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Brain Structures Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Functions essential to maintaining life Medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain Connects hindbrain to.

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Structures Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Functions essential to maintaining life Medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain Connects hindbrain to."— Presentation transcript:





5 Brain Structures Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain
Functions essential to maintaining life Medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain Connects hindbrain to forebrain Reticular formation Forebrain Higher functioning (thinking, decisions, dreaming) Thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, amygdala

6 http://www. thepsychfiles


8 Corpus Callosum: Connects the right and left brains to allow integration of information between the brain hemispheres Association Areas: Interpreting, integrating, and acting on info processed by other parts of the brain Thalamus: Relay system to the cerebral cortex for most of the senses (not smell) and pain Hypothalamus: Controls body temperature, food intake, drink, sex drive Pituitary Gland: Stimulates or inhibits the release of hormones Amygdala: Aggression and fear

9 Hippocampus: Memory (esp
Hippocampus: Memory (esp. moving from short term to long term), spatial navigation Medulla: Involuntary actions, heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing Reticular Formation: Screens incoming sensory information, habituation, and controls arousal (being awake / alert / paying attention) Pons: Waking and sleeping, dreams Cerebellum: Balance, coordination, fine motor movement, learned motor skills Nucleus Accumbens: Reward, laughter, pleasure, addiction, fear

10 Discussion In order to save your life, one part of your brain must be removed. Which part are you willing to live without and why?

11 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
Frontal Lobe Thinking, reasoning, emotions, judgment, decision-making, complex mental tasks, voluntary movement (motor cortex), and speech production (Broca’s Area) Parietal Lobe Interprets information from the pressure senses (somatosensory cortex: pressure, pain, touch, temperature), recognizing objects

12 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
Temporal Lobe Some kinds of memory, hearing, speaking, remembering, language comprehension (Wernicke’s Area), some emotional control (includes hippocampus) Occipital Lobe Vision, visual perception, reading ability

13 Parietal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Temporal lobe

14 Brain Damage Localization of function: parts are specialized
Ex: face blindness video Neuroplasticity: brain can grow and change Coma vs. “Brain dead” Reticular formation vs. cerebral cortex

15 Looking Inside the Brain

16 Sex of a Brain Females: lateralization, perceptual speed & reasoning, language & emotion centers Males: spatial skills, relationship between body parts, hypothalamus

17 Endocrine System: Hormones
Chemical messages sent throughout large areas of the body Control coordinated functions, e.g., growth, digestion, reproduction


19 Neuron Communication Action potential animation
Neurons are negatively charged in a resting state With enough excitatory messages, sodium channels open which lets in positively charged sodium ions and positively charges the neuron With enough charge (depolarization), the action potential (message) begins and travels down the axon, opening sodium channels along the way Sodium channels close behind the action potential and potassium ions leave the cell Inside of cell is restored to the resting state

20 Neuron Communication Neurotransmitter release animation
When the action potential (electrical message) reaches the terminal button, the vesicles release neurotransmitters (chemical messages) into the synaptic gap Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors in the receiving cell, causing its sodium channels to open and begin another action potential The neurotransmitter is broken down by enzymes in the synaptic gap or brought back into the terminal button, ending its action

21 Your Body as a Neuron Your body: Arms (dendrites), head (cell body), face (nucleus), torso (axon), fatty layer around torso (myelin sheath), legs (axon terminal), feet (synaptic knobs), neurotransmitters shoot out of the bottom

22 Normal Neurotransmitter Action
Action potential triggers release of neurotransmitter (NT) NT spreads message to next neuron NT is either broken down in the synapse by enzymes or pumped back into the neuron (reuptake), ending its action

23 Nervous System Demonstration
Count your heartbeats for 10 seconds

24 Stress Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment Good vs. bad stress Stress Reaction: (Physical) ANS is aroused =  HR, BP, hormones, respiration, muscle tension;  stomach, constricts blood vessels Short-term vs. long-term stresses

25 Very little: 0-150 Mild: 150-199 Moderate: 200-299 High: 300 or more
Death of a spouse 100 Son or daughter leaving home 29 Divorce 73 Trouble with in-laws Marital Separation 65 Outstanding Personal achievements 28 Jail term 63 Spouse begins or stops work 26 Death of a close family member Begin or end school Personal injury or illness 53 Change in living conditions 25 Marriage 50 Revision of personal habits 24 Fired at work 47 Trouble with boss 23 Marital reconciliation 45 Change in work hours or conditions 20 Change in health of family member Change in residence Retirement 44 Change in school Pregnancy 40 Change in recreation 19 Sex difficulties 39 Change in religious activities Gain of a new family member Change in social activities 18 Business readjustments Loan less than 50,000 17 Change in financial state 38 Change in sleeping habits 16 Death of a close friend 37 Change in no. of family get- togethers 15 Change to different line of work 36 Change in eating habits Change in # of arguments w spouse 35 Vacation 13 Mortgage over $ 50,000 31 Holidays 12 Foreclosure of mortgage 30 Minor violation of laws 11 Change in responsibilities at work Very little: Mild: Moderate: High: 300 or more -moderate or high = major risk of accident or illness

26 General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S.)
Alarm Reaction: Increased hormones (adrenaline, noradren., & cortisol) Stage of Resistance: Bodily adjustments stabilize Symptoms of alarm reaction disappear but still using resources Stage of Exhaustion: Continuous stress leads to draining of the body’s resources and depletion of stress hormones Poor immune function, cardiovascular health, mood regulation, memory, decision-making

27 Stress & Disorders – An Analogy
Nervous system is overloaded when you have too much stress Different nervous sys. can handle different amounts of stress Each type of event creates different amounts of stress Outcome:heart, digest, cancer, diabetes, schizophrenia, bipolar Solution? Sockets become overloaded when you plug in too many appliances Different sockets can handle different amounts of energy Each appliance uses different amounts of energy Outcome:

28 Dealing with Stress Imagine you are having a horrible day. You feel overwhelming negative emotions. Your stress level is extremely high. What are three things you might do to feel better?

29 Dealing with Stress Emotion-focused coping: change emotions
Problem-focused coping: change situation Control: children 6-14 yrs, Thailand & U.S. went to a doctor's office to get a shot ran away, screamed vs. thought it was good for me had an accident and was physically hurt Clean the wound vs. try to relax a peer said unkind things Corrected them vs. thought about favorite things

30 Dealing with Stress Feeling in control, exercise, positive beliefs, social support, relaxation, using your skills, helping other people, trusting others Meditation: focus attention, block out distractions Video: Meditation changes brain Can change brain waves, heart rate, oxygen consumption, sweat gland activity Increases emotional control, positive emotions, hopefulness

31 Questions about Drugs Write down your questions about drugs

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