Corpus Callosum: Connects the right and left brains to allow integration of information between the brain hemispheres Association Areas: Interpreting, integrating, and acting on info processed by other parts of the brain Thalamus: Relay system to the cerebral cortex for most of the senses (not smell) and pain Hypothalamus: Controls body temperature, food intake, drink, sex drive Pituitary Gland: Stimulates or inhibits the release of hormones Amygdala: Aggression and fear
Hippocampus: Memory (esp. moving from short term to long term), spatial navigation Medulla: Involuntary actions, heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing Reticular Formation: Screens incoming sensory information, habituation, and controls arousal (being awake / alert / paying attention) Pons: Waking and sleeping, dreams Cerebellum: Balance, coordination, fine motor movement, learned motor skills Nucleus Accumbens: Reward, laughter, pleasure, addiction, fear
Discussion In order to save your life, one part of your brain must be removed. Which part are you willing to live without and why?
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobe –Thinking, reasoning, emotions, judgment, decision-making, complex mental tasks, voluntary movement (motor cortex), and speech production (Broca’s Area) Parietal Lobe –Interprets information from the pressure senses (somatosensory cortex: pressure, pain, touch, temperature), recognizing objects
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Temporal Lobe –Some kinds of memory, hearing, speaking, remembering, language comprehension (Wernicke’s Area), some emotional control (includes hippocampus) Occipital Lobe –Vision, visual perception, reading ability
Brain Damage Localization of function: parts are specialized –Ex: face blindness video Neuroplasticity: brain can grow and change Coma vs. “Brain dead” –Reticular formation vs. cerebral cortex
MRI fMRI Looking Inside the Brain
Sex of a Brain Females: lateralization, perceptual speed & reasoning, language & emotion centers Males: spatial skills, relationship between body parts, hypothalamus
Endocrine System: Hormones Chemical messages sent throughout large areas of the body Control coordinated functions, e.g., growth, digestion, reproduction
Neuron Communication Action potential animation –Neurons are negatively charged in a resting state –With enough excitatory messages, sodium channels open which lets in positively charged sodium ions and positively charges the neuron –With enough charge (depolarization), the action potential (message) begins and travels down the axon, opening sodium channels along the way –Sodium channels close behind the action potential and potassium ions leave the cell –Inside of cell is restored to the resting state
Neuron Communication Neurotransmitter release animation –When the action potential (electrical message) reaches the terminal button, the vesicles release neurotransmitters (chemical messages) into the synaptic gap –Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors in the receiving cell, causing its sodium channels to open and begin another action potential –The neurotransmitter is broken down by enzymes in the synaptic gap or brought back into the terminal button, ending its action
Your Body as a Neuron Your body: Arms (dendrites), head (cell body), face (nucleus), torso (axon), fatty layer around torso (myelin sheath), legs (axon terminal), feet (synaptic knobs), neurotransmitters shoot out of the bottom
Normal Neurotransmitter Action Action potential triggers release of neurotransmitter (NT) NT spreads message to next neuron NT is either broken down in the synapse by enzymes or pumped back into the neuron (reuptake), ending its action
Nervous System Demonstration Count your heartbeats for 10 seconds
Stress Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment –Good vs. bad stress Stress Reaction: –(Physical) ANS is aroused = HR, BP, hormones, respiration, muscle tension; stomach, constricts blood vessels Short-term vs. long-term stresses
Death of a spouse100Son or daughter leaving home29 Divorce73Trouble with in-laws29 Marital Separation65Outstanding Personal achievements28 Jail term63Spouse begins or stops work26 Death of a close family member63Begin or end school26 Personal injury or illness53Change in living conditions25 Marriage50Revision of personal habits24 Fired at work47Trouble with boss23 Marital reconciliation45Change in work hours or conditions20 Change in health of family member45Change in residence20 Retirement44Change in school20 Pregnancy40Change in recreation19 Sex difficulties39Change in religious activities19 Gain of a new family member39Change in social activities18 Business readjustments39Loan less than 50,00017 Change in financial state38Change in sleeping habits16 Death of a close friend37Change in no. of family get- togethers15 Change to different line of work36Change in eating habits15 Change in # of arguments w spouse35Vacation13 Mortgage over $ 50,00031Holidays12 Foreclosure of mortgage30Minor violation of laws11 Change in responsibilities at work29 Very little: 0-150 Mild: 150-199 Moderate: 200-299 High: 300 or more -moderate or high = major risk of accident or illness
General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S.) Alarm Reaction: –Increased hormones (adrenaline, noradren., & cortisol) Stage of Resistance: –Bodily adjustments stabilize –Symptoms of alarm reaction disappear but still using resources Stage of Exhaustion: –Continuous stress leads to draining of the body’s resources and depletion of stress hormones –Poor immune function, cardiovascular health, mood regulation, memory, decision-making
Stress & Disorders – An Analogy Sockets become overloaded when you plug in too many appliances –Different sockets can handle different amounts of energy –Each appliance uses different amounts of energy –Outcome: Nervous system is overloaded when you have too much stress –Different nervous sys. can handle different amounts of stress –Each type of event creates different amounts of stress –Outcome:heart, digest, cancer, diabetes, schizophrenia, bipolar –Solution?
Dealing with Stress Imagine you are having a horrible day. You feel overwhelming negative emotions. Your stress level is extremely high. What are three things you might do to feel better?
Dealing with Stress Emotion-focused coping: change emotions Problem-focused coping: change situation Control: children 6-14 yrs, Thailand & U.S. –went to a doctor's office to get a shot ran away, screamed vs. thought it was good for me –had an accident and was physically hurt Clean the wound vs. try to relax –a peer said unkind things Corrected them vs. thought about favorite things
Dealing with Stress Feeling in control, exercise, positive beliefs, social support, relaxation, using your skills, helping other people, trusting others Meditation: focus attention, block out distractions –Video: Meditation changes brain –Can change brain waves, heart rate, oxygen consumption, sweat gland activity –Increases emotional control, positive emotions, hopefulness
Questions about Drugs Write down your questions about drugs