4 Jerusalem: A Sacred City for Jews, Christians, & Muslims JudaismKing David established it as capital of Jewish nation in 1000 BCESolomon built First Temple Center of Jewish Faith Site of creation Abraham & Isaac Site of the Arc of the CovenantBy 600 BCE, Jews expelled due to invasions by Romans, Muslims, and many othersRomans controlled the area for a long time “Palestina”First Temple destroyed in the battlesSecond Temple built around 516 CE but destroyed in battle w/Romans The only thing that remains is the Western Wall19 BCE New construction of a Roman temple; Jews are banned from Jerusalem, but allowed to enter once a year to worship at the Western Wall of this new templeBecomes the “Wailing Wall” where the Jewish people believe Abraham was going to sacrifice his son, Isaac
5 Jews may often be seen sitting for hours at the Wailing-place bent in sorrowful meditation over the history of their race, and repeating often times the words of the Seventy-ninth Psalm. On Fridays especially, Jews of both sexes, of all ages, and from all countries, assemble in large numbers to kiss the sacred stones and weep outside the precincts they may not enter.- Charles Wilson, (Picturesque Palestine, p. 41)
6 Jerusalem: A Sacred City for Jews, Christians, & Muslims ChristianityRomans controlling “Palestina” built a temple to the goddess Venus Church of the Holy SepulchreThis occupies the site Christians believe Jesus was crucified and buriedIt is a Christian pilgrimage site connected to the death and resurrection of Jesus considered to be among the holiest places in ChristianityNote: In the news today major pilgrimmages during the Easter season
7 Tombs located within the church where Christiansbelieve Jesus was buried andresurrected
8 Jerusalem: A Sacred City for Jews, Christians, & Muslims IslamConsidered the 3rd holiest city in Islam (behind Mecca & Medina)By spreading their faith, Muslims enter Jerusalem around 637 CEBuilt a mosque, al-Aqsa, where First Temple may have beenLater build the Dome of the Rock where Muslims believe Mohammad ascended to heavenThis area is know as the Temple Mount for Jews it’s where they believe the First and Second Temples may have stood
16 20th Century History The Conflict Today Israel and Palestine: Change from Religious Conflict to Regional Conflict20th Century HistoryThe Conflict Today
17 The British are Coming!!!Ottoman Empire controlled Palestine for 400 years but lost it to Great Britain in WWIBalfour Declaration set up Palestine as a homeland for the Jewish peopleOttoman Muslims living in Palestine angry w/British & start attacking Jews who settle in PalestineBritish leave Palestine after WWII in 1947
18 Creation of IsraelCreated by the United Nations in 1948 in response to the Holocaust and WWIITook land from Palestine to make a homeland for Jewish Holocaust survivorsPartitioned land b/w Israel and PalestineMuslims and surrounding Arab countries (Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, and Iraq) believe it should stay Palestine historical and religious roots
19 Israel David Ben-Gurion Israel’s 1st Prime Minister Surrounding Arab countries reject Israel’s creation & join together to try to eliminate it
20 1948 Arab-Israeli War Arabs fled or were turned out during the war Jewish refugees flood the country more than doubling the population of IsraelEnds in 1949 w/UN supervising an armistice agreementUN supported Israel which is why the Arab nations were not able to destroy Israel
21 Egyptian Involvement1955: Egypt closed the Suez Canal and the Straits of Tiran to Israeli ships1956: Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula, backed by Britain and FranceThe US and UN intervened and forced the British and French to withdrawUN kept troops in border areas to monitor peaceBritain and France supported Israel, but when Israel attacks Sinai and goes on the offensive, the US and the UN intervene because they don’t want Egypt thinking they can control the Suez Canal.
22 Geography discussion access to travel routes, merchants, etc Geography discussion access to travel routes, merchants, etc. Sinai peninsula controlled by Egypt but borders Israel
23 1967: Six Day War Egypt requested the withdrawal of UN troops Israeli troops, under Ariel Sharon, started an air strike against Egyptian airfieldsIsrael successfully defeated Egyptians defending the Sinai Peninsula, Jordan from the East, and Syria from the NorthProved their military has powerBalance of power shifts in favor of IsraelIsrael’s army is mandatory everyone has to serve; Jews throughout the world can become an Israeli citizen and serve in their army
25 1973- Yom Kippur War (also called the Ramadan or October War) Egypt and Syria joined in a war against Israel on Yom Kippur to regain the territories lost in 1967.After weeks of fighting, Arab forces were set back by Israeli troops.The war led to a Saudi oil embargo on the United States; gas prices skyrocketed; and the fuel shortages of the 1970s began.ENLARGE IMAGES FOR FURTHER TEACHER UNDERSTANDINGU.S. sold/gave weapons to Israel; Saudi Arabia didn’t like it so they put the embargo on the U.S.
27 Negotiations- Late 1980sPalestinians began an “intifada” (Arabic for uprising) against Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza StripGZ & WB are Palestinian strongholds; the rest of Israel is for Jews
28 1993 Oslo AccordsEstablished self-rule under the Palestinian National Authority in the occupied territories of Gaza and the West Bank.Precursor to the creation of a Palestinian stateHowever, Israel increased settlements in the West Bank and attacks by Palestinians continued.Fighting stayed mostly at a local level and were brought to an end with the Oslo Accords
29 1999 - Second Intifada Violence and chaos continued Included Palestinian suicide bombersInstability among Palestinian leadership
30 International Involvement 2002: Former President George W. Bush created a “roadmap for peace”Two-state solution1st American president to call for a recognition of a Palestinian state2 state solution make Israel & Palestine problem: Palestine wants WB & GZ but they’re not linked & they’d have to give up a lot of land which was originally Palestine
31 Homework Check!Get out your homework from last night – it’s getting checked for (hopefully) 10 points!
32 Activity 1: Read brief history and analyze attached maps. Answer questionsYou may need to use the articles from homework assignments this week or any notes you took on the PowerPoint
34 2002-West Bank Barrier Israel started to build part wall, part fence Hoped to prevent Palestinians from attacking Israeli civiliansBarrier corresponded to Armistice Agreement from 1948Israel maintains it is a security borderSome believe it will be a political division that isolates Palestinians from social services.
35 Israeli Wall As you view the following clip, What is the issue?What is the Israeli perspective?What is the Palestinian perspective?Daily Motion: Israel's Fence
36 Green Line official separation of Israel and neighboring Arab nations; many Palestinians live in Palestine but work in Israel; the wall was built to stop people from bombing, but it prevents people from getting to work, etc.Settlements Where the Israelis live/are settling but not within the original borders from the UN (taken from Syria, etc.) Jerusalem is controlled by both Israel and Palestine
37 Activity 2: Read the “Separation Barrier” and complete the worksheet Consider both perspectives.Should the wall be built?How could this conflict be resolved?
38 Continuing Story…Formation of a multi-partisan Israeli government/Disengagement from the Gaza StripHamas (a militant Palestinian group) has risen to powerRefuse to recognize Israel as a stateConsidered a terrorist organization by the US and EUNote:Yasser Arafat- Palestinian, Ariel Sharon- Israeli Prime Minster, Hamas- Militant Palestinian terrorist organizationCurrently Benjamin Netanyahu is the Israeli PM; Mahmoud Abbas is the Palestinian National Authority President – his term expired in 2009 but he extended it for one year
39 Videos East Jerusalem Troubles Israel Air Strikes Gaza (CNN) Israeli Air Strike (BBC)Israeli Air Strikes/Palestinian Christians (Mosaic/Al Jazeera)