Canning history lesson Canning dates to late 18th century in France Napoleon Bonaparte, concerned about keeping his armies fed, offered cash for developing a reliable method of food preservation Nicholas Appert won the prize, 12,000 francs, in 1809 when he submitted his method of “food in glass bottles.” o (Kovel and Kovel, 2007)
Canning history Appert used glass jars sealed with wax and reinforced with wire Took 14 years to develop Peter Durand, replaced the breakable glass bottles with cylindrical tinplate canisters
Basics haven’t changed drastically The basic principles have not changed dramatically Heat sufficient to destroy microorganisms Foods packed into sealed, or "airtight" containers. The canned foods are then heated under steam pressure at temperatures of 240-250°F (116-121°C).
The basics Louis Pasteur provided the explanation for canning when he was able to demonstrate that the growth of microorganisms is the cause of food spoilage. o B. Lund, et al. Eds. 2000
Historically -- commercially canned foods Relatively safe Only 4 outbreaks in 40 years, last one was in 1974 Before….
Outbreak with Garlic in oil product February 1989 - 3 cases of botulism caused by toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum Garlic bread made from Garlic in oil product o pH 5.7 o Cells of C. botulinum and toxin The index patient recalled receiving the product as a gift during the summer of 1988 and storing the jar at room temperature for ca. 3 months
Recent illnesses September 2008 o Botulism o Ohio man and his grandson were hospitalized as a result of botulism toxin poisoning caused by improperly canned green beans 2007 o Virginia couple died after consuming improperly canned foods that also contained botulism toxin o Physician
Recent illnesses February 2009 o Woman in her 30s and two children under 10 fell ill from eating improperly-canned green beans from a home garden. o The woman is reportedly recovering slowly and remains on a ventilator.
Home food preservation Home canning continues to be a popular means of preserving food at home o (Andress et al., 2002). Fruits and vegetables make up the majority of home preservatives Meats (especially game) and fish are also preserved.
National phone survey of canners (2005) 58% of home canners are between 35-64 years of age 27% are 65 and over 15% are under 35 o (D’sa et al., 2007)
Home canning survey Majority of home canners have reported not following science-based home preservation methods Receive much of their home preservation information through friends and family Only 45% of respondents thought that home canned foods could be spoiled without obvious signs of spoilage
Home Food Preservation Local Economy o Personal o Business opportunity Connection to food Home Food Preservation -- Module 1 16
Growing, preparing, storing own food Seed sales up 10-15% Families with gardens expected to increase 40+% in 2009 "As the economy goes down, food gardening goes up," says Bruce Butterfield, the group's research director. "We haven't seen this kind of spike in 30 years."
Eat Local: Movement stresses safety "Buying locally is much safer than just eating food that has been purchased en masse from god knows where."
Home canned foods as business Home canned soup, sold to a PA woman in 2007 Woman tested positive for botulism, as did the soup
Food Freedom Legislation Arkansas Chap 1403 – Farmers Markets Florida S. 1900 Indiana PL 86 – Farmers Market Maine PL 354 – non-inspected poultry Michigan – H 5280 Tennessee – S 1689; H 1810 Texas – H 3282 Wyoming – H 54
Michigan Dept of Agriculture Cottage Food Labeling “MADE IN A HOME KITCHEN THAT HAS NOT BEEN INSPECTED BY THE MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE”
Younger demographic May not have even seen home canning before
New stuff? Summer squash has been removed Low acid tomato foods – reminders o Not all that uniform o Just have to assume that tomato foods are low acid o add 1 tablespoon of bottled lemon juice or 1⁄4 teaspoon citric acid per pint of tomatoes. o For quarts, use 2 tablespoons of bottled lemon juice or 1⁄2 teaspoon citric acid. o Acid can be added directly to each jar before filling them with the product. o Vinegar can also be used
Is there BPA in canning lids? Yes, there likely is Risk of BPA from all food containers is currently being studied and the FDA has not yet changed it’s stance on the chemical
Where is preservation going? Some pressure canners and other food preservation supplies triple. Seed sales up again this year Increased awareness/desire for local foods = More preservation needs
29 The Resources So Easy to Preserve, University of Georgia o (soeasytopreserve.com) USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning o (free download on UGA site) How to Dry Foods, Deanna DeLong The Joy of Winemaking, Terry Garey Canning & Preserving without Sugar, Norma MacRae 29
Ball Blue books o Wal-Mart for $8.95 o Ordered directly from Jarden for $6.95 o They can be ordered by calling 1-800-240-3340 and pressing option 3. o Also, probably the best choice: o http://www.theconsumerlink.com -- $6.04 with shipping and handling http://www.theconsumerlink.com
Selling home preserved foods NCDA resources on this o http://www.ncagr.gov/fooddrug/food/homebiz.htm It is okay to sell jams and jellies Acidified foods are allowed but vendors must attend specified training o http://ncsu.edu/foodscience/workshops_training.htm
32 Preservation Websites National Center for Home Food Preservation o www.uga.edu/nchp NC State home food preservation o Homefoodpreservation.ncsu.edu Alltrista Consumer Products o www.homecanning.com/usa OR 1-800-240-3340 USDA guide to home canning o http://www.uga.edu/nchfp/publications/publications_usda.html 32
Dr. Ben Chapman firstname.lastname@example.org Follow me on twitter @benjaminchapman 919 809 3205 www.foodsafetyinfosheets.com www.bites.ksu.edu www.barfblog.com