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NEW ENGLAND, Puritans, Pilgrims, and the Mayflower Compact.

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Presentation on theme: "NEW ENGLAND, Puritans, Pilgrims, and the Mayflower Compact."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEW ENGLAND, Puritans, Pilgrims, and the Mayflower Compact

2 Colonial Timeline Part 1

3 Colonial Timeline Part 2

4 New England #1WHAT WAS JAMESTOWN, WHY WAS IT SET UP, AND WHY WAS IT EVENTUALLY SUCESSFUL, make sure you talk about land and voting. – Jamestown was the first successful ENGLISH colony in America. – The harvesting of tobacco eventually made it successful. “Brown Gold” instead of real gold – The Headwright System gave 50 acres to every person who could make it over. Land was a premium in Europe and lifted their status in society, allowed them to vote, and gave them other privileges. – Landowners in Virginia were granted the same rights, and even set up their own representing legislature called the House of Burgesses to represent white landowning males. – First example of a representative government in America. » Sets an example which we still use today!

5 Separatists vs. Puritans

6 Separatist Beliefs:  Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership.  Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.”  Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England. Separatists (Puritan Calvinists)

7 Puritanism Calvinism  Institutes of the Christian Religion  Predestination. Good works could not save those predestined for hell. No one could be certain of their spiritual status. Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion.” Puritans: (LIVE LIFE PURILY ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE!)  Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England.  Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England.

8 #2Describe why many people were upset with the New Church of England, and what the difference was between Puritans and Separatists? – They believed it wasn’t different enough from the Catholic Church. Puritans believed in a pure form of a church and society purely according to the bible, where as Separatists believed that a new church should be separate from the Catholic Church altogether. New England

9 #3What is a Pilgrim, were they Puritans or separatists, and why did they leave for America, and why did they sign the Mayflower Compact? – Someone that travels for a religious journey – They were separatists – For religious freedom – To set up rules that said they would govern themselves though DIRECT DEMOCRACY. New England

10 #4Why did the Puritans settle the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and describe why their leader John Winthrop called New England a City on the Hill? – To practice their PURE biblical religion and connect that religion to the government in the colony. – He thought that they should be an example for all other communities around the world to follow. Get city on a hill up high so people can see and honor it. – Do you think we are a city on the hill? Talk to the people around you and discuss what a city on the hill should look like. New England

11 The MA Bay Colony 1629  non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the MA Bay Co.  Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England.  They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities.” 1630  1,000 people set off in 11 well- stocked ships  Established a colony with Boston as its hub. “Great Migration” of the 1630s  Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.  Not all Puritans  20,000 came to MA.

12 John Winthrop We shall be as a city on a hill.. Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. Became 1 st governor of Massachusetts.  Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there.  Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years.

13 Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age. Many extended families. Average 6 children per family. Average age at marriage:  Women – 22 years old  Men – 27 years old.

14 Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs.

15 #5In order to vote or just be a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony what did you have to be, and what did many people call the colony? – You had to be part of, and follow all the rules of, the Puritan Church. – It is often called a Puritan Commonwealth, which means the Puritan’s ran the government and everything else. Very strict society. Harsh on anyone who didn’t follow the rules. New England

16 #6Who was Roger Williams, why was he sent away from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and what core American value did he believe about religion and government? – He was separatist leader that was sent away from the Mass Bay Colony for not following Church Rules. – He believed in the Separation of Church and State. He ended up starting the Colony of Rhode Island. New England

17 Puritan “Rebels” Young, popular minister in Salem.  Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church.  Condemned MA Bay Charter. Did not give fair compensation to Indians. Did not give fair compensation to Indians.  Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior  found guilty of preaching newe & dangerous opinions and was exiled. Roger Williams

18 1636  Roger Williams fled there.  MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony.  Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property qualification. Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property qualification. Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of opportunity for all. Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of opportunity for all. RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters  More liberal than any other colony! Rhode Island

19 Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken woman. Threatened patriarchal control. Antinomialism [direct revelation]  Means “against the law.”  Carried to logical extremes Puritan doctrine of predestination.  Holy life was no sure sign of salvation.  Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of either God or man. Puritan “Rebels” Anne Hutchinson

20 1638  she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? Puritan leaders banished her  she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY.  She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County.  John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this! Anne Hutchinson’s Trial

21 New England Spreads Out

22

23 Population of the New England Colonies

24 Population Comparisons: New England v. the Chesapeake

25 Why did they call themselves Separatists and Pilgrims? – They wanted to separate from the Anglican Church of England, and the Catholic Church in Europe. – They took a religious trip to New England to set up a new way of worship in the new world. New England (Review)

26 Why did they call themselves Puritans? – They wanted to purify the Christian church STRICTLY according to the bible. New England (Review)

27 #7What is the significance of the Mayflower Compact, and the House of Burgesses? – The Mayflower Compact sets up a precedent of direct democracy in New England which is still used today in New England town meetings, and some of our local elections. – The House of Burgesses set a precedent of representative democracy in the new world which we still use today when we elect a new congress. New England

28 Middle Colonies

29 #8 Explain why the Dutch surrendered New Netherlands, what England renamed it and why, plus what other Colonies did the English add to the Middle Colony area? – They didn’t really have a choice because the local colonist were upset with the Dutch rule, and the English were much more powerful – New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware Middle Colonies

30 Company town run in interests of the stockholders. No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy. Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic. Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted. Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists. New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639

31 New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!] 1664  English soldiers arrived.  Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.  Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot. Renamed “New York”  England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies.  England now controlled the Atlantic coast!

32 Duke of York’s Original Charter

33 New Amsterdam, 1664

34 Dutch Residue in New York Early 20 c Dutch Revival Building in NYC. New York City seal. Names  Harlem, Brooklyn Architecture  gambrel roof Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].

35 #9 Describe the financial agreement that William Penn and King Charles II made that started the Pennsylvania colony. – King Charles II owed Penn’s father a large sum of money which he didn’t have. He offered Penn colonial land west of New York. – Penn took it and named it after his father and the fact that it was so wooded. » Penn’s woods = Pennsylvania Middle Colonies

36 Royal Land Grant to Penn

37 #10 Why did Penn want to start a colony for Quakers, and describe how the following 3 items helped Pennsylvania become a successful colony: – He wanted to start one for Quakers because they were being persecuted in Europe. Thrown in jail even. CONT. ON NEXT SLIDE…. Middle Colonies

38 #10 CONT….. Why did Penn want to start a colony for Quakers, and describe how the following 3 items helped Pennsylvania become a successful colony: – Native Americans Paid them for land, wow what a concept huh? – Settler Farmers Cheap affordable prices for land – Other Christian Protestant Faiths Allowed all Christian faiths to come and practice their religion free of persecution. – These policies made Pennsylvania very successful Middle Colonies

39 Penn & Native Americans Bought [didn’t simply take] land from Indians. Quakers went among the Indians unarmed. BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA  Treated native peoples poorly.  This undermined the actions of the Quakers!

40 Penn’s Treaty with the Native Americans

41 Government of Pennsylvania Representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax-supported church. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all. Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt. Death penalty only for treason & murder.  Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

42 Pennsylvanian Society Attracted many different people  Religious misfits from other colonies.  Many different ethnic groups. No provision for military defense. No restrictions on immigration. No slavery!! “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc. A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!!

43 Philadelphia & Boston Compared

44 Urban Population Growth

45 The Quakers Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense religious practices. They offended religious & secular leaders in England.  Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England.  They met without paid clergy  Believed all were children of God  refused to treat the upper classes with deference.  Keep hats on.  Addressed them as commoners  ”thees”/“thous.”  Wouldn’t take oaths.  Pacifists.

46 Penn’s Treaty with the Native Americans

47 Government of Pennsylvania Representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax-supported church. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all. Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt. Death penalty only for treason & murder.  Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

48 Pennsylvanian Society Attracted many different people  Religious misfits from other colonies.  Many different ethnic groups. No provision for military defense. No restrictions on immigration. No slavery!! “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc. A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!!

49 Delaware — PA’s Neighbor Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610]. Closely associated with Penn’s colony  granted its own assembly. Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution.

50 Urban Population Growth

51 #11 Who are the Quakers, why were people putting them in jail, what connection do they have to this area? What are the New England Colonies, what religions were they, and what about Maine? What are the Middle Colonies, and what religions were they? What are the Southern Colonies, and what religion were they? – The middle colonies are New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware – The Southern Colonies are Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia Middle Colonies

52 The Carolinas

53 The West Indies  Way Station to Mainland America 1670  a group of small English farmers from the West Indies arrived in Carolina.  Were squeezed out by sugar barons.  Brought a few black slaves and a model of the Barbados slave code with them. Names for King Charles II. The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters [Lord Proprietors].  They hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe.

54 Settling the “Lower South”

55 Colonizing the Carolinas Carolina developed close economic ties to the West Indies.  Many Carolinian settlers were originally from the West Indies.  They used local Savannah Indians to enslave other Indians [about 10,000] and send them to the West Indies [and some to New England]  Savannah Indians decided to migrate to PA.  PA promised better relations with whites.  Carolinians decided to “thin” the Savannahs before they could leave  bloody raids killed most of them by 1710.

56 Port of Charles Town, SC Also named for King Charles II of England. Became the busiest port in the South. City with aristocratic feel. Religious toleration attracted diverse inhabitants.

57 The primary export. Rice was still an exotic food in England.  Was grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves.  These slaves had a genetic trait that made them immune to malaria. By 1710  black slaves were a majority in Carolina. Crops of the Carolinas: Rice American Long Grain Rice

58 Crops of the Carolinas: Indigo In colonial times, the main use for indigo was as a dye for spun cotton threads that were woven into cloth for clothes. Today in the US, the main use for indigo is a dye for cotton work clothes & blue jeans.

59 Rice & Indigo Exports from SC & GA:

60 Conflict With Spanish Florida Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestants on their borders. Anglo-Spanish Wars  The Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina.  Either inciting local Native Americans to attack or attacking themselves. By 1700  Carolina was too strong to be wiped out by the Spanish!

61 The Emergence of North Carolina Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA  VA dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally Church of England members.  Dissenters from VA moved south to northern Carolina.  Poor farmers with little need for slaves.  Religious dissenters. Distinctive traits of North Carolinians  Irreligious & hospitable to pirates.  Strong spirit of resistance to authority  NC officially separated from SC.

62 Georgia

63 18c Southern Colonies

64 Late-Coming Georgia Founded in Last of the 13 colonies. Named in honor of King George II. Founded by James Oglethorpe.

65 Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia:  As a “buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish Florida & French Louisiana.  Received subsidies from British govt. to offset costs of defense.  Export silk and wine.  A haven for debtors thrown in to prison. Determined to keep slavery out!  Slavery found in GA by 1750.

66 The Port City of Savannah Diverse community.  All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration. Missionaries worked among debtors and Indians  most famous was John Wesley.

67 Colonial Timeline Part 1

68 Colonial Timeline Part 2


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