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Sociolinguistics, Identity Development, and Language Use at Concordia Language Villages Meredith Hanson © 2007 Meredith Hanson Meredith Hanson © 2007 Meredith.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociolinguistics, Identity Development, and Language Use at Concordia Language Villages Meredith Hanson © 2007 Meredith Hanson Meredith Hanson © 2007 Meredith."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociolinguistics, Identity Development, and Language Use at Concordia Language Villages Meredith Hanson © 2007 Meredith Hanson Meredith Hanson © 2007 Meredith Hanson

2 Terminology L1=“language 1”: one’s native language L2=“language 2”: any second language Target language: the language being taught; here, the language of a particular CLV village (Japanese at 森の池 Mori no ike, etc.) Community of practice Code Code-switching Register L1=“language 1”: one’s native language L2=“language 2”: any second language Target language: the language being taught; here, the language of a particular CLV village (Japanese at 森の池 Mori no ike, etc.) Community of practice Code Code-switching Register

3 Three major trends in language teaching research Code-based approach (to mid-20th century) Psycholinguistic trend (mid 20th cent.-1980s) Sociolinguistic/Sociocultural trend (since 1980s) Languages are learned in social context, not objectively as codes, not just in the individual’s brain Classrooms are multilingual communities of practice and can be studied using sociolinguistic methods, as “real” speech communities Code-based approach (to mid-20th century) Psycholinguistic trend (mid 20th cent.-1980s) Sociolinguistic/Sociocultural trend (since 1980s) Languages are learned in social context, not objectively as codes, not just in the individual’s brain Classrooms are multilingual communities of practice and can be studied using sociolinguistic methods, as “real” speech communities

4 Concordia Language Villages Residential immersion camps teaching 14 languages in Minnesota, Georgia, and abroad 7-18 year old “villagers” attend for 1, 2, or 4 weeks, and may use any language at any time amongst themselves Counselors are expected to use the target language, except when emotional/physical safety is a concern Residential immersion camps teaching 14 languages in Minnesota, Georgia, and abroad 7-18 year old “villagers” attend for 1, 2, or 4 weeks, and may use any language at any time amongst themselves Counselors are expected to use the target language, except when emotional/physical safety is a concern

5 Research Question Can sociolinguistics-based language learning research explain why villagers at CLV code-switch and use the target language as they do?

6 First: Some Myths Code-switching is a sign of deficient language skills, and “real bilinguals” don’t do it. Students only mix L1 and L2 when they don’t know the words in L2, or are lazy. (Legenhausen 1991) Multiple identities are a sign of psychological problems. (Armour 2003) Removing L1 from classrooms will increase students’ learning. (Macaro 2001) Code-switching is a sign of deficient language skills, and “real bilinguals” don’t do it. Students only mix L1 and L2 when they don’t know the words in L2, or are lazy. (Legenhausen 1991) Multiple identities are a sign of psychological problems. (Armour 2003) Removing L1 from classrooms will increase students’ learning. (Macaro 2001)

7 Forces affecting villagers’ language use Sociolinguistic Identity development and expression Developmental & psychological Educational Sociolinguistic Identity development and expression Developmental & psychological Educational

8 Sociolinguistics: Our language is our identity. Language gives us our sense of self Language gives us access to social networks that provide opportunities to speak (Peirce 1995) Language carries social markers Language gives us our sense of self Language gives us access to social networks that provide opportunities to speak (Peirce 1995) Language carries social markers

9 Psycholinguistic and Social Concerns Peer pressure Both pre-college and college students modify their L2 in response to peers (Hedgcock & Lefkowitz 2000) Peer pressure Both pre-college and college students modify their L2 in response to peers (Hedgcock & Lefkowitz 2000) Power and Solidarity Most learners will opt for solidarity with their peers, meaning they will usually choose L1 over L2. The “Affective Filter” From psycholinguistics: L2 learning is hindered by negative emotions and fear

10 Developmental issues Erikson’s “Individual Integration” stage (~12-18 years old) Searching for identity, seeking to condense identities How can we add an L2 identity when villagers at this age are trying to find their native identity? Erikson’s “Individual Integration” stage (~12-18 years old) Searching for identity, seeking to condense identities How can we add an L2 identity when villagers at this age are trying to find their native identity? Peer vs. adult role models Younger villagers tend to look to counselors as role models, while adolescents look to peers Most villagers are in early adolescence (roughly yrs. old)

11 Educational Issues A summer camp, not a school Residential immersion Non-assessment-oriented Counselors’ authority vs. teachers’ authority at school A community of practice Language used for real communication Unique village norms develop (Le français du Lac du Bois, 森弁 Mori-ben) A summer camp, not a school Residential immersion Non-assessment-oriented Counselors’ authority vs. teachers’ authority at school A community of practice Language used for real communication Unique village norms develop (Le français du Lac du Bois, 森弁 Mori-ben)

12 “Pedagogical Safe Houses” in Language Learning Spaces where people between cultures can construct their own community, out of view of authority figures (teachers, parents) In safe houses, learners create and solidify their own norms of language use and code choice, and can act out blended L1/L2 identities (Canagarajah 2004) For many villagers, CLV acts as a safe house Spaces where people between cultures can construct their own community, out of view of authority figures (teachers, parents) In safe houses, learners create and solidify their own norms of language use and code choice, and can act out blended L1/L2 identities (Canagarajah 2004) For many villagers, CLV acts as a safe house

13 Synthesis: Due to these four forces… Code-switching becomes the learner’s register (Legenhausen 1991): adding L2 but not replacing L1 Villagers code-switch as an outward sign of claiming membership in both the L1 and L2 communities. Code-switching becomes the learner’s register (Legenhausen 1991): adding L2 but not replacing L1 Villagers code-switch as an outward sign of claiming membership in both the L1 and L2 communities.

14 In practice in French (at Lac du Bois) (I’m) just blaguin’ (you) [just joking/kidding you] Fraise ! [lit. strawberry]: as an expletive Tu roches(rocks) mon monde [You rock my world] Pas de chemin ! [lit. no way] Ton homard ! [your lobster]: to replace “Your mom!” N’importe quoi ! [Whatever]: with “N” gesture Je ne care pas [I don’t care] Être sur le ballon [lit. to be on the ball] “did Fosston [a Lac du Bois site] kick le seau [the bucket]?” (I’m) just blaguin’ (you) [just joking/kidding you] Fraise ! [lit. strawberry]: as an expletive Tu roches(rocks) mon monde [You rock my world] Pas de chemin ! [lit. no way] Ton homard ! [your lobster]: to replace “Your mom!” N’importe quoi ! [Whatever]: with “N” gesture Je ne care pas [I don’t care] Être sur le ballon [lit. to be on the ball] “did Fosston [a Lac du Bois site] kick le seau [the bucket]?”

15 In practice in Japanese (at 森の池 Mori no ike) ピ乳 / ブルー乳 daijobs, daibouju 大丈ぶ (as a verb) 上は何ですか。 何は上ですか。 何上 ? ピ乳 / ブルー乳 daijobs, daibouju 大丈ぶ (as a verb) 上は何ですか。 何は上ですか。 何上 ? 何でクラプ ? 何 the hell これ ? 何 the fuck 何で福?! じゃない ’d 何でクラプ ? 何 the hell これ ? 何 the fuck 何で福?! じゃない ’d

16 Final Thoughts Learners are language users too, not “native speaker wannabes” We all speak codes that reflect our affiliations and values, particularly in L2! Questions of identity and role(s) played affect language learning and use Code-switching is one way to claim membership in two language communities Learners are language users too, not “native speaker wannabes” We all speak codes that reflect our affiliations and values, particularly in L2! Questions of identity and role(s) played affect language learning and use Code-switching is one way to claim membership in two language communities

17 Merci beaucoup どうもありがとうございました To the CLV staff, former villagers, and Earlham students who provided examples, advice, and encouragement: Alpha, Benoît, Chris Webb, Claire (Sarah Howell), Eerika (Erica Richter), Joëlle, かおり先生 (Lydia Quackenbush), 虎次郎先生 (Skip Walker), Lune, Lux, Mandi Rice, みえこ (Sarah Elkinton), りさこ (Larisa Kile), “Der Deutsche Ninja” (Stephen Emmons), Sylvie, Thérèse, うきうき先生, et Violaine To the CLV staff, former villagers, and Earlham students who provided examples, advice, and encouragement: Alpha, Benoît, Chris Webb, Claire (Sarah Howell), Eerika (Erica Richter), Joëlle, かおり先生 (Lydia Quackenbush), 虎次郎先生 (Skip Walker), Lune, Lux, Mandi Rice, みえこ (Sarah Elkinton), りさこ (Larisa Kile), “Der Deutsche Ninja” (Stephen Emmons), Sylvie, Thérèse, うきうき先生, et Violaine Y a mis readers también: Barbara Jurasek, Patty Lamson, and Skip Walker

18 Sources/Sources/ 参考資料 In this presentation: Armour, William. “‘Nihonjin no yoo to omoimashita’ (I think I’m like a Japanese): Additional Language Learning and the Development of Multiple Selves” (2003). Canagarajah, Suresh. “Subversive identities, pedagogical safe houses, and critical learning” (2004). “Conceptualizing Self and Environment: Erikson’s Model.” Human Development course handout, Nelson Bingham, Earlham College. Hedgcock, John, and Lefkowitz, Natalie. “Overt and Covert Prestige in the French Language Classroom: When is it Good to Sound Bad?” (2000) Legenhausen, Lienhard. “Code-Switching in Learners' Discourse.” (1991) Macaro, Ernest. “Analysing Student Teachers’ Codeswitching in Foreign Language Classrooms: Theories and Decision Making.” (2001) Peirce, Bonny Norton. “Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning.” (1995) Language examples drawn from my employment experience and postings on the following websites: Concordia Language Villages LiveJournal community Mori no ike LiveJournal community Concordia Language Villages Facebook group In this presentation: Armour, William. “‘Nihonjin no yoo to omoimashita’ (I think I’m like a Japanese): Additional Language Learning and the Development of Multiple Selves” (2003). Canagarajah, Suresh. “Subversive identities, pedagogical safe houses, and critical learning” (2004). “Conceptualizing Self and Environment: Erikson’s Model.” Human Development course handout, Nelson Bingham, Earlham College. Hedgcock, John, and Lefkowitz, Natalie. “Overt and Covert Prestige in the French Language Classroom: When is it Good to Sound Bad?” (2000) Legenhausen, Lienhard. “Code-Switching in Learners' Discourse.” (1991) Macaro, Ernest. “Analysing Student Teachers’ Codeswitching in Foreign Language Classrooms: Theories and Decision Making.” (2001) Peirce, Bonny Norton. “Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning.” (1995) Language examples drawn from my employment experience and postings on the following websites: Concordia Language Villages LiveJournal community Mori no ike LiveJournal community Concordia Language Villages Facebook group


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