, hopefulness

28 Nervous System Demonstration Count your heartbeats for 10 seconds

29 Stress Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment –Good vs. bad stress Stress Reaction: –Physical reaction to stress Autonomic Nervous System is aroused Short-term vs. long-term stresses

30 General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S.) Alarm Reaction: –Increased hormones (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol) Stage of Resistance: –Bodily adjustments stabilize –Symptoms of alarm reaction disappear but still using resources Stage of Exhaustion: –Continuous stress leads to draining of the body’s resources and depletion of stress hormones

31 $ spent in the last week on: 1) fruits and vegetables 2) working out 3) cigarettes and alcohol 4) junk food or “fast food”

32 Death of a spouse100Son or daughter leaving home29 Divorce73Trouble with in-laws29 Marital Separation65Outstanding Personal achievements28 Jail term63Spouse begins or stops work26 Death of a close family member63Begin or end school26 Personal injury or illness53Change in living conditions25 Marriage50Revision of personal habits24 Fired at work47Trouble with boss23 Marital reconciliation45Change in work hours or conditions20 Change in health of family member45Change in residence20 Retirement44Change in school20 Pregnancy40Change in recreation19 Sex difficulties39Change in religious activities19 Gain of a new family member39Change in social activities18 Business readjustments39Loan less than 50,00017 Change in financial state38Change in sleeping habits16 Death of a close friend37Change in no. of family get- togethers15 Change to different line of work36Change in eating habits15 Change in # of arguments w spouse35Vacation13 Mortgage over $ 50,00031Holidays12 Foreclosure of mortgage30Minor violation of laws11 Change in responsibilities at work29

33 Dealing with Stress Emotion-focused coping: change emotions Problem-focused coping: change situation Control: children 6-14 yrs, Thailand & U.S. –went to a doctor's office to get a shot ran away, screamed vs. thought it was good for me –had an accident and was physically hurt Clean the wound vs. try to relax –a peer said unkind things Corrected them vs. thought about favorite things

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