Types of molecules Nucleic Acids –Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Chromosomal DNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, or less popularly, mDNA) Chloroplast DNA –Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) –Complementary DNA (cDNA) RNA-DNA Hybrid
Proteins –Structural proteins E.g. Membrane proteins –Functional proteins E.g. Enzymes »Helicases »Transferases »Proteases »Nucleases »Kinases »Phosphatases etc.
Manipulating Nucleic Acids / cloning Isolation and Purification of Nucleic Acid Restriction analysis Selection of suitable vector Recombination Insertion into a suitable host Screening and selection of recombinants