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Introduction to module Historical perspectives Principles and practice of SCPHN.

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1 Introduction to module Historical perspectives Principles and practice of SCPHN

2 Child and family health and wellbeing  Early childhood development  Impact family dynamics and relationships  Attachment and Parenting  Change processes/ changing nature of families  Safeguarding children /vulnerable adults  Neuroscience  Maternal mental health needs/post natal depression  Research and EBP/new health knowledge relevant to children and families or public health

3 What century is known for its environmental and social problems?  "The 21st century." This is true; however, there is another century worth examining when environmental issues affected societies:  The 19 th Century – Dickensian London  "In half a quarter of a mile`s length of Whitechapel, at one time, there shall be six hundred newly slaughtered oxen hanging up, and seven hundred sheep but, the more the merrier proof of prosperity. Hard by Snow Hill and Warwick Lane, you shall see the little children, inured to sights of brutality from their birth, trotting along the alleys, mingled with troops of horribly busy pigs, up to their ankles in blood but it makes the young rascals hardy. Into the imperfect sewers of this overgrown city, you shall have the immense mass of corruption, engendered by these practices, lazily thrown out of sight, to rise, in poisonous gases, into your house at night, when your sleeping children will most readily absorb them, and to find its languid way, at last, into the river that you drink."


5  Infectious diseases, high infant mortality, poverty, overcrowding – solutions were sought in public health and preventative health care initiatives.  1834 - The Poor Law Amendment Act required relief to be provided within institutions only. This led to the construction of workhouses.  1860s The workhouses were obliged to build 'infirmary' annexes - the first general hospitals.  In 1862 – Manchester & Salford Reform Association decided to employ ‘respectable working women – Women Sanitary Inspectors. Their Object was ‘the elevation of people physically, morally and religiously’.

6  Impact of bacteriology and germ theory  Generalist medical practitioners and community nurses relegated to subordinate status; ‘ideal nurse’ – morally pure, dutyful, institutional creation of Florence Nightingale.  1920 The Dawson Report – future provision of health services, a system of primary care centres linked with District and Regional Centres.  1930 The Poor Law was reformed and terms such as 'pauper and lunatic' were abolished. Legislation brought the workhouse infirmaries under the control of local authorities.  1942 The British Government published the watershed report on social insurance and allied services - the Beveridge Report after its author, the journalist, academic and Government advisor; this shaped government social policy for the rest of the century.

7  School Nursing came about to gain recruits healthily employed by Local Authorities and voluntary organisations.  By 1938 there were 5,978 practising health visitors  1949 saw the creation of NHS – there was little integration of preventive and curative services.  1962 saw the Establishment of the Council for the Education and Training of Health Visitors. A nursing qualification was a pre-requisite of entry to training.  1974 – Health visiting became a part of the NHS – transferred from Local Authorities to Area Health Authorities.  1977 – Publication of the principles of health visiting.

8  1981 The Department of Health published ‘Care in the community’.  1983 - creation of United Kingdom Central Council of Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors.  1989 The White Paper Caring for people was published in response to the Griffiths report. It set out a framework for changes to community care, which included a new funding structure for social care.  1990 National Health Service and Community Care Act  1992 Under the NHS and Community Care Act 1990, local authorities were expected to publish community care plans outlining the development of community-based services.

9  1997 DH The new NHS: modern, dependable, described how the 'internal market' in the NHS was to be abolished.  1999 The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) was set up. Its name was changed to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in 2005 when the Institute took on the functions of the Health Development Agency.  2000 The Health Development Agency was established as a Special Health Authority to develop the evidence base to improve health and reduce health inequalities.  2000 The NHS plan, published in July, included the proposal to abolish Community Health Councils (CHCs) in England, replacing them with a range of bodies including Patient Advocacy and Liaison Services (PALS)  2001 NHS Direct covered the whole of England. NHS Direct Online was developed and re-launched in November 2001  2001 The Health and Social Care Act 2001 introduced measures to modernise the regulation of Family Health Services  2002 PCTs took over local health; Strategic Health Authorities monitored performance and standards

10  2004 The NHS improvement plan: putting people at the heart of public services  2004 Making partnership work for patients, carers and service users: a strategic agreement between the Department of Health, the NHS and the voluntary and community sector  2006 White Paper, Our health, our care, our say: a new direction for community services, which promised 'a radical and sustained shift in the way in which services are delivered  2007 Publication of interim report by Health Minister, Lord Darzi, Our NHS, our future which includes a proposal for the setting up of 'polyclinics' in primary care  2010 Marmot,M. Fair Society, Healthy Lives: Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post 2010.  2010 Healthy Lives, Healthy People: Our strategy for public health in England

11  Surveillance and assessment of the population’s health and wellbeing related-surveys/health-survey-for-england

12  Collaborative working for health and well being  Working with and for, communities to improve health and wellbeing

13  Developing health programmes and services and reducing inequalities  Policy and strategy development and implementation to improve health and wellbeing  Research and development to improve health and wellbeing

14  Promoting and protecting the population’s health and wellbeing  Developing quality and risk management within an evaluative culture  Strategic leadership for health and well being  Ethically managing self, people and resources to improve health and wellbeing

15 This sets out a vision to expand and strengthen health visiting services. It describes four levels of service offer:  Community services  Universal Services  Universal plus  Universal partnership plus The service offer mirrors the requirements of the Healthy Child Programme

16  Healthy Child Programme: pregnancy and the first five years of life; Oct 2009 07563 07563  Supporting families in the foundation years; July 2011 upporting-families-in-the-foundation-years upporting-families-in-the-foundation-years  The Marmot Review: Fair Society, Healthy Lives; Feb 2010  The Foundation Years: preventing poor children becoming poor adults. Frank Field, December 2010  Early intervention: The next steps. Graham Allen MP, 2011 intervention-next-steps.pdf intervention-next-steps.pdf  The Early Years: Foundations for life, health and learning. Dame Clare Tickell, 2011{B15EFF0D-A4DF-4294-93A1- 1E1B88C13F68}Tickell%20review.pdf{B15EFF0D-A4DF-4294-93A1- 1E1B88C13F68}Tickell%20review.pdf  The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report A child-centred system, Professor Eileen Munro, 2011  No Health without Mental Health: a cross-government mental health outcomes strategy for people of all ages, Department of health 2011. 23766 23766

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