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DNA Analysis Techniques. DNA analysis: Fundamental techniques Techniques –Gel electrophoresis –Restriction analysis –DNA hybridization –DNA sequencing.

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Presentation on theme: "DNA Analysis Techniques. DNA analysis: Fundamental techniques Techniques –Gel electrophoresis –Restriction analysis –DNA hybridization –DNA sequencing."— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA Analysis Techniques

2 DNA analysis: Fundamental techniques Techniques –Gel electrophoresis –Restriction analysis –DNA hybridization –DNA sequencing –RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) Applications of rDNA Technology –Basic research –Medical applications –Forensic applications –Agriculture applications –Environmental applications

3 Isolation of Nucleic Acids Goals: –Removal of proteins –DNA vs RNA –Isolate specific type of nucleic acid

4 DNA isolation

5 Isolation of DNA A good prep should: –Not contain cellular proteins –Not contain RNA –Be of high molecular weight

6 Quality and Quantity of DNA Gel electrophoresis –Quantity: Band intensity is semi-quantitative –Quality: Look for high MW DNA  single clear band Sheared DNA indicates poor quality  smear

7 Gel electrophoresis

8 What is Gel Electrophoresis? Electro = flow of electricity, phoresis, from the Greek = to carry across A gel is a colloid, a suspension of tiny particles in a medium, occurring in a solid form, like gelatin Gel electrophoresis refers to the separation of charged particles located in a gel when an electric current is applied –Charged particles can include DNA, amino acids, peptides, etc Agarose gel electrophoresis is routinely used for the preparation and analysis of DNA. Gel electrophoresis is a procedure that separates molecules on the basis of their rate of movement through a gel under the influence of an electrical field.

9 Basic Principle of Electrophoresis A mixture of DNA molecules becomes organized by size

10 How does gel electrophoresis separate DNA fragments? The gel acts as a sieve to filter the DNA fragments The DNA fragments are naturally negatively charged due to the phosphate backbone DNA fragments of differing sizes will move though the gel at differing rates Smaller fragments move faster through the gel and larger fragments move slower The electrostatic charges set up in the gel act as the “force”

11 DNA is negatively charged and therefore repelled from the negative pole and attracted towards the positive pole

12 Gel staining using Ethidium Bromide The most rapid, sensitive, and reproducible method for staining s- and ds DNA Binds to ds nucleic acid by intercalation between stacked base pairs The intensity of fluorescence (In UV) of dye bound to DNA is much greater than that of free dye suspended in agarose. Permits direct observation of the progress of electrophoresis

13 A Typical Image of an Agarose Gel Under UV Light The DNA fragments can be visualized using a special dye that specifically binds DNA and fluoresces under illumination with UV light Decreasing DNA Size Largest DNA fragments Smallest DNA fragments

14 The electrophoretic migration rate of DNA through agarose gel depends on the following parameters: The size of the DNA molecules The size of the DNA molecules DNA molecules travel through gel at a rate inversely proportional to the logarithm of their molecular weight or number of base pairs. The concentration of agarose The concentration of agarose A DNA fragment of a given size migrates at different rates in gels containing different concentrations of agarose The voltage applied The voltage applied Normally the migration rate of DNA fragments is directly proportional to the voltage applied The conformation of the DNA The conformation of the DNA The buffer used for electrophoresis The buffer used for electrophoresis

15 By increasing the agarose concentration the smaller DNA fragments will give a clearer separation By lowering the agarose concentration the larger fragments of DNA will give a clearer separation By optimizing the % agarose one can clearly separate a mixture of similar DNA fragments Effects of Changing Gel Concentration

16 Effect of Percent Agarose on Fragment Separation: An example 1.6% Agarose 80V – 2 hours 0.8% Agarose 80V – 2 hours 1600 bp 1000 bp 500 bp 200 bp bp 400 bp The 1kbp ladder and the 100bp ladder were run with 0.8 and 1.6 % agarose gels under the same conditions

17 The Intensity of the Band is Proportional to the Concentration Of DNA An important point to remember is that the intensity of the band is proportional to the amount of DNA found in the band The upper band has far less DNA when compared to the lower band. The intensity of the bands are proportional to the amount of DNA at that position in the gel

18 Assessing the Integrity of DNA High Quality Genomic DNA >95% DNA will be of high molecular weight, migrating as intact band near the top of the gel Very little evidence of smaller fragments indicated by a smear of many different sized DNA fragments

19 A Typical Electrophoresis Gel Setup Positive end Negative end Direction of DNA movement

20 Ladder A ladder is a mixture of DNA fragments of selected sizesA ladder is a mixture of DNA fragments of selected sizes When run in a gel electrophoresis, these fragments will separate into distinct bands that can be used as referencesWhen run in a gel electrophoresis, these fragments will separate into distinct bands that can be used as references The size of a fragment is always stated as [X] base pairs (bp)The size of a fragment is always stated as [X] base pairs (bp) Two common ladders are the 100 bp and the 1 kbp (1000 bp) laddersTwo common ladders are the 100 bp and the 1 kbp (1000 bp) ladders

21 Typical Ladders-100 bp & 1 kbp (1000 bp) The 100 bp ladder is composed of a mixture of small fragments (100 to 3000 bp)The 100 bp ladder is composed of a mixture of small fragments (100 to 3000 bp) The 1000 bp ladder is composed of a mixture of larger fragments (250 to 10,000 bp)The 1000 bp ladder is composed of a mixture of larger fragments (250 to 10,000 bp)

22 DNA Ladders

23 DNA fragments can be separated, and their sizes can be determined with the use of gel electrophoresis. The fragments can be viewed by using a dye that is specific for nucleic acids or by labeling the fragments with a radioactive or chemical tag. Concepts

24 Still more…. The DNA band of interest can be cut out of the gel and the DNA extracted Or DNA can be removed from the gel by Southern Blotting

25 Thanks


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