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Breakout Session 3: Coping with Labor Scarcity in the New World From Servitude to Slavery and “Free” Labor Jenny Wahl Carleton College Economics Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Breakout Session 3: Coping with Labor Scarcity in the New World From Servitude to Slavery and “Free” Labor Jenny Wahl Carleton College Economics Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Breakout Session 3: Coping with Labor Scarcity in the New World From Servitude to Slavery and “Free” Labor Jenny Wahl Carleton College Economics Department

2 2 Some Numbers Free migrants (~ ) –About ½ million total emigrated to British American colonies –Of those, more than 350,000 via indenture Slaves (~ ) –About 12 million left Africa, about 10 million arrived in Americas –By 1808 (end of trans-Atlantic trade to US), only 6% of African slaves landing in New World had come to North America Population as of 1790 –2.8 million free whites –58,000 free non-whites –682,000 slaves

3 3 Percent Non-White by Original Colony, 1750, 1790, 1810, 1860

4 4 Net Slave Imports, VA and MD,

5 5 Indentured Servants  Slaves (South) and Servants (North) Demography of blacks in North America Benefits of native-born slaves Improved wages in England Cheaper Atlantic passage Demography of whites in North America Regional diversity – plantation crops in South, manufactories in North

6 6 Jefferson’s Runaway Slave (1769)

7 7 Indigo Exports (SC and GA),

8 8 Rice Exports (SC and GA),

9 9 Tobacco Imports into England,

10 10 Distribution of Wealth by Region, 1774

11 11 Northern Colonial Slavery Significant datesVTPAMANHCTRINYNJ European settlement First record of slaveryc.1760? ? Official end of slavery Actual end of slavery1777c c.1845?

12 12 Percent of Free Non-Whites by Original Colony, 1790, 1810, 1860

13 13 Pennsylvania Slave Advertisement

14 14


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