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■Essential Question ■Essential Question: ChesapeakeSouthern –How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern,

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Presentation on theme: "■Essential Question ■Essential Question: ChesapeakeSouthern –How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ■Essential Question ■Essential Question: ChesapeakeSouthern –How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies? ■Warm-Up Question ■Warm-Up Question: –Based upon the documents provided, what are some key differences between the Virginia & New England colonies?

2 Four Colonial Subcultures ■The different values of the migrants dictated the “personality” of the newly created colonies; led to distinct (not unified) colonies –The Chesapeake –New England –Middle Colonies –The Lower South

3 European Settlements in North America by 1660

4 Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia & Maryland

5 Chesapeake Colonies

6 The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth ■After Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke settlement, there was little interest in colonizing America; but Richard Hakluyt (& others) kept promoting colonies: –Possibilities for wealth –Rivaling Spain, Holland, France –Nationalism, anti-Catholicism, & anti-Spanish zeal

7 Entrepreneurs in Virginia ■The major obstacle to colonizing in America was funding; Queen Elizabeth would not spend tax revenue: –Joint-stock companies provided financing for colonies –In 1606, King James gave the London Company the 1 st charter to establish colonies in America

8 The London Company, 1606 The London Co was later renamed the Virginia Company; English stockholders in Virginia Company expected instant profits

9 “The Virginia Colony” Reading & Discussion ■Based upon the reading –What were the expectations of the early Jamestown colonists? –What were conditions like during the early years of the Jamestown colony?

10 Entrepreneurs in Virginia ■Jamestown was settled in 1607 along the Chesapeake Bay: –the location was unhealthy but easy to defend from Spanish ships (but not from inland Indians) –Settlers had no experience in founding a settlement –Colonists expected to become immediately wealthy & failed to plant crops or prepare for long- term habitation in America Chesapeake colonists did not work for the common good & many starved to death

11 Jamestown Fort, 1609

12 Jamestown Colony

13 Spinning Out of Control ■In 1608, John Smith imposed order in Jamestown & traded for food with natives ■But, Jamestown faced difficulties: –Poor leadership & harsh winters led to starving time ( ) –In 1622 & 1644, Jamestown was attacked by Powhattan Indians Captain John Smith The most powerful Native Americans east of Mississippi River

14 Powhatan Confederacy The 1622 Powhatan uprising killed 347

15 Saved by a “Stinking Weed” ■John Rolfe introduced a tobacco hybrid that gave Jamestown a cash crop economy

16  1618  1618 — Virginia produced 20,000 pounds of tobacco  1622  1622 — Despite losing nearly 1/3 of its colonists in an Indian attack, 60,000 pounds produced  1627  1627 — Virginia produced 500,000 pounds of tobacco  1629  1629 — Virginia produced 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco Early Colonial Tobacco

17 Saved by a “Stinking Weed” headrights ■In 1618, headrights were used to encourage cultivation of tobacco & the settlement of Jamestown: – A 50-acre lot was granted to each colonist who paid for his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony – Led to huge tobacco plantations & thousands of new settlers who hoped to make their fortunes

18 Virginia’s growth was due largely to headrights English Migration,

19 Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?

20 Virginia House of Burgesses 1619 ■In 1619, Virginia colonists created a legislative assembly to create local taxes & oversee finances ■The Virginia House of Burgesses became the 1 st legislative assembly in America

21 How Many Slaves? 1619 ■In 1619, the 1 st African slaves arrived in Jamestown –In the 17th century, 1,000 slaves arrived in the New World per year –Through the 18th century, 5.5 million arrived in America –By 1860, 11 million slaves were brought to the New World –Before 1831, more African slaves came to America than Europeans

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23 Population of the Chesapeake Colonies:

24 Time of Reckoning ■Despite the profits from tobacco, Virginia was a deadly place to live –Many died from disease –Numerous Powhattan attacks –Indentured servants were treated badly & cheated out of land when servitude ended –Few females (6:1 ratio) made families or reproduction difficult

25 Corruption and Reform ■In 1624, James I dissolved the Virginia Company & made Virginia a royal colony –But colonists continued to meet in the House of Burgesses –VA was divided into 8 counties each with a county court ■Very little changed; Jamestown colonists still focused with tobacco & continued to lack unity

26 Jamestown Colonization Pattern,

27 The Maryland Colony

28 Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics ■Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a refuge for English Catholics –In 1632, Charles I granted a charter for Maryland –To recruit laborers, Lord Baltimore required toleration among Catholics & Protestants

29 Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics ■Wealthy Catholics proved unwilling to relocate to America so Maryland became populated largely by poor Protestant farmers & indentured servants: –Maryland had few large tobacco plantations –Farmers (mostly poor tobacco planters) lived in scattered riverfront settlements

30 New England Colonies

31 New England Colonies, 1650

32 Reforming England in America ■Queen Elizabeth’s reconciliation of Anglican & Catholic conflicts appeased many, but created 2 factious groups of extremists: –Catholics –Catholics (many settled in Maryland) –Puritans –Puritans who wanted Anglican Church stripped of Catholic rituals (made up of conservative “Puritans” & radical “Pilgrims”)

33 The Pilgrims in Plymouth ■Pilgrims were separatists who refused to worship in the Anglican Church, fled to Holland to avoid compromising religious beliefs ■Migrated to America in order to maintain distinct identity & settled in New England Mayflower Compact ■Formed the Mayflower Compact to create a “civil body politick” among settlers (became the 1 st American form of self-gov’t)

34 The “Mayflower Compact” Reading & Discussion ■What are the Pilgrims agreeing to do by signing the Mayflower Compact? ■Is this a religious or a political document? Explain

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36 Reforming England in America ■Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620 –Faced disease & hunger; received help from local natives like Squanto & Massasoit –Plymouth was a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent but faced serious recruitment issues –In 1691, Plymouth was absorbed into the larger, more successful Massachusetts Bay colony The origins of Thanksgiving

37 “The Great Migration” ■Puritans were more conservative than Pilgrims & wished to remain within the Church of England: –Believed in predestination, fought social sins, & despised Catholic rituals in the Anglican Church –In 1629, many Puritans felt King Charles I was ruining England John Winthrop ■From , John Winthrop led 16,000 Puritans to the Massachusetts Bay colony

38 The Great Puritan Migration

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40 “A City on a Hill” ■Winthrop emphasized a common spiritual goal: to create a “city on a hill” as beacon of righteousness ■New England experienced unique demographic & social trends: –Settlers usually came as families –NE was a generally healthy place to live –Settlers sacrificed self-interest for the good of the community

41 “A City on a Hill” ■As Mass Bay colony grew beyond Boston, towns began to develop their own unique personalities: Congregationalism –Each town was independently governed by local church members (Congregationalism) –Allowed voting by all adult male church members (women & blacks joined but could not vote) –Officials were responsible to God, not their constituents

42 Congregationalism: Congregationalism: Nucleated vs. Dispersed Villages

43 “A City on a Hill” ■NE town gov’ts were autonomous & most people participated due to common religious values ■Massachusetts Bay was more peaceful than other colonies: –Passed a legal code called the Lawes and Liberties in 1648 to protect rights & order –Created civil courts to maintain order & mediate differences

44 Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams ■Puritans never supported religious toleration, esp Roger Williams: –Williams was a separatist who questioned the validity of the colony’s charter because the land was not bought from natives –Promoted “liberty of conscience” where God (not leaders) would punish people for their “wrong” religious ideas ■Expelled to Rhode Island in 1636

45 Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson ■Anne Hutchinson believed she was directly inspired by God: Antinomianism –Believed that “converted” people are not subject to man’s laws, only subject to God’s laws (Antinomianism) –Hutchinson challenged Mass Bay’s religious leaders ■She was banished to Rhode Island

46 Mobility and Division ■After absorbing Plymouth, the Massachusetts colony grew & spawned 4 new colonies: –New Hampshire –Rhode Island –Connecticut –New Haven

47 Mobility and Division ■New Hampshire ■New Hampshire formed in 1677; grew very slowly & was dependent upon Mass Bay ■Connecticut ■Connecticut formed in 1662 due to fertile lands; resembled Mass Bay –Fundamental Orders was model of civil gov’t based on religious principles (the 1 st written constitution in American history)

48 Mobility and Division ■New Haven ■New Haven set up in 1636 because Puritan leaders wanted a colony with closer relationship between church & state ■Rhode Island ■Rhode Island drew highly independent colonists who practiced religious toleration (founded by religious dissenter Roger Williams)

49 New England Colonies, 1650

50 Complete the following chart then identify the most significant similarities & differences between the Chesapeake & New England colonies ChesapeakeNew England Political Economic Social

51 ■Essential Question ■Essential Question: Southern Middle colonies –How did differences in values affect distinct American subcultures in the Chesapeake, New England, Southern, & Middle colonies? ■Reading Quiz Ch 3B (p 70-84)

52 The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware

53 The Middle Colonies, 1685

54 New York ■NY was established as “New Netherlands” by the Dutch West India Co. (the great economic rival to England & Spain) ■Its small population was diverse; included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, & Dutch ■In 1664, the English fleet captured the colony with little resistance

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56 New York ■After begin taken by England, New York (which included New Jersey, Delaware, & Maine) became the personal property of James, the Duke of York –Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level –James gained little profit from the colony

57 Pennsylvania ■Pennsylvania founded by a radical religious sect called Quakers ■Quakers believed in “Inner Light”: – Rejected idea of original sin & predestination – Believed that each person could communicate directly with God – All are equal in eyes of God & can be saved (conversion was essential to faith)

58 Penn's "Holy Experiment" ■Quakers were persecuted in New England for their beliefs; William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681 as a “holy experiment” – As a society run on Quaker principles that promoted religious toleration & protection of the rights of property-less –Appealed to English, Welsh, Irish, German immigrants

59 William Penn & Native Americans Quick Discussion Question: In what ways was Penn’s “holy experiment” in Pennsylvania similar to Winthrop’s “city on a hill?”

60 Settling Pennsylvania ■Immigration to PA led to a very ethnically, nationally, & religiously diverse population ■Quarrels were common (unlike homogeneous VA & Mass Bay colonies), but PA prospered ■In 1701, Penn granted self-rule to PA colonists & independence to Delaware counties

61 Urban Population Growth:

62 The Lower South

63 Settling the Lower South

64 Carolina ■Although Carolina relied on slave labor & agriculture (& therefore looked like Chesapeake colonies) it was very different due to: –Diversity of settlers –Environment very different from the Chesapeake –No “Solid South” yet

65 Proprietors of the Carolinas ■Carolina was granted a charter in 1663 to eight “proprietors” to reward their loyalty: –Proprietors were inspired by John Locke & created a government led by wealthy lawmakers but with veto power for average citizens –But Carolina had difficulty recruiting settlers in its first years Carolina was established as a “political utopia” & experimented with early forms of democracy

66 The Barbadian Connection ■English planters from the Caribbean island of Barbados were recruited to Charles Town: –Barbadians brought a strict, cruel slave code with them –Demanded greater self-gov’t within Carolina; led to 1729 strife that led to division of colony into North & South Carolinas

67 Charles Town, South Carolina, the only southern port

68 Indigo & Rice: crops of the Carolinas

69 The Carolinas and Georgia

70 Founding of Georgia ■Georgia was founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe as a strategic buffer between the Carolinas & Spanish Florida ■Oglethorpe offered Georgia as a refuge for imprisoned debtors from England ■By 1751, Georgia was a small colony with a slave-owning plantation society Georgia was in many ways a “social utopia” because it offered a fresh start for many of the lowest English citizens

71 The Proprietary Colonies ■Most English colonies were created by royal charter, but some had charters granted land to individuals: –Maryland –Maryland (1634) –Carolina –Carolina (1663) –New York –New York (1664) –New Jersey (1665) –New Hampshire (1680) –Pennsylvania –Pennsylvania (1681) –Delaware (1704) By Lord Baltimore as a heaven for Catholics 8 proprietors hoped to create a politically democratic colony A secretary of one of the proprietors was John Locke Given as a gift to the James, Duke of York (the brother of King Charles II) Granted to William Penn (son of a English naval hero) as a land of religious freedom

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74 Conclusions ■All the colonies faced early an struggle to survive ■Distinct regional differences intensified & persisted throughout the colonial period ■It was not until the American Revolution that colonists began to see themselves as a distinct “American” people

75 Closure Question ■Did any of these colonies live up to the expectations of their founders: –Virginia? –Massachusetts Bay? –Carolina? –Pennsylvania? ■Which colony would you have chosen to live in? Why?


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