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Cities and Civilizations

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1 Cities and Civilizations
AP World History A Warm Up: Look at the map below. 1. Describe, on the back of your video notes handout, where the earliest farming villages began Why is this part of the world the logical place for farming to have begun? Check the write board for your seating assignment.


3 Cities and Civilizations
Warm Up: Take 5 minutes to complete your River Valleys map and turn it in! Look at the map below. Does your map look like this one? Check the write board for your seating assignment. AP World History A

4 “Farmer Power” Guns, Germs and Steel
Answer the following questions on a PowerPoint slide. your slide to Mrs. Bradley at (Title your slide document: lastname5farmer) BEFORE YOU LEAVE TODAY!! What does Diamond say is the one main determining factor in which countries become rich and powerful? How did the invention of agriculture lead to the rise of cities and civilizations?

5 Cities and Civilizations
Warm Up: 1.Take 10 minutes to complete SOAPPSTONES and VENN Diagram and turn them into the wire basket! Staple all three together and make sure your name and period number are on all three pages. 2. Next, write a definition for “Civilization” in YOUR OWN WORDS! (5 minutes) Check the write board for your seating assignment. AP World History A

6 Cities and Civilizations Seminar
We begin at about 8,000 BC when village life began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. NEW STONE AGE

7 What is the REVOLUTION? A TOTALLY new way of living:
From Hunter-Gatherers to Agriculture Click on words and pictures for web links.

8 The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived.
Agriculture (Farming) Growth of Cities Division of Labor (Specialization) Trade Writing and Mathematics

9 GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations.
Click on the map for an interactive website map of the four earliest river valley civilizations.

10 CIVILIZATION Do not confuse with “good” or “superior”
Civilization as Advanced Culture Population dependent on cities From Latin civitas Permanent institutions Politics, Religion; ability to make war Social, labor, gender divisions, inequality Clearly defined sense of other: barbarian, nomad Artisan, intellectual classes favoring technology Form of record keeping, specifically writing Do not confuse with “good” or “superior” Paul Philps, 2007

11 ANCIENT HUMOR Paul Philps, 2007

12 Early River Valley Civilizations
Environment Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable No natural barriers Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings Sumer Flooding of the Nile predictable Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages Deserts were natural barriers Egypt Indus Valley Indus flooding unpredictable Monsoon winds Mountains, deserts were natural barriers Huang He flooding unpredictable Mountains, deserts natural barriers Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations China

13 Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent
Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.

14 Look at the map below. Define “Fertile Crescent
Look at the map below. Define “Fertile Crescent.” Use a complete sentence.

15 Define “Fertile Crescent”
A well-watered and fertile area, the fertile crescent arcs across the northern part of the Syrian desert. It is flanked on the west by the Mediterranean and on the east by the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, and includes all or parts of Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. From antiquity this region was the site of sophisticated settlements.

16 (Iraq) Greeks called the northern part of the Fertile Crescent
Mesopotamia “Between Two Rivers” (Tigris River and Euphrates River) The southern part of Mesopotamia was called Babylonia, originally Sumer. Which country is Mesopotamia today? (Iraq)

17 Sumer: The Ancient Middle East Video Notes
Where is Mesopotamia located? Why did the Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia? What is a city-state? What is a ziggurat? Name at least one invention of the Sumerians.

18 Sumer - Sumerians (Kuwait) ca. 3500 to 3000 BC. (ca. = circa)
Sumer gave us the city-state. Define: city-state Political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Each city state has its own government, even when it shares a culture with neighboring city states.

19 ORIGINS OF URBAN LIFE Emergence of cities
Tended to emerge in hostile environments Harsh environments required stronger organization Cities were larger and more complex Cities influenced life of large regions Earliest cities in Southern Mesopotamia Other hearths of urban civilization Indus River Valley Nile River Valley River Valley of the Huang He Coastal Jungles of Mexico


21 TIGRIS-EUPHRATES “Necessity is the mother of invention”
Sumer in Southern Iraq was first civilization Cuneiform, sciences, math aided farming Polytheistic religion Religion was to appease gods, control nature Art, architecture dedicated to gods, religion Priests, later kings rule city-states Land owning aristocracy dominate Warlike society with slavery Trade for needed materials Paul Philps, 2007

22 Sumerian Writing: cuneiform
Click on the picture for more information about cuneiform. Click here to write like a Babylonian. Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.

23 Sumerians invented: Brick technology Wheel
Base 60 – using the circle degrees Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute 12 month lunar calendar arch ramp ziggurat

24 Ziggurat – Holy Mountain
Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.

25 Babylon Define “rule of law”
Gave us the first know written law code and was the first civilization where the citizens live by the “Rule of Law” Define “rule of law” Government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure.

26 Hammurabi’s Code - 1792 BC Hammurabi’s Code was this law code.
Hammurabi ruled the Babylonian Empire for 42 years. At the end of his long reign, Hammurabi’s legal decisions were collected and inscribed on a stone tablet in a Babylonian temple. The 282 laws of the Code of Hammurabi represent one of the earliest known legal systems. For more information about Hammurabi’s Code, click here and on the picture.

27 “If a man stole the property of church or state, that man shall be put to death; also the one who received the stolen goods from his hand shall be put to death.” The laws governed such things as lying, stealing, assault, debt, business partnerships, marriage, and divorce. In seeking protection for all members of Babylonian society, Hammurabi relied on the philosophy of equal retaliation, otherwise known as “an eye for an eye.”

28 EGYPT “The Gift of the Nile” (Herodotus)
Warm Up: Look at the map and answer the following question in your notes: What did Herodotus mean when he said that Egypt is the “gift of the Nile?” Nile River Lower Nile Eastern Desert Sahara Desert Upper Nile Because of the geography of the area, without the Nile River, there would be no Egypt.

29 THE NILE RIVER Society very different from Sumer Achievements
Nile flooded regularly, predictably Provided rich soil, Easy soil to farm Civilization regulated flooding, surveying Location isolated Pharaoh was considered god-king Theocracy, almost absolute Built pyramid tombs for dead Egypt unified for most of history Achievements Mathematics especially geometry; architecture Sciences, Medicine Art was both secular and sacred Religion was positive, egalitarian in many ways Paul Philps, 2007

30 Egyptians invented: Hieroglyphics Pyramids Geometry
Advances in medicine and surgery

31 Hieroglyphics Early Egyptian writing found on tombs was indecipherable. Hieroglyphics Sacred Carving No one could read these sacred carvings until Napoleon invaded Egypt and his archaeologists found the Rosetta Stone. Click on the picture to see your name in hieroglyphics.

32 Video: Write a short summary of the finding, translation, and importance of the Rosetta Stone.
For more information on the Rosetta Stone, log on to one of the following web sites. OR

33 Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper
Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper. It is created from reeds growing along the Nile River. Papyrus

34 RELIGIONS OF THE NILE Polytheism Extremely complex pantheon of gods
Deification of nature Extremely powerful, influential priesthood with great wealth Conflict of good, evil Humans judged for their actions Cult of Osiris Strong belief in afterlife, accountability for actions Mummification was but one aspect of this Regenerative cycle of Osiris/Ra-Re/Horus Ahkenaton and Monotheism Amenhotep believed there was only one God Ended polytheism, opposed by priests; was assassinated Nubian Beliefs Adopted many Egyptian beliefs Major focus on the sun and moon Paul Philps, 2007

35 The Hebrews: Empire Builders of Another Kind - Religion
These words, the first of the Ten Commandments – set the Hebrews apart from all other people of the Fertile Crescent. Instead of worshipping many gods (polytheism) they prayed to one God (monotheism). The basis for their Code of Laws is known as “the Ten Commandments.” This is the root of Judaism. “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before Me.” Click here to explore an Iron Age Israelite house. Click on Exhibit.

36 Contributions of the Hebrews: Ethical Monotheism
Monotheism – belief in one God Covenant – belief that they had made a binding agreement with God Ethical Law Code – A law code sent by God himself based on personal morality: the Ten Commandments Click here for links to a history of the Hebrews.

37 Contributions of the Hebrews: Ethical Monotheism
Video: Answer the following questions in your notes. Title these questions – “Hebrews Video” Why did the Hebrews settle in Canaan? What is the major contribution the Hebrews made to civilization?

38 Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC
Around 2600 B.C. the various regional cultures were united in what is called the Indus Valley Civilization. It is also commonly referred to as the Harappan culture after the town of Harappa (where it was first discovered.) Click on the map for more information about ancient Indus River valley civilizations

39 INDUS VALLEY Arose around 2,500 BCE
Mohenjo Daro, Harappa main cities Independent city-states, strong government Extremely well-planned, coordinated cities Elaborate writing system (undeciphered) Religion worshipped mother goddess Little evidence of warfare until end Devastated by environmental upheavals Destroyed by Indo-European (Aryan) nomads Paul Philps, 2007

40 HARAPPAN SOCIETY The Indus River Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
Runs through north India, sources at Hindu Kush, Himalayas Rich deposits, but less predictable than the Nile Wheat and barley were cultivated in Indus valley Cultivated cotton before 5000 B.C.E. Complex society of Dravidians, 3000/2500 B.C.E. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro Possibly served as twin capitals Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary Broad streets, market places, temples, public buildings Standardized weights, measures, architecture, bricks Specialized labor and trade Domestic trade, items inc. pottery, tools, metals Trading with Mesopotamians about 2300 to 1750 B.C.E. Paul Philps, 2007

41 Excavations at the ancient Harappan and Mohenjo Daro mounds revealed well planned cities and towns built on massive mud brick platforms that protected the inhabitants against seasonal floods. In the larger cities the houses were built of baked brick while at smaller towns most houses were built of sun-dried mud brick. Each city is laid out in a grid pattern and shows signs of stunningly modern plumbing systems. Much writing has been found at these sites, but it has not yet been translated.

Developed in isolation Compare with ancient Egypt Xia Dynasty (Mythical?) God-like kings Taught irrigation, sericulture Shang Dynasty Warlike kings, landed aristocracy; few priests Most people worked land as peasants Elaborate bronze workings; naturalistic art Paul Philps, 2007

43 CHINESE WRITING Ideographic Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucrats
Writing denotes ideas First used on Oracle Bones Priests asked gods questions Wrote questions on bones Tossed into fire; cracks read by priests (divination) Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucrats Extremely difficult to read Required well-educated class to use Only elite had time to learn Cuneiform, hieroglyphs had similar effects Paul Philps, 2007

44 Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC Lack of contact with foreigners helped give the Chinese a strong sense of identity and superiority. They regarded their land as the only civilized land and called it Zhongguo or the Middle Kingdom. This Chinese isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was at the center of the earth and the sole source of civilization. Turn to the map on page 92. Note the geographic features which isolated China.

45 DYNASTIC CYCLE One ruling family replaces another Stages in Cycle
The Dynasty Changes Due to the loss of the Mandate of Heaven Stages in Cycle New dynasty arises, takes control of China Strengthens rule, reestablishes prosperity, peace Weakens, becomes lazy, problems arise Invasions, revolts toss out reigning dynasty Shang replaces Xia, Zhou replaces Shang Paul Philps, 2007

46 MANDATE OF HEAVEN Chinese political idea Indicators of a Lost Mandate
Rulers exercise power given by heaven Rulers continue to rule if heaven pleased Heaven will take back mandate to rule Heaven will replace ruling dynasty Indicators of a Lost Mandate Wars, invasions, military disasters Over-taxation, disgruntled peasants Social, moral decline of elite classes Increased crime, banditry The European counterpart of the Chinese Mandate of Heaven was the Divine Right of Kings. Paul Philps, 2007

Paul Philps, 2007

48 The first true emperor of China, was Shi Huangdi.
Shi Huangdi’s most remarkable achievement was the Great Wall. Click here for a panoramic tour of the Great Wall. Read the information under the pictures and send your teacher a postcard from one of the panoramic sites to show that you visited! Click on each picture here to see more information on Shi Huangdi and the Great Wall.

49 The Great Wall of China

50 HERITAGES First heritages passed on
Writing systems inherited Intellectual systems, art copied Religious, philosophical systems copied Useful inventions rarely forgotten, easily spread River valley civilizations decline by 1000BCE All subject to nomadic invasions Indo-Europeans and Semites were strongest Geographical centers shifted (all except China) Political Structures often not continued Paul Philps, 2007

51 CIVILIZATION SPREADS Phoenician Sailors in Lebanon
City-states traded across Mediterranean Invented alphabet Lydians, Hittites in Asia Minor Introduced Iron, coinage to area Hebrews in Palestine Large Semitic migration in area Ethical monotheism Conduct determines salvation There is only one God speaking through prophets, priests God made a covenant with the Jews, his Chosen people Paul Philps, 2007

52 NOMADS: BARBARIANS? Pastoral herding on fringes Seen as savages
Interaction vs. conflict Nomads traded, coexisted with settled areas Nomads warred on, conquered settled areas Often protected merchants, allowed trade Prior to 1500 BCE little major threat Chariot Peoples (Central Asian Indo-Europeans) Domesticated horse, invented chariot, iron weapons Pushed into SW Asia, S. Asia, E. Asia, Europe Responsible for spread of ideas, trade Paul Philps, 2007

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