Presentation on theme: "Cities and Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Cities and Civilizations AP World History AWarm Up: Look at the map below. 1. Describe, on the back of your video notes handout, where the earliest farming villages began Why is this part of the world the logical place for farming to have begun?Check the write board for your seating assignment.
3Cities and Civilizations Warm Up: Take 5 minutes to complete your River Valleys map and turn it in! Look at the map below. Does your map look like this one?Check the write board for your seating assignment.AP World History A
4“Farmer Power” Guns, Germs and Steel Answer the following questions on a PowerPoint slide. your slide to Mrs. Bradley at (Title your slide document: lastname5farmer)BEFORE YOU LEAVE TODAY!!What does Diamond say is the one main determining factor in which countries become rich and powerful?How did the invention of agriculture lead to the rise of cities and civilizations?
5Cities and Civilizations Warm Up: 1.Take 10 minutes to complete SOAPPSTONES and VENN Diagram and turn them into the wire basket! Staple all three together and make sure your name and period number are on all three pages. 2. Next, write a definition for “Civilization” in YOUR OWN WORDS! (5 minutes)Check the write board for your seating assignment.AP World History A
6Cities and Civilizations Seminar We begin at about 8,000 BCwhen village life began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as theNeolithic Revolution.NEW STONE AGE
7What is the REVOLUTION? A TOTALLY new way of living: FromHunter-Gatherersto AgricultureClick on words and pictures for web links.
8The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. Agriculture (Farming)Growth of CitiesDivision of Labor (Specialization)TradeWriting and Mathematics
9GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations. Click on the map for an interactive website map of the four earliest river valley civilizations.
10CIVILIZATION Do not confuse with “good” or “superior” Civilization as Advanced CulturePopulation dependent on citiesFrom Latin civitasPermanent institutionsPolitics, Religion; ability to make warSocial, labor, gender divisions, inequalityClearly defined sense of other: barbarian, nomadArtisan, intellectual classes favoring technologyForm of record keeping, specifically writingDo not confuse with “good” or “superior”Paul Philps, 2007
12Early River Valley Civilizations EnvironmentFlooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictableNo natural barriersLimited natural resources for making tools or buildingsSumerFlooding of the Nile predictableNile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villagesDeserts were natural barriersEgyptIndus ValleyIndus flooding unpredictableMonsoon windsMountains, deserts were natural barriersHuang He flooding unpredictableMountains, deserts natural barriersGeographically isolated from other ancient civilizationsChina
13Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley CivilizationsSumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.
14Look at the map below. Define “Fertile Crescent Look at the map below. Define “Fertile Crescent.” Use a complete sentence.
15Define “Fertile Crescent” A well-watered and fertile area,the fertile crescent arcs across the northern part of the Syrian desert. It is flanked on the west by the Mediterranean and on the east by the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, and includes all or parts of Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. From antiquity this region was the site of sophisticated settlements.
16(Iraq) Greeks called the northern part of the Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia “Between Two Rivers”(Tigris River and Euphrates River)The southern part of Mesopotamia was called Babylonia, originally Sumer.Which country is Mesopotamia today?(Iraq)
17Sumer: The Ancient Middle East Video Notes Where is Mesopotamia located?Why did the Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia?What is a city-state?What is a ziggurat?Name at least one invention of the Sumerians.
18Sumer - Sumerians (Kuwait) ca. 3500 to 3000 BC. (ca. = circa) Sumer gave us the city-state.Define: city-statePolitical unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Each city state has its own government, even when it shares a culture with neighboring city states.
19ORIGINS OF URBAN LIFE Emergence of cities Tended to emerge in hostile environmentsHarsh environments required stronger organizationCities were larger and more complexCities influenced life of large regionsEarliest cities in Southern MesopotamiaOther hearths of urban civilizationIndus River ValleyNile River ValleyRiver Valley of the Huang HeCoastal Jungles of Mexico
21TIGRIS-EUPHRATES “Necessity is the mother of invention” Sumer in Southern Iraq was first civilizationCuneiform, sciences, math aided farmingPolytheistic religionReligion was to appease gods, control natureArt, architecture dedicated to gods, religionPriests, later kings rule city-statesLand owning aristocracy dominateWarlike society with slaveryTrade for needed materialsPaul Philps, 2007
22Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Click on the picture for more information about cuneiform.Click here to write like a Babylonian.Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.
23Sumerians invented: Brick technology Wheel Base 60 – using the circle degreesTime – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute12 month lunar calendararchrampziggurat
24Ziggurat – Holy Mountain Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.
25Babylon Define “rule of law” Gave us the first know written law code and was the first civilization where the citizens live by the “Rule of Law”Define “rule of law”Government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure.
26Hammurabi’s Code - 1792 BC Hammurabi’s Code was this law code. Hammurabi ruled the Babylonian Empire for 42 years. At the end of his longreign, Hammurabi’s legal decisions were collected and inscribed on a stone tabletin a Babylonian temple. The 282 laws of the Code of Hammurabi represent one of the earliest known legal systems.For more information about Hammurabi’s Code, click here and on the picture.
27“If a man stole the property of church or state, that man shall be put to death; also the one who received the stolen goods from his hand shall be put to death.”The laws governed such things as lying, stealing, assault, debt, business partnerships, marriage, and divorce. In seeking protection for all members of Babylonian society, Hammurabi relied on the philosophy of equal retaliation, otherwise known as “an eye for an eye.”
28EGYPT “The Gift of the Nile” (Herodotus) Warm Up: Look at the map and answer the following question in your notes:What did Herodotus mean when he said that Egypt is the “gift of the Nile?”Nile RiverLower NileEastern DesertSahara DesertUpper NileBecause of the geography of the area, without the Nile River, there would be no Egypt.
29THE NILE RIVER Society very different from Sumer Achievements Nile flooded regularly, predictablyProvided rich soil, Easy soil to farmCivilization regulated flooding, surveyingLocation isolatedPharaoh was considered god-kingTheocracy, almost absoluteBuilt pyramid tombs for deadEgypt unified for most of historyAchievementsMathematics especially geometry; architectureSciences, MedicineArt was both secular and sacredReligion was positive, egalitarian in many waysPaul Philps, 2007
30Egyptians invented: Hieroglyphics Pyramids Geometry Advances in medicine and surgery
31HieroglyphicsEarly Egyptian writing found on tombs was indecipherable.HieroglyphicsSacred CarvingNo one could read these sacred carvings until Napoleon invaded Egypt and his archaeologists found the Rosetta Stone.Click on the picture to see your name in hieroglyphics.
32Video: Write a short summary of the finding, translation, and importance of the Rosetta Stone. For more information on the Rosetta Stone, log on to one of the following web sites.OR
33Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper. It is created from reeds growing along the Nile River.Papyrus
34RELIGIONS OF THE NILE Polytheism Extremely complex pantheon of gods Deification of natureExtremely powerful, influential priesthood with great wealthConflict of good, evilHumans judged for their actionsCult of OsirisStrong belief in afterlife, accountability for actionsMummification was but one aspect of thisRegenerative cycle of Osiris/Ra-Re/HorusAhkenaton and MonotheismAmenhotep believed there was only one GodEnded polytheism, opposed by priests; was assassinatedNubian BeliefsAdopted many Egyptian beliefsMajor focus on the sun and moonPaul Philps, 2007
35The Hebrews: Empire Builders of Another Kind - Religion These words, the first of the Ten Commandments – set the Hebrews apart from all other people of the Fertile Crescent. Instead of worshipping many gods (polytheism) they prayed to one God (monotheism). The basis for their Code of Laws is known as “the Ten Commandments.” This is the root of Judaism.“I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before Me.”Click here to explore an Iron Age Israelite house. Click on Exhibit.
36Contributions of the Hebrews: Ethical Monotheism Monotheism – belief in one GodCovenant – belief that they had made a binding agreement with GodEthical Law Code – A law code sent by God himself based on personal morality: the Ten CommandmentsClick here for links to a history of the Hebrews.
37Contributions of the Hebrews: Ethical Monotheism Video: Answer the following questions in your notes. Title these questions – “Hebrews Video”Why did the Hebrews settle in Canaan?What is the major contribution the Hebrews made to civilization?
38Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC Around 2600 B.C. the various regional cultures were united in what is called the Indus Valley Civilization. It is also commonly referred to as the Harappan culture after the town of Harappa (where it was first discovered.)Click on the map for more information about ancient Indus River valley civilizations
39INDUS VALLEY Arose around 2,500 BCE Mohenjo Daro, Harappa main citiesIndependent city-states, strong governmentExtremely well-planned, coordinated citiesElaborate writing system (undeciphered)Religion worshipped mother goddessLittle evidence of warfare until endDevastated by environmental upheavalsDestroyed by Indo-European (Aryan) nomadsPaul Philps, 2007
40HARAPPAN SOCIETY The Indus River Harappa and Mohenjo-daro Runs through north India, sources at Hindu Kush, HimalayasRich deposits, but less predictable than the NileWheat and barley were cultivated in Indus valleyCultivated cotton before 5000 B.C.E.Complex society of Dravidians, 3000/2500 B.C.E.Harappa and Mohenjo-daroPossibly served as twin capitalsEach city had a fortified citadel and a large granaryBroad streets, market places, temples, public buildingsStandardized weights, measures, architecture, bricksSpecialized labor and tradeDomestic trade, items inc. pottery, tools, metalsTrading with Mesopotamians about 2300 to 1750 B.C.E.Paul Philps, 2007
41Excavations at the ancient Harappan and Mohenjo Daro mounds revealed well planned cities and towns built on massive mud brick platforms that protected the inhabitants against seasonal floods.In the larger cities the houses were built of baked brick while at smaller towns most houses were built of sun-dried mud brick.Each city is laid out in a grid pattern and shows signs of stunningly modern plumbing systems.Much writing has been found at these sites, but it has not yet been translated.
42HUANG-HE (YELLOW) RIVER Developed in isolationCompare with ancient EgyptXia Dynasty (Mythical?)God-like kingsTaught irrigation, sericultureShang DynastyWarlike kings, landed aristocracy; few priestsMost people worked land as peasantsElaborate bronze workings; naturalistic artPaul Philps, 2007
43CHINESE WRITING Ideographic Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucrats Writing denotes ideasFirst used on Oracle BonesPriests asked gods questionsWrote questions on bonesTossed into fire; cracks read by priests (divination)Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucratsExtremely difficult to readRequired well-educated class to useOnly elite had time to learnCuneiform, hieroglyphs had similar effectsPaul Philps, 2007
44Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BCLack of contact with foreigners helped give the Chinese a strong sense of identity and superiority. They regarded their land as the only civilized land and called it Zhongguo or the Middle Kingdom. This Chinese isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was at the center of the earth and the sole source of civilization.Turn to the map on page 92. Note the geographic features which isolated China.
45DYNASTIC CYCLE One ruling family replaces another Stages in Cycle The Dynasty ChangesDue to the loss of the Mandate of HeavenStages in CycleNew dynasty arises, takes control of ChinaStrengthens rule, reestablishes prosperity, peaceWeakens, becomes lazy, problems ariseInvasions, revolts toss out reigning dynastyShang replaces Xia, Zhou replaces ShangPaul Philps, 2007
46MANDATE OF HEAVEN Chinese political idea Indicators of a Lost Mandate Rulers exercise power given by heavenRulers continue to rule if heaven pleasedHeaven will take back mandate to ruleHeaven will replace ruling dynastyIndicators of a Lost MandateWars, invasions, military disastersOver-taxation, disgruntled peasantsSocial, moral decline of elite classesIncreased crime, banditryThe European counterpart of the Chinese Mandate of Heaven was the Divine Right of Kings.Paul Philps, 2007
47HOW THE CYCLE AND MANDATE WORK TOGETHER Paul Philps, 2007
48The first true emperor of China, was Shi Huangdi. Shi Huangdi’s most remarkable achievement was the Great Wall.Click here for a panoramic tour of the Great Wall. Read the information under the pictures and send your teacher a postcard from one of the panoramic sites to show that you visited! Click on each picture here to see more information on Shi Huangdi and the Great Wall.
50HERITAGES First heritages passed on Writing systems inheritedIntellectual systems, art copiedReligious, philosophical systems copiedUseful inventions rarely forgotten, easily spreadRiver valley civilizations decline by 1000BCEAll subject to nomadic invasionsIndo-Europeans and Semites were strongestGeographical centers shifted (all except China)Political Structures often not continuedPaul Philps, 2007
51CIVILIZATION SPREADS Phoenician Sailors in Lebanon City-states traded across MediterraneanInvented alphabetLydians, Hittites in Asia MinorIntroduced Iron, coinage to areaHebrews in PalestineLarge Semitic migration in areaEthical monotheismConduct determines salvationThere is only one God speaking through prophets, priestsGod made a covenant with the Jews, his Chosen peoplePaul Philps, 2007
52NOMADS: BARBARIANS? Pastoral herding on fringes Seen as savages Interaction vs. conflictNomads traded, coexisted with settled areasNomads warred on, conquered settled areasOften protected merchants, allowed tradePrior to 1500 BCE little major threatChariot Peoples (Central Asian Indo-Europeans)Domesticated horse, invented chariot, iron weaponsPushed into SW Asia, S. Asia, E. Asia, EuropeResponsible for spread of ideas, tradePaul Philps, 2007