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Communicative Competence and Systemic Functional Model of Language

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1 Communicative Competence and Systemic Functional Model of Language

2 Why we need a CC model Celce-Murcia et al.’s effort has been motivated by the belief in the potential in the direct, explicit approach to the teaching of communicative skills, which would require a detailed description of what CC entails in order to use the sub-components as a content base in syllabus design.(p.6)

3 Competence Discourse Competence Linguistic Comp.. Actional Comp. Socio – Cultural Comp. Strategic Competence

4 What does CC entail? Discourse Competence Linguistic Competence Actional Competence Socio-cultural Competence Strategic Competence (p.10 )

5 Discourse Competence Discourse competence concerns the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures, sentences and utterance to achieve a unified spoken or written text. (p.13)

6 Components of Discourse Competence COHESION Reference, Substutition, Conjuction, Lexical Chains DEIXES Personal pronouns, Spatial, Temporal, Textual COHERENCE Thematization, Management of old and new information GENRE/GENERIC STRUCTURE Narrative, Report, service encounter, etc. CONVERSATIONAL STRUCTURE How to perform opening, hold the floor, adjacency pairs, etc.

7 What do we develop? The ability to participate in discourse, or The ability to communicate, or The ability to create spoken and written texts, or The ability to negotiate meanings, or The ability to exchange nuances of meanings

8 Linguistic Competence Syntax Morphology Lexicon Phonology Orthography

9 Actional Competence Interpersonal Exchange Information Opinions Feelings Suasion Problems Future Scenario

10 Sociocultural Competence Social Contextual Factors Stylistic Appropriateness Factors Cultural Factors Non-Verbal Communicative Factors

11 Strategic Competence Avoidance or Reduction Strategies Achievement or Compensatory Str. Stalling or Time-Gaining Str. Self-Monitoring Str. Interactional Str.

12 The Nature of the CC Model Pedagogically motivated (Celce-Murcia) Sociocultural theory of language / Language as communication (Halliday) Constructivism in sociocultural tradition (Vygotsky) Literacy in ELT (Kern)

13 TEXT CULTURE Genre (Purpose) Situation Who is involved? (Tenor) Subject matter Channel (Field) (Mode) Register

14 Ideational Interpersonal Textual Discourse Semantic Level Lexicogrammatical Level Phonology/ Graphology Level CULTURAL LEVEL

15 Syarat pengembangan kompetensi komunikatif Scaffolding Talks: Bahasa yang digunakan guru dalam mengelola proses pembelajaran sebagai language accompanying action.

16 Zone of Proximal Development Independent Learning zone Interactive discourse Teacher intervention Peer-peer interaction

17 Peran guru Menciptakan pengalaman pembelajaran Merancang kegiatan Merancang komunikasi Berperan sebagai “ibu” dalam pemerolehan bahasa alamiah

18 Learning Experiences

19 Literacy Principles Interpretation Interpretation Collaboration Collaboration Convention Convention Cultural Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Problem solving Problem solving Reflection Reflection Language use Language use

20 Literacy Levels Performative Level Performative Level Functional Level Functional Level Informational Level Informational Level Epistemic Level Epistemic Level

21 SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE CONTINUUM Most SpokenMost Written Spoken Language Written Language Language accompanying action Language as reflection

22 Spoken & Written Language Spoken: * Language as exchange * About YOU and I Written: * Language as representation * About others

23 What do people do when communicating? They exchange meanings. They exchange meanings.

24 How do we negotiate? Interpersonally Interpersonally Logicosemantically Logicosemantically

25 Where in the sentence does interpersonal meaning reside? In the Mood area In the Mood area Mood = Subject + Finite Mood = Subject + Finite Mood expresses: Attitudes Attitudes Feelings Feelings Judgement Judgement Etc. Etc.

26 Negotiating interpersonally A : I am sleepy. B : Are you? C : I love her. D : You do, don’t you. E : I cleaned the room! D : No, you didn’t!

27 When is interpersonal negotiation dominant? In sustained casual conversations In sustained casual conversations * Chatting * Gossiping * Killing the time

28 Negotiating logicosemantically A : I am sleepy. B : Sleepy or hungry? A : Both, actually. C : What’s your name? D : Hartati C : Where do you live? D : Jalan Diponegoro.

29 When is logicosemantic negotiation dominant? In transactional conversations In transactional conversations * Giving /demanding information * Giving’demanding goods and services

30 Negotiation in Writing Focused on old and new information Focused on old and new information Focused on Theme and Rheme Focused on Theme and Rheme

31 Old and New Information Once upon a time, there was an old lady. She was very poor, but she was happy. She had a handsome son called Ande-Ande Lumut. He was a fine young man. Many girls liked him.

32 Negotiation is Negotiation is * The Communication Engine * The key to discourse competence

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36 Good Luck!


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