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Essential Question: How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies? Warm-Up.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies? Warm-Up."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question: How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies? Warm-Up Question: Based upon the documents provided, what are some key differences between the Virginia & New England colonies? Lesson for August 14th, Warm-Up Q, Chesapeake/NE Colonies ppt

2 Four Colonial Subcultures
The different values of the migrants dictated the “personality” of the newly created colonies; led to distinct (not unified) colonies The Chesapeake New England Middle Colonies The Lower South

3 European Settlements in North America by 1660

4 Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia & Maryland

5 Chesapeake Colonies

6 The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth
After Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke settlement, there was little interest in colonizing America; but Richard Hakluyt (& others) kept promoting colonies: Possibilities for wealth Rivaling Spain, Holland, France Nationalism, anti-Catholicism, & anti-Spanish zeal

7 Entrepreneurs in Virginia
The major obstacle to colonizing in America was funding; Queen Elizabeth would not spend tax revenue: Joint-stock companies provided financing for colonies In 1606, King James gave the London Company the 1st charter to establish colonies in America

8 The London Company, 1606 The London Co was later renamed the Virginia Company; English stockholders in Virginia Company expected instant profits

9 “The Virginia Colony” Reading & Discussion
Based upon the reading What were the expectations of the early Jamestown colonists? What were conditions like during the early years of the Jamestown colony? Expectations: expecting to find gold, silver, copper; Wealth from tobacco, beaver & otter skins Conditions: 80% of the 3,000 immigrants to traveled to Jamestown died within their first few years in Virginia as a result of Indian attacks, disease, lack of food, or forced labor as indentured servants; Orphans were common & the lack of women to marry made reproduction difficult

10 Entrepreneurs in Virginia
Jamestown was settled in 1607 along the Chesapeake Bay: the location was unhealthy but easy to defend from Spanish ships (but not from inland Indians) Settlers had no experience in founding a settlement Colonists expected to become immediately wealthy & failed to plant crops or prepare for long-term habitation in America Chesapeake colonists did not work for the common good & many starved to death Clash of cultures; settlers had no experience in founding a settlement-they simply did that they knew. This did not work

11 Jamestown Fort, 1609

12 Jamestown Colony

13 Spinning Out of Control
Captain John Smith In 1608, John Smith imposed order in Jamestown & traded for food with natives But, Jamestown faced difficulties: Poor leadership & harsh winters led to starving time ( ) In 1622 & 1644, Jamestown was attacked by Powhattan Indians The most powerful Native Americans east of Mississippi River In 1609, London Co. reorganized the colonial gov’t; but the new governor would not arrive until 1610; meanwhile the colony lacked leadership; In 1616, the investors of the Virginia Co. had worthless stock; could claim un-surveyed land 3,000 miles from England

14 The 1622 Powhatan uprising killed 347
Powhatan Confederacy The 1622 Powhatan uprising killed 347

15 Saved by a “Stinking Weed”
John Rolfe introduced a tobacco hybrid that gave Jamestown a cash crop economy

16 Early Colonial Tobacco
1618 — Virginia produced 20,000 pounds of tobacco 1622 — Despite losing nearly 1/3 of its colonists in an Indian attack, 60,000 pounds produced 1627 — Virginia produced 500,000 pounds of tobacco 1629 — Virginia produced 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco

17 Saved by a “Stinking Weed”
In 1618, headrights were used to encourage cultivation of tobacco & the settlement of Jamestown: A 50-acre lot was granted to each colonist who paid for his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony Led to huge tobacco plantations & thousands of new settlers who hoped to make their fortunes

18 Virginia’s growth was due largely to headrights
English Migration, Virginia’s growth was due largely to headrights

19 Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?

20 Virginia House of Burgesses
In 1619, Virginia colonists created a legislative assembly to create local taxes & oversee finances The Virginia House of Burgesses became the 1st legislative assembly in America

21 How Many Slaves? In 1619, the 1st African slaves arrived in Jamestown
04/06/98 In 1619, the 1st African slaves arrived in Jamestown In the 17th century, 1,000 slaves arrived in the New World per year Through the 18th century, million arrived in America By 1860, 11 million slaves were brought to the New World Before 1831, more African slaves came to America than Europeans 1 12 12 12


23 Population of the Chesapeake Colonies: 1607-1750

24 Time of Reckoning Despite the profits from tobacco, Virginia was a deadly place to live Many died from disease Numerous Powhattan attacks Indentured servants were treated badly & cheated out of land when servitude ended Few females (6:1 ratio) made families or reproduction difficult

25 Corruption and Reform In 1624, James I dissolved the Virginia Company & made Virginia a royal colony But colonists continued to meet in the House of Burgesses VA was divided into 8 counties each with a county court Very little changed; Jamestown colonists still focused with tobacco & continued to lack unity

26 Jamestown Colonization Pattern, 1620-1660

27 The Maryland Colony

28 Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics
Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a refuge for English Catholics In 1632, Charles I granted a charter for Maryland To recruit laborers, Lord Baltimore required toleration among Catholics & Protestants

29 Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics
Wealthy Catholics proved unwilling to relocate to America so Maryland became populated largely by poor Protestant farmers & indentured servants: Maryland had few large tobacco plantations Farmers (mostly poor tobacco planters) lived in scattered riverfront settlements

30 New England Colonies

31 New England Colonies, 1650

32 Reforming England in America
Queen Elizabeth’s reconciliation of Anglican & Catholic conflicts appeased many, but created 2 factious groups of extremists: Catholics (many settled in Maryland) Puritans who wanted Anglican Church stripped of Catholic rituals (made up of conservative “Puritans” & radical “Pilgrims”)

33 The Pilgrims in Plymouth
Pilgrims were separatists who refused to worship in the Anglican Church, fled to Holland to avoid compromising religious beliefs Migrated to America in order to maintain distinct identity & settled in New England Formed the Mayflower Compact to create a “civil body politick” among settlers (became the 1st American form of self-gov’t)

34 The “Mayflower Compact” Reading & Discussion
What are the Pilgrims agreeing to do by signing the Mayflower Compact? Is this a religious or a political document? Explain


36 Reforming England in America
The origins of Thanksgiving Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620 Faced disease & hunger; received help from local natives like Squanto & Massasoit Plymouth was a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent but faced serious recruitment issues In 1691, Plymouth was absorbed into the larger, more successful Massachusetts Bay colony

37 “The Great Migration” Puritans were more conservative than Pilgrims & wished to remain within the Church of England: Believed in predestination, fought social sins, & despised Catholic rituals in the Anglican Church In 1629, many Puritans felt King Charles I was ruining England From , John Winthrop led 16,000 Puritans to the Massachusetts Bay colony

38 The Great Puritan Migration


40 “A City on a Hill” Winthrop emphasized a common spiritual goal: to create a “city on a hill” as beacon of righteousness New England experienced unique demographic & social trends: Settlers usually came as families NE was a generally healthy place to live Settlers sacrificed self-interest for the good of the community

41 “A City on a Hill” As Mass Bay colony grew beyond Boston, towns began to develop their own unique personalities: Each town was independently governed by local church members (Congregationalism) Allowed voting by all adult male church members (women & blacks joined but could not vote) Officials were responsible to God, not their constituents

42 Congregationalism: Nucleated vs. Dispersed Villages

43 “A City on a Hill” NE town gov’ts were autonomous & most people participated due to common religious values Massachusetts Bay was more peaceful than other colonies: Passed a legal code called the Lawes and Liberties in 1648 to protect rights & order Created civil courts to maintain order & mediate differences

44 Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams
Puritans never supported religious toleration, esp Roger Williams: Williams was a separatist who questioned the validity of the colony’s charter because the land was not bought from natives Promoted “liberty of conscience” where God (not leaders) would punish people for their “wrong” religious ideas Expelled to Rhode Island in 1636

45 Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson believed she was directly inspired by God: Believed that “converted” people are not subject to man’s laws, only subject to God’s laws (Antinomianism) Hutchinson challenged Mass Bay’s religious leaders She was banished to Rhode Island

46 Mobility and Division After absorbing Plymouth, the Massachusetts colony grew & spawned 4 new colonies: New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut New Haven

47 Mobility and Division New Hampshire formed in 1677; grew very slowly & was dependent upon Mass Bay Connecticut formed in 1662 due to fertile lands; resembled Mass Bay Fundamental Orders was model of civil gov’t based on religious principles (the 1st written constitution in American history)

48 Mobility and Division New Haven set up in 1636 because Puritan leaders wanted a colony with closer relationship between church & state Rhode Island drew highly independent colonists who practiced religious toleration (founded by religious dissenter Roger Williams)

49 New England Colonies, 1650

50 Chesapeake New England
Complete the following chart then identify the most significant similarities & differences between the Chesapeake & New England colonies Chesapeake New England Political Economic Social

51 Essential Question: How did differences in values affect distinct American subcultures in the Chesapeake, New England, Southern, & Middle colonies? Reading Quiz Ch 3B (p 70-84) Lesson for August 15th, 2008: RQ3B, Middle & Southern Colonies ppt, Lesson #1 from

52 The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware

53 The Middle Colonies, 1685

54 New York NY was established as “New Netherlands” by the Dutch West India Co. (the great economic rival to England & Spain) Its small population was diverse; included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, & Dutch In 1664, the English fleet captured the colony with little resistance With support of Iroquois who hated the French. Focused on fur trade, shipping for English & French colonies, & picking off Spanish conquistador ships


56 New York After begin taken by England, New York (which included New Jersey, Delaware, & Maine) became the personal property of James, the Duke of York Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level James gained little profit from the colony

57 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania founded by a radical religious sect called Quakers Quakers believed in “Inner Light”: Rejected idea of original sin & predestination Believed that each person could communicate directly with God All are equal in eyes of God & can be saved (conversion was essential to faith) (derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord”)

58 Penn's "Holy Experiment" Quakers were persecuted in New England for their beliefs; William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681 as a “holy experiment” As a society run on Quaker principles that promoted religious toleration & protection of the rights of property-less Appealed to English, Welsh, Irish, German immigrants

59 William Penn & Native Americans
Quick Discussion Question: In what ways was Penn’s “holy experiment” in Pennsylvania similar to Winthrop’s “city on a hill?” William Penn & Native Americans

60 Settling Pennsylvania
Immigration to PA led to a very ethnically, nationally, & religiously diverse population Quarrels were common (unlike homogeneous VA & Mass Bay colonies), but PA prospered In 1701, Penn granted self-rule to PA colonists & independence to Delaware counties

61 Urban Population Growth: 1650-1775

62 The Lower South

63 Settling the Lower South

64 Carolina Although Carolina relied on slave labor & agriculture (& therefore looked like Chesapeake colonies) it was very different due to: Diversity of settlers Environment very different from the Chesapeake No “Solid South” yet

65 Proprietors of the Carolinas
Carolina was established as a “political utopia” & experimented with early forms of democracy Carolina was granted a charter in 1663 to eight “proprietors” to reward their loyalty: Proprietors were inspired by John Locke & created a government led by wealthy lawmakers but with veto power for average citizens But Carolina had difficulty recruiting settlers in its first years

66 The Barbadian Connection
English planters from the Caribbean island of Barbados were recruited to Charles Town: Barbadians brought a strict, cruel slave code with them Demanded greater self-gov’t within Carolina; led to 1729 strife that led to division of colony into North & South Carolinas

67 Charles Town, South Carolina, the only southern port

68 Indigo & Rice: crops of the Carolinas

69 The Carolinas and Georgia

70 Founding of Georgia Georgia was in many ways a “social utopia” because it offered a fresh start for many of the lowest English citizens Georgia was founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe as a strategic buffer between the Carolinas & Spanish Florida Oglethorpe offered Georgia as a refuge for imprisoned debtors from England By 1751, Georgia was a small colony with a slave-owning plantation society

71 The Proprietary Colonies
A secretary of one of the proprietors was John Locke By Lord Baltimore as a heaven for Catholics 8 proprietors hoped to create a politically democratic colony Most English colonies were created by royal charter, but some had charters granted land to individuals: Maryland (1634) Carolina (1663) New York (1664) New Jersey (1665) New Hampshire (1680) Pennsylvania (1681) Delaware (1704) Granted to William Penn (son of a English naval hero) as a land of religious freedom Given as a gift to the James, Duke of York (the brother of King Charles II)



74 Conclusions All the colonies faced early an struggle to survive
Distinct regional differences intensified & persisted throughout the colonial period It was not until the American Revolution that colonists began to see themselves as a distinct “American” people

75 Closure Question Did any of these colonies live up to the expectations of their founders: Virginia? Massachusetts Bay? Carolina? Pennsylvania? Which colony would you have chosen to live in? Why?

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