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States of Consciousness Ch. 5

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1 States of Consciousness Ch. 5
AP Psychology Alice F. Short Hilliard Davidson High School

2 States of Consciousness
The Nature of Consciousness Defining Consciousness Consciousness and the Brain Levels of Awareness Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms and Sleep Why Do We Need Sleep? Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep Sleep and Disease Sleep Disorders Psychoactive Drugs Uses of Psychoactive Drugs Types of Psychoactive Drugs Hypnosis The Nature of Hypnosis Explaining Hypnosis Uses of Hypnosis Consciousness and Health and Wellness: Meditation States of Consciousness

3 The Nature of Consciousness
Defining Consciousness Consciousness and the Brain Levels of Awareness stream of consciousness – term used by William James to describe the mind as a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts and feelings

4 Defining Consciousness
consciousness – an individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal, including awareness of self and thoughts about one’s experiences awareness global brain workspace arousal metacognition – thinking about thinking EXAMPLE: Thinking about why you are nervous before an exam

5 Consciousness and the Brain
awareness – subjective state of knowing what’s going on, as occurring in a global brain workspace includes awareness of self and thoughts about one’s experiences global brain workspace – a collection of neurons from a variety of brain areas working in parallel that include prefrontal cortex (the front-most part of the brain) and the anterior cingulate arousal – the physiological state of being engaged with the environment determined by the reticular activating system refers to the ways that awareness is regulated high alert low alert reticular activating system – a network of structures including the brain stem, medulla and thalamus

6 Levels of Awareness Higher-Level Consciousness
Lower-Level Consciousness Altered States of Consciousness Subconscious Awareness No Awareness

7 1. Higher Level Consciousness
controlled processes – the most alert states of human consciousness, during which individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal require selective attention involves prefrontal cortex (usually) Example: Focusing on learning something new.

8 2. Lower-Level Consciousness
automatic processes – states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities Example: typing, texting, driving home, etc. after mastered daydreaming – b/w conscious and sleep begin spontaneously during low-focus activates help make plans, solve problems or come up with creative idea help us to cope, create and fantasize

9 3. Altered States of Consciousness
altered states of consciousness or awareness – mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness Range: losing sense of self-consciousness  hallucinating Causes: trauma, fever, fatigue, sensory deprivation, medication, hypnosis and psychological disorders

10 4. Subconscious Awareness
waking subconscious awareness incubation – subconscious processing that leads to a solution to a problem after a break from conscious though about the problem thinking about or doing something else  solution magically appears in mind! subconscious awareness during sleep and dreams we retain some awareness during dreams

11 5. No Awareness unconscious – applies to someone who has been knocked out by a blow or anesthetized a.k.a. nonconscious unconscious thought – according to Freud, a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness; Freud’s interpretation viewed the unconscious as a storehouse for vile thoughts

12 A SHORT Time to Ponder What are controlled processes and automatic processes?

13 Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms and Sleep Why Do We Need Sleep?
Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep Sleep and Disease Sleep Disorders sleep – a natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the rerevsible loss of consciousness

14 Biological Rhythms and Sleep
circadian rhythms suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

15 Biological Rhythms and Sleep p. 143
biological rhythms – periodic physiological fluctuations in the body, such as the rise and fall of hormones and accelerated and decelerated cycles of brain activity, that can influence behavior circadian rhythms – daily behavioral or physiological cycles, which involve sleep/wake cycle body temperature blood pressure blood sugar level suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) – small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark; the mechanism by which the body monitors the change from day to night (located in hypothalamus); sends information to: hypothalamus & pineal gland (temperature, hunger, release of hormones – melatonin) reticular formation (sleep and wakefulness)

16 Desynchronized and Resetting
desynchronized biological clock –thrown off their regular schedule jet lag – result of two or more body rhythms being out of sync changing work shifts increased risk of heart disease gastrointestinal disorders insomnia resetting biological clock daylight melatonin useful in eastward travel not useful in westward travel

17 A SHORT Time to Ponder Would a lot of these problems exist before industrialization?

18 Why do We Need Sleep? avoid becoming prey avoid injury at night
conserve energy search for food in safer conditions (daylight) restores, replenishing, rebuilds the brain and body increased production of cells; reduced breakdown of proteins enhances synaptic connections between neurons consolidates memory for specific information, for skills and for emotional experiences conducts activities that strengthen memory associations  long term memory (occurs in cerebral cortex)

19 Effects of Chronic Sleep Deprivation
8 hours sleep/night sleep deprivation decreases brain activity in thalamus and prefrontal cortex reduces complexity of brain activity shorter pathways reduced abilities to make moral decisions STUDY: 53 hours of wakefulness –> agree with decisions that violated personal standards

20 A SHORT Time to Ponder Is sleep deprivation and American epidemic? If yes, what could be the long-term consequences?

21 Wakefulness and Sleep Wakefulness (2 total stages)
Sleep (5 total stages) electroencephalograph (EEG) – monitors brain’s electrical activity

22 Wakefulness beta waves – concentration and alertness
highest in frequency lowest in amplitude desynchronous alpha waves – relaxation and drowsiness synchronous slow down (lower frequency) higher amplitude

23 Sleep (5) Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 (REM sleep)
Sleep Cycle (1-5): minutes Stages 1-4 sometimes referred to as non-REM sleep dreams (stages 1-4): less vivid, briefer, less emotionally charged dreams (stage 5): more vivid, longer, more emotionally charged

24 Stages 1 and 2 Sleep 60% of a whole night’s sleep
light stages of sleep “I wasn’t asleep.” Stage 1 – drowsy sleep myoclonic jerks (I see you!) feeling of falling theta waves (slower frequency; greater amplitude than alpha waves) gradual change from alpha waves Stage 2 – muscle activity decreases; no longer consciously aware of the environment theta waves interspersed with sleep spindles (sudden increase in frequency)

25 Stages 3 and 4 Sleep 20% of a whole night’s sleep
delta waves (slowest; highest amplitude) a.k.a. delta sleep difficult to wake deepest sleep bed wetting, sleep walking, sleep talking wake up: confused and disoriented difficult to distinguish b/w 3 and 4 Stage 3 delta waves less than 50% of time Stage 4 delta waves more than 50% of time

26 REM Sleep 20% of a whole night’s sleep
REM (rapid eye movement) – figure 5.5, p.147 dreaming longer REM  more likely to remember waves similar to relaxed wakefulness role in memory and creativity progressively longer in later sleep cycles most likely to wake just after REM sleep

27 Sleep Stages – EEG Patterns p. 147

28 Sleep Though the Life Span
Children: deep sleep  growth hormone sleep well: avoid caffeine experience regular bedtime routine have no TV in bedroom Adolescence cerebral cortex developing (sleep linked to brain development) 9 hrs 25 min shortfall  attempt to “catch up” on weekends (can’t)  melatonin secreted 9:30 p.m. – early adolescents 10:30 p.m. - later adolescents inattention in class poor performance

29 Sleep Through Life Span
adults go to bed and wake up earlier Middle Adult (40s-50s) need less sleep Late Adult (60s +) 50% report problems falling or staying asleep

30 Sleep and the Brain neurotransmitter activity
initiated in reticular formation (core of brain stem… damage to this area can lead to coma or death) serotonin norepinephrine acetylcholine Stages 1-4  neurotransmitters drop REM initiated by increase in acetylcholine ends with increased serotonin and norepinephrine most like to wake just after REM period

31 Sleep and Disease Increased Occurrence During Sleep Sleeplessness
stroke asthma attacks Sleeplessness obesity heart disease Fighting Disease cells produce cytokines (powerfully sleep-inducing) Mental Disorders (freq. associated with sleeplessness) depression Alzheimer disease cancer

32 Sleep Disorders insomnia sleep walking and sleep talking (and eating)
nightmares and night terrors narcolepsy sleep apnea

33 Insomnia inability to sleep 1/5 adults
more common in women and older adults more common in people who are thin, stressed or depressed Mild Insomnia: treat with quality sleep habits (same bedtime, sleep in dark and cool environment, avoiding caffeine and naps)

34 Sleepwalking and Talking
somnambulism = sleepwalking stages 3 & 4 linked to sleep deprivation and alcohol use should wake individual somniloquy = sleep talking not accurate sleep eating (rare) – Ambien side effect buttered cigarettes, salt sandwiches, raw bacon

35 Nightmares and Night Terrors
nightmare – a frightening dream that awakens the dreamer from REM sleep peak at ages 3-6 experienced by college students 4-8 times per year night terror – features sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear rapid heart rate rapid breathing loud screaming heavy perspiration movement peak at ages 5-7 occurs during slow-save stage 4 (non-REM) sleep

36 Narcolepsy narcolepsy – sudden, overpowering urge to sleep
involves problems with hypothalamus and amygdala emerges in adulthood may occur while talking or standing or any other daily activity can be triggered by extreme emotional reactions, such as surprise, laughter, excitement or anger

37 Sleep Apnea sleep apnea – a sleep disorder in which individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or because the brain processes involved in respiration fail to work loud snoring  silence (not breathing) 12 million Americans (2006) more common in infants and adults 65+ more common in the obese, men, people with large necks may factor into sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) symptoms: loud snoring followedby periods of silence

38 Dreams manifest content – according to Freud (who was coo-coo-ca-choo), the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning latent content – according to Freud, a dream’s hidden content; its unconscious and true meaning 2 Most Prominent Dream Theories cognitive theory activation-synthesis theory

39 Dream Theories cognitive theory of dreaming – theory proposing that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind dreams = subconscious cognitive processing involving information and memory metaphorically related to a person’s preoccupation CRITICISMS: lack of attention to the roles of brain structures and brain activity in dreaming

40 Dream Theories activation-synthesis theory – theory that dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain dreams  brain’s attempts to find logic in random brain activity (internally generated stimuli) that occurs during sleep primary motor and sensory areas of forebrain stimulated (create sensation of running/feeling wind, etc.) dreams = “cognitive trash” CRITICISM: damage to the brain stem does not necessary reduce dreaming; life-experiences stimulate and shape dreaming

41 Psychoactive Drugs U.S. has the highest rate of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation. Why do you think this is the case?

42 Psychoactive Drugs psychoactive drugs – drugs that act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perception and change mood Reasons / Justifications: deal with life’s activities / escape from harsh realities of life reduce tension relieve boredom and/or fatigue curious about effects Reasons Drug Use is Stupid losing track on one’s responsibilities problems in workplace and in relationships increased risk for serious (sometimes fatal) diseases tolerance addiction dependence expensive others to be discussed on later slides… it’s a long list

43 Psychoactive Drugs tolerance (need more)
need to take increasing amounts of a drug in order to get the same effect physical dependence – physiological need withdrawal psychological dependence – strong desire feeling of well-being / reduction of stress addiction – physical or psychological or both on a drug

44 How to Become an Addict… or Not (Not is Better)
psychoactive drugs  increase dopamine levels in brain’s reward pathways reward pathway (p. 155) ventral tegmental area (VTA) limbic and prefrontal areas activated by dopamine produced here nucleus accumbens (NAc)

45 Reward Pathways for Drugs

46 Types of Psychoactive Drugs
depressants alcohol barbiturates tranquilizers opiates (a.k.a. narcotics) morphine heroin stimulants caffeine nicotine amphetamines diet pills crystal methamphetamine (a.k.a. crystal meth, crank, tina) cocaine MDMA (a.k.a. Ecstasy, X, XTC) hallucinogens marijuana LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

47 Depressants depressants - psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity alcohol barbiturates tranquilizers opiates (a.k.a. narcotics) morphine heroin

48 Depressants alcohol inhibitions decrease and judgment becomes increasingly impaired extreme intoxication  coma and/or death increases concentration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) to cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens 2nd most widely used drug (after caffeine) 2/3 of American adults drink; 30% binge drank in past year (5+ drinks) involved in 60% of homicides (either offender of victim) 65% aggressive sexual acts against women – offender consumed binge drinking increases during first 2 years of college  decreases with permanent job, marriage or cohabitation, parenthood 11 times more likely to fall behind in school 10 times morel likely to drive 2 times as likely to have unprotected sex alcoholism – a disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive and excessive use of alcoholic beverages impairs as drinker’s health and social relationships (1/9 drinkers) one-third rule (1. dead/terrible shape; 2. still fighting addiction; 3. sober or drinking socially) alcoholism recovery negative experience w/ alcohol substitute dependency (meditation, exercise, overeating) developing new positive relationships joining a support group

49 Depressants barbiturates (examples Nembutal and Seconal)
decreased central nervous system activity impaired memory and decision making can be lethal most often used in suicide attempts treat insomnia largely replaced by tranquilizers

50 Depressants tranquilizers (examples: Valium and Xanax) reduce anxiety
induce relaxation feeling of calm (small doses) drowsiness and confusion tolerance – takes only a few weeks addictive withdrawal symptoms

51 Depressants Opiates (a.k.a. Narcotics), examples: morphine and heroin
depresses central nervous system activity affect synapses that use endorphins euphoric and pain-free increased appetite for food and sex highly addictive craving and painful withdrawal

52 Depressants

53 Stimulants stimulants – psychoactive drugs that increase the central nervous system's activity. The most widely used stimulants are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines and cocaine. caffeine nicotine amphetamines diet pills crystal methamphetamine (a.k.a. crystal meth, crank, tina) cocaine MDMA (a.k.a. Ecstasy, X, XTC)

54 Stimulants caffeine most widely used drug in world
boosts energy and alertness caffeinism – an overindulgence in caffeine mood changes, anxiety, sleep disruption 5 or more cups of coffee per day symptoms: insomnia, irritability, headaches, ringing ears, dry mouth, increased blood pressure, digestive problems withdrawal last a couple days

55 Stimulants nicotine addictive improved attention and alertness
reduced anger and anxiety pain relieve withdrawal symptoms last months or longer kills 400,000 people each year in U.S. more than AIDS, alcohol, motor vehicles, homicide, illegal drugs, and suicide combined

56 Stimulants Amphetamine (a.k.a. uppers)
boost energy, stay awake, lose weight diet pills (increase release of dopamine) Ritalin (ADD medication) crystal methamphetamine (a.k.a. crystal meth, crank, tina) can be smoked, injected or swallowed releases enormous amounts of dopamine (intense feeling of pleasure damages dopamine receptors (chasing unattainable high) “Take crystal meth, and never be that happy ever again…” – great sell? household products (ingredients): battery acid, cold medicine, drain cleaner, kitty litter… great sell? devastating to rural areas

57 Stimulants cocaine crack – potent form of cocaine
from coca plant (Bolivia, Peru) snorted or injected (power or crystal) flood bloodstream – euphoric for minutes depletes dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine agitated and depressed coming off of high crack – potent form of cocaine chips of pure cocaine; usually smoked believed one of the most addictive substances “Once you go crack, you always go back.” Great sell?

58 Stimulants MDMA (a.k.a. Ecstasy, X, XTC)
both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties “empathogen” – people “warm up” to others releases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine depletes body of serotonin (listlessness continues for days) impairs memory and cognitive processing cognitive deficits for 2+ years after abstaining destroys axons that release serotonin repeated use  depression

59 Stimulants

60 Hallucinogens hallucinogens (a.k.a. psychedelics) – psychoactive drugs that modify a person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real marijuana LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

61 Hallucinogens marijuana – the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Cannibis sativa (Central Asia) dried resin = hashish active ingredient = THC (delta-9-terrahydrocannabinol) does not effect specific neurotransmitter disrupts membranes of neurons affects functioning of neurotransmitters and hormones increase pulse rate and blood pressure reddening of eyes coughing dry mouth smoke = more damaging than tobacco smoke difficult to classify tiger spontaneous unrelated ideas distorted perceptions of time and place increased sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells and colors erratic verbal behavior impairs attention and memory pregnant women  neg. attention (including lower intelligence) “gateway drug” = largely misnomer

62 Hallucinogens LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
even low doses can produce striking perceptual changes objects and shapes glow colors become kaleidoscopic and astonishing images unfold sense of time influenced (time can seem crazy-long) pleasurable OR grotesque bad trip  extreme anxiety, paranoia, suicidal or homicidal tendencies side effects: dizziness, nausea, tremors emotional and cognitive effects: rapid mood swings, impaired memory acts primarily on serotonin can affect dopamine

63 Hallucinogens

64 Critical Controversy: Should Illicit Psychoactive Drugs Be Legalized for Medical Use? p. 164
Read and discuss.

65 Hypnosis hypnosis – an altered state of consciousness or a psychological state of altered attention and expectation in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions 4 Steps minimize distractions concentrate on something specific informs person on what to expect suggests certain events of feelings he or she knows will occur or observes occurring “you are getting tired…” hypnotizability

66 Explaining Hypnosis (2)
divided consciousness view of hypnosis – Ernest Hilgard’s view that hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two separate components, one of which follows the hypnotist’s commands and the other of which acts as a “hidden observer” social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis – theory that hypnosis is a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves in the way he or she believes that a hypnotized person should behave

67 Uses of Hypnosis most effective when combine with psychotherapy
reducing pain sensory cortex was not activated in hypnotized patients the “ouch” signal never made it to awareness used to treat schizophrenia

68 Consciousness and Health and Wellness
mindfulness meditation – used by yoga enthusiasts and Buddhist monks increased activation in the left hemisphere (“happy brain”) hypnagogic reverie – an overwhelming feeling of wellness right before you fall asleep – a sense that everything is going to work out well meditation initial increases in activation of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex decreases in the anterior cingulate (associated with conscious awareness and acts of will) controlling one’s thoughts in order to let go of the need to control

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