Presentation on theme: "Organisation & Staffing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organisation & Staffing UNIT 4Organisation & Staffing
2 Are we a group of people working together for the same objective?? MEANINGWHAT ARE WE DOING??Is our objective the same??Are we a group of people working together for the same objective??IF YESThen we are an organisation.
3 Meaning & DefinitionOrganisations are economic and social entities in which a number of persons perform multiple tasks in order to attain common goals. They are also instruments that may help an individual accomplish personal objectives, that a person cannot achieve alone.The goal or purpose may vary from ogranisation to organisation. They set goals in the form of planning and try to achieve these goals by acquiring and allocating the resources.It’s a an activity which involves team work of people involved in designing, manufacturing, marketing etc,,Each of these activities become an organisation.Organisations are usually formed to satisfy objectives,‘that can best be met collectively’- Argyris
4 Formal & Informal Organisation In a formal organisation the position, authority, responsibility, accountability of each level are clearly defined. Informal organisation arises from the personal and social relations of the people not established by any formal authority
5 Formal OrganisationPrescribed structure of roles and relationships towards a common objectiveGoals and tasks oriented towards productivity, profitibility, growth etc,,It is hierarchicalSuperior- subordinate relationshipPeople are rewarded for desired behaviour and punished for their undesirable behaviour.In a formal organisation the position, authority, responsibility, accountability of each level are clearly defined.
6 InFormal Organisation There is no structure of roles and relationships.People generally associate with informal groups beacuse of common interestsThere is no hierarchy, authority etc,,Sense of belongingImportant channel of communicationLess supervisionRumors (Grapevine)
7 Importance of Organisation Helps in administrationPromotes growth and diversificationEasy co-ordinationTraining and development of personnelEncourages initiativesBetter HRCommunicationJob satisfactionCreative thinking
8 Steps in OrganisationThe first step in organisation design is analysis of present and future circumstances and environmental factors. It includes the following aspectsExtrenal Environment: :Social, Technical, Economic, Political, International & naturalOverall aims and purpose of the enterprise: Survival, growth, profit, wealth etc,Activities: Assessment of the work to be done if for achieving objectivesDecisions: Horizontal vertical
9 Relationships: View point of communication Organisational Structure: Grouping of activities, span of management, levelsJob Structure: Job design, analysis, description, specification etc,,Organisational Climate: Working atomsphere, includes teamwork,co-confidence & trustManagement Style: Different kinds of leadershipHuman Resource: Skill, knowledge, commitment, aptitude, etc
10 Characteristics of Organisation Division of workCo-ordinationCommon objectivesCo-operative relationshipWell- defined Authority-responsibility relationships
11 Types of organization Line organizations Functional organizational Line and staff organizationCommittee form of organisation
12 Foreman shipping and receiving Line organizationsThe flow of work in a line organisation:Line organisationDepartmental line organisationPure line organisationProduction managerForeman assembly shopForeman shipping and receivingMachine shopworkersworkersworkers
13 Features of line organisation Authority flows vertically downwards in unbroken straight line.Simplest and oldest types of organisationSimple to understand and adoptScalar chain- every person is in charge of all the persons under him and he is accountable to his superior.Unity of command /military type of structure.Authority decreases on moving down.
14 Departmental line organisation General managerMarketingmanagerPersonnelmanagerProductionmanagerFinancemanagerDeputymanagerDeputymanagersupervisorsupervisorsupervisorsupervisor
15 Features of Departmental Line Organisation It divides the organisation into different departments which are convenient for control purposes.Line of authority flows from top to bottom.Different depart are put under control of departmental managers.Every department has its own line of organisationDepartmental mangers are equal in status and authority
16 Functional Organisation Board of DirectorsChief executiveWorks managerProduction SupervisorRoute inspection time disciplinenarianClerk card clerk clerkGang boss repair boss speed boss inspectorbossOffice specialistsShop specialist
17 Features of functional organization Taylor suggested the division of supervisory functions into two groups.Office specialists – they are concern with the design, scheduling , recording and planning of work.Route clerk – is responsible for planning the route from which work will pass from machine to machine.Instruction card clerk – they records instructions for doing every piece of work.Time and cost clerk – he lays down the standard time for completing particular work.Disciplinarian – he ensures the implementation of various rules and regulation.
18 Shop specialist – they guide and supervise the work in the factory Gang boss – he should arrange machines and tools at the work.Speed boss – he determine the speed at which work should go on.Repair boss – the duty of repair boss is to ensure that machine and tools are maintained in proper conditionInspector – the inspector ensures that the work is done according to the prescribed standards and qualities.
19 Staff or functional organisation All activities are grouped together according to certain function like production, marketing, finance, personnel etc. are put under charge of a person controlling that particular function.The person in charge is specialist in it and brings out best in himself.
20 Line and staff organisation Board of directorsChief ExecutiveAssistantAssistantFinance managerProduction managerSales managerPersonnel managerForeman IIIForeman IIForeman IWorkersWorkersWorkers
21 Features of line and staff organisation It is a blend of line and staff organisations.Types of staffSpecialist staff – they are technically qualified persons who provide service to whole organisation. They serve line and other staff in planning , organisation, organizing and co-coordinating their work.Personnel staff – personnel staff is attached individual line officers they help their bosses in every possible wayGeneral staff – this staff consists of persons attached to the key executive. They may be appointed as deputy managers, assistant managers , special assistants.
22 Committee form of organisation A number of person may come together to take decision, decide a course of action, advise line officers on some matters , it is committee forms of organisation.Types of committeeFormal and informal committeesAdvisory committeesLine committees
23 Centralization and decentralization It refers to the location of decision making power.If the power to take decisions vests in one person at the top it will be a case of centralization, on the other hand if the decision making power is dispersed among many persons it will a case of decentralization.
24 CentralizationIt is common practice in small enterprises. It means concentration of decision-making power at the top hierarchy of management.Middle level of management perform operative functions.Lower level of management operate under the direct command , direction and control of the top level management. Thus it reduces the power of the subordinates.It facilitates uniformity of action , policies and practice at all level.Promotes personnel leadership skills of top managers
25 DecentralizationIt implies the dispersion of decision making power at lower levels of management.Diversification of activities , product expansion make decentralization necessary.It relieves the top managers from excessive workloadImproved decision making and helps in developing future executive.Motivates employees and develop sense of competition among different departmentLack of co-ordination, difficulty in control and lack of able manager can be the disadvantage
26 Span of controlIt is also called ‘span of management’ which refers to the number of subordinates a manger can effectively superviseIn the words of Spriegal ,”span of control means the number of people reporting directly to an authority.’Wider span of supervisionNarrow Span of supervision
27 Factors determining span of control Ability of superior – leadership , decision making ability and communication skillNature of work – repetitive work the span of control can be wider.Ability of the supervisor – for well trained ,experience, competent , dynamic subordinates span can be widerLevels of management – higher management the span can be narrowerThe degree of decentralizationEffectiveness of the System of communicationDegree of physical dispersionAssistance of experts
28 DepartmentationIt is the process of grouping various activities into separate units of departments.A department is a distinct section of the business establishment concerned with a particular group of business activities of like nature.Methods and basis of DepartmentationFunctional DepartmentationProduct DepartmentationTerritorial or geographical DepartmentationCustomer wise DepartmentationProcess or equipment wise Departmentation
29 Functional Departmentation Chief Executive Production Purchase Sales Marketing Finance
30 Product wise Departmentation Chief Executive Television Radio Computers
31 Territorial or Geographical Departmentation Chief Executive Manager Manager Manager North Zone South Zone East Zone
32 Customer wise Departmentation Chief Executive Businessmen Professionals Students
33 Process or Equipmentwise Departmentation Chief Executive Manager Manager Manager Spinning Weaving Dyeing & Printing
34 StaffingMeaning: Staffing which is one of the managerial functions, is concerned with assessment of the manpower requirement, recruitment and selection of personnel and periodic appraisal of the performance of the personnel. Definition: “The management function of staffing involves managing the organisation structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designed into the structure. -Koontz & O’ Donnell “The process involved in identifying, assessing, placing, evaluation and directing individuals at work.” - S. Benjamin
35 Process of selectionIt consist of series of methods or step or stages by which additional information is secured about an applicant.Receipt and scrutiny of applicantsPreliminary interviewBlank application formTestsInterviewChecking referencesFinal selectionPhysical examinationPlacement and orientation
36 Instruments of Staffing InterviewPreliminary interview - It is the first occasion when applicants come into contact with company officials.Structured interview : It is basically a planned interview. It has a format of question which are prepared before the interview to screen the candidate.Free interview : It is a unstructured interview , it has no planned format. The person is asked to express his view on certain topics.Action interview : This is a semi-structured interview : question are asked to check knowledge about subject studied, previous job experience to asses the potentiality of the candidate.Panel interview :This type of interview involve group of expert ask question to the candidate to judge his competency.Stress interview: This interview is conducted to check how candidate behave in critical situation.
37 Instruments of Staffing TestsProficiency test:Achievement test : to check the skill or training of the applicant his ability to performDexterity test: To check how effectively hands can be usedAptitude testIntelligence tests : This test is done to check the I.Q level of the candidate.Personality test : This test is done generally by the company to identify the behaviour , attitude and personality of the candidateInterest test : This test is important in identifying the interest of the candidate , which further help in job placement.