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Informationssystem och databasteknik, 2I-1033 Processer Processmodeller System.

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Presentation on theme: "Informationssystem och databasteknik, 2I-1033 Processer Processmodeller System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Informationssystem och databasteknik, 2I-1033 Processer Processmodeller System

2 Definition of Business Process A set of activities that takes one or more types of inputs and turns them into an output of greater value to the customer. [Hammer] input output

3 Definition of Business Process A specific ordering of work activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, and clearly- defined inputs and outputs; a structure for action. [Davenport] output input

4 Why focusing on Business Processes? discover and adopt to changed customer demands automate the activities in business processes re-engineering the business processes to make them more effective/efficient to specify the requirements on IS

5 Order register Add to order Check order lineStop orderCredit check Ship * for each order line OK i lager not OK Credit manager Order manager A Workflow/Business Process model

6 Order register Add to order Check order lineStop orderCredit check Ship * for each order line OK i lager not OK Credit manager Order manager A Workflow/Business Process model Task Resource Selection (OR split) Parallelism (AND split)

7 Basic Workflow Concepts Task - a logical unit of work that is carried out as a single whole Resource - a person or a machine that can perform specific tasks Activity - the performance of a task by a resource Case - a sequence of activities performed to achieve some goal, an order, an insurance claim, a car assembly (“ärende”) Work item - the combination of a case and a task that is just to be carried out Process - describes how a particular category of cases shall be managed Control flow construct - sequence, selection, iteration, parallelisation

8 More Concepts A time point is an instant in time, not further decomposible An event is an noteworthy occurence A state shows the condition of a process and can be represented in several way, e.g. as a set of attribute values

9 Problem: Different meaning of basic terms or not well-defined semantics Time points Event Activity State Two examples (there are more):

10 What are Petri nets? Petri nets are a method (process modelling language/technique) for describing and analysing processes Petri nets are an abstract, formal method, which means that two totally different processes can have the same structure but different meaning.

11 Why Petri nets? Petri nets can be described graphically. Despite that, they also have a strong formal basis. Thanks to this formal basis, it is often possible to verify the correctness of the processes. Petri nets can be used to model computer hardware, software, workflow/business processes and information flow.

12 Why Petri nets? Petri nets have available analysis techniques and tools to verify the correctness of the processes For example, Petri nets can be used to verify software. A program can be converted into a Petri net. The Petri net can then be analysed to find out design errors. Petri nets can give process modelling languges (like UML activity diagrams) a formal semantics

13 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject tokenstransitionplace prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

14 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 A transition is enabled (“loaded) when there is a token in each of its input places. When a transition is enabled it can fire

15 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 A transition is enabled (“loaded) when there is a token in each of its input places When a transition is enabled it can fire

16 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 A transition is enabled (“loaded) when there is a token in each of its input places When a transition is enabled it can fire

17 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject tokenstransitionplace When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 When a transition is enabled it can fire

18 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 A transition is enabled (“loaded) when there is a token in each of its input places When a transition is enabled it can fire

19 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 A transition is enabled (“loaded) when there is a token in each of its input places When a transition is enabled it can fire

20 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 A transition is enabled (“loaded) when there is a token in each of its input places When a transition is enabled it can fire

21 Enabled Transition A transition is enabled (“loaded”) when there is a token in each of its input places Not enabledEnabled

22 When a transition fires... When a transition occurs, the transition “fires”, and the transition removes (“consumes”) one token from each input place and adds (“produces”) one token to each output place Enabled Input places Output place

23 When a transition fires … When a transition “fires”, the Petri net change state, i.e. a new distribution of tokens. Fired

24 What can Petri nets concepts represent? Place - usually represents a condition, a substate, a geographical location Transition - usually represents an event, an activity, a transformation Tokens - usually represent (physical or information) objects, e.g. an insurance claim, an order, a resource (machine, a wheel), a case (“ett ärende”)

25 What can Petri nets concepts represent? wheel engine chassis production order/case car

26 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

27 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

28 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

29 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

30 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

31 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

32 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

33 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

34 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

35 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

36 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

37 Using a place “free” If we, for some reason, wish to limit the number of “cases”, which can be under consideration at the same time to n, we can modify the Petri net by using an additional place “free”, and put n tokens in it. free

38 Control flow constructs (in a workflow) AND SPLIT OR SPLIT AND JOIN OR JOIN

39 High-level Petri nets Classic Petri nets High-level Petri nets - the colour extension - the time extension vs.

40 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000 In a classical Petri net, tokens have no structure. In a coloured Petri net, each token is associated with a data structure.

41 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

42 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000 In a coloured Petri net, the values of a token’s data structure can be used in preconditions that determine which transition that will fire.

43 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

44 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

45 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

46 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

47 Petri Net with Time Every token gets a timestamp, indicating the time from which the token is available. A transition is enabled when each token to be consumed has a timestamp equal or prior to the current time. Each transition can give a delay to a token produced by the transition. Tokens are consumed on FIFO (first-in, first-out basis). The token with the earliest timstamp is the first to be consumed

48 Petri Net with Time Before current time = 20, the transition is not enabled and cannot fire. At current time = 20, it will fire. The timestamp of the produced token equals the current time + the transition delay (=10 in the example) 10 30

49 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 0

50 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 0 (after the transition) 25

51 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 25 (after the transition) 30

52 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 30 (after the transition) 60 30

53 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 30 (after two transitions) 60 55

54 Swimming School Exercise A student registers at the swimming school. The student will take one or more swimming lessons followed by an examination. Every lesson has a beginning and an end. A student must have his or her individual teacher during a lesson. There are five teachers. Each swimming lesson is followed by another swimming lesson or an individual examination. An examiner is present at the examination, from beginning to end. There are two examiners. When a student has completed an examination, three things might happen: 1. The student passes and leaves the school 2. The student fails, takes additional lessons, and tries again 3. The student fails and gives up a) Model this using a classical Petri net b) Use a coloured Petri net to express that it is required to take 10 lessons before taking the exam and that students drop out after three failed exams c) Add time to model that a lesson takes one hour and an exam 30 min.

55 Swimming School Exercise register begin lessonend lesson Free teachers more ready begin exam end exam pass drop out Free examiners

56 Swimming School Exercise register begin lessonend lesson Free teachers more ready begin exam end exam pass drop out Free examiners noOfLessons < 10 noOfLessons =

57 Basic Workflow Concepts Task - a logical unit of work that is carried out as a single whole Resource - a person or a machine that can perform specific tasks Activity - the performance of a task by a a resource Case - a sequence of activities performed to achieve some goal, an order, an insurance claim, a car assembly Work item - the combination of a case and a task that is just to be carried out Process - describes how a particular category of cases shall be managed Control flow construct - sequence, selection, iteration, parallelisation

58 Workflow Concepts in Petri Nets Task - transition Resource - token Activity - transition that fires Case - token Work item - enabled transition Process - Petri net Control flow construct - modelled by places and transitions

59 Swimming School Exercise register begin lessonend lesson Free teachers more ready begin exam end exam pass drop out Free examiners Resource Task Work item Case

60 Triggers When do transitions fire? Sometimes, someone or something has to fire them. A work item can only be transformed into an activity once it has been triggered. Kinds of triggers A resource initiative An external event A time signal

61 Triggers receive order ask for customer info customer answer no answer manage cancel

62 Klassifikation av informationssystem zBeslutstyp Vilka typer av beslut som systemet stödjer yStrategiska yTaktiska yOperationella z Funktioner Vilken funktion i organisationen som systemet stöder yMarknadsföring yTillverkning och tjänster yEkonomi yPersonal

63 Typer av beslutsstödssystem Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Intelligent Support Systems (ISS) INFORMATIONS- BEHOV Alla dessa system stödjer besluts- fattande

64 TPS - system som hanterar och lagrar transaktioner Mata in data Step 1 Validera data Step 2 Bearbeta data Step 3 Transaktion: ett utbyte mellan två parter Uttag från bankkonto Förfrågan om pris på en produkt Beställning av en vara Hur ett TPS hanterar en transaktion Lagra data Step 2 Note: TPS are also called OLTP (Online Transaction processing)

65 MIS - system som bevakar den interna verksamheten zSammanfattningsrapport - aggregerar data från många transaktioner och presenterar dem i ett koncist format yMånatlig försäljning yÅrlig personalomsättning zAvvikelserapport - beskriver avvikelser mellan prognos och faktiskt utfall yBudgetöverskridande yFörsäljningsminskning

66 ISS - Intelligenta StödSystem zISS - system som stödjer ledningen på högre nivåer att fatta beslut om ostrukturerade problem yDecision Support Systems (DSS) yExecutive Information Systems (EIS) y(DSS + MIS) yOLAP (Online analytical processing) y(Business Intelligence systems (BI))

67 ISS - Intelligenta StödSystem z- snabba svar på komplexa, ostrukturerade (ad hoc) frågor z- interaktivitet som gör att beslutsfattare kan utforska olika alternativ z- använder oftast extern och intern data z- DSS använder analytiska beslutsmodeller z- grafisk presentation

68 ISS: ger stöd för komplexa beslut Samband mellan TPS, MIS och ISS TPS: hanterar transaktioner Omvärlds- bevakning MIS: genererar rap- porter om företaget Operationell Taktisk Strategisk

69 Organisatoriska funktioner zEn funktion är en enhet inom en organisation som utför ett antal relaterade aktiviteter. Vanligen kräver dessa aktiviteter en viss kompetens eller specifik utrustning. Funktioner på ett universitet Vakt-mästeriKursregistreringUndervisningSystemadministration

70 IS för marknadsföring zSystem som stödjer försäljning, marknadsföringskampanjer, marknadsanalys, m.m. yCRM (Customer Relationship Management) ySystem för försäljningsanalys

71 IS för tillverkning och tjänster zSystem som stöder, lagerhantering, produktionsplanering, kvalitetskontroll m.m. yLogistiksystem yMaterialförsörjningssystem

72 IS för ekonomi zSystem som tillhandahåller finansiell information som underlag för beslut yIntern och extern redovisning yOrdermottagning yFakturering

73 IS för personaladministration zSystem som stöder planering, samordning, administration och ledning av personal (Human resource systems) yLönesystem yKompetensdatabas

74 Vakt-mästeriKursregistreringUndervisningSystemadministration Processer korsar funktioner Kurs

75 Funktioner och IS FoUMarknadProduktionTjänsterEkonomiPersonal Funktioner Informations- system Varje informationssystem stöder sin egen funktion

76 Integrerade informationssystem Order- hantering Kund- tjänster Ekonomi- rapportering FoUMarknadProduktionTjänsterPersonal Produkt- utveckling Ekonomi


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