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National 4/5 Close Reading Skills. Today you will… Learn about the different types of question and the techniques required to answer them. Learn about.

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Presentation on theme: "National 4/5 Close Reading Skills. Today you will… Learn about the different types of question and the techniques required to answer them. Learn about."— Presentation transcript:

1 National 4/5 Close Reading Skills

2 Today you will… Learn about the different types of question and the techniques required to answer them. Learn about the different types of question and the techniques required to answer them. Begin to write your own questions. Begin to write your own questions.

3 General Points To achieve and be successful in this area you should all be reading regularly. To achieve and be successful in this area you should all be reading regularly. This will increase your vocabulary, improve your knowledge of writer’s techniques and generally make you a much smarter person! This will increase your vocabulary, improve your knowledge of writer’s techniques and generally make you a much smarter person!

4 Understanding Questions These questions show that you have understood the writer’s meaning. These questions show that you have understood the writer’s meaning. You will need a good vocabulary as these questions require you to put your answers into your own words. You will need a good vocabulary as these questions require you to put your answers into your own words.

5 Analysis Questions Like you would when studying literature, these questions ask you to analyse the techniques used by an author. Like you would when studying literature, these questions ask you to analyse the techniques used by an author. These could include: These could include: Word choice, imagery, sentence structure, use of contrast, tone… Word choice, imagery, sentence structure, use of contrast, tone…

6 Evaluation Questions These questions ask you to sum up ideas and comment on how well the writer has done. These questions ask you to sum up ideas and comment on how well the writer has done.

7 Learning the question types – Go Fish Using the sheet provided, create a set flash cards. Using the sheet provided, create a set flash cards. You will need 18 squares of equal size. You will need 18 squares of equal size. Write the type of question on one square and how to answer on another. Write the type of question on one square and how to answer on another. Jumble up the cards face down and lay down in a grid pattern. Jumble up the cards face down and lay down in a grid pattern. Go Fish! The winner is the one with the most pairs. Go Fish! The winner is the one with the most pairs.

8 National 4/5 Close Reading Skills

9 Today you will… Learn about the different types of question and the techniques required to answer them – we will focus on U questions Learn about the different types of question and the techniques required to answer them – we will focus on U questions Begin to write your own questions. Begin to write your own questions.

10 Vocab test Surreal Surreal Grotesque Grotesque Luscious Luscious

11 Technique Test How would you answer an ‘own words’ question? How would you answer an ‘own words’ question? How would you answer a word choice question? How would you answer a word choice question? What 3 techniques might you look for in an imagery question? What 3 techniques might you look for in an imagery question?

12 Surreal - something that seems unreal/ dreamlike. Surreal - something that seems unreal/ dreamlike. Grotesque – hideous, distorted, abnormal, unnatural, ugly. Grotesque – hideous, distorted, abnormal, unnatural, ugly. Luscious – pleasing to the sense of taste Luscious – pleasing to the sense of taste

13 Answers You need to express the writer’s view in a different way. You do not have to translate word for word. You need to express the writer’s view in a different way. You do not have to translate word for word. Quote individual words and comment on their connotations (what the word makes you think of). Quote individual words and comment on their connotations (what the word makes you think of). Simile, personification, metaphor Simile, personification, metaphor

14 Understanding Questions - Remember Understanding Questions - Remember You must answer questions in your own words. You must answer questions in your own words. That doesn’t mean changing each word individually – just express the same idea but in a different way. That doesn’t mean changing each word individually – just express the same idea but in a different way. If you quote, you will get 0!! If you quote, you will get 0!! You are not asked to analyse (techniques) but to show you UNDERSTAND the ideas. You are not asked to analyse (techniques) but to show you UNDERSTAND the ideas.

15 Sample understanding questions In your own words explain why some people think Facebook is dangerous. In your own words explain why some people think Facebook is dangerous. Give three reasons why social media sites can be damaging. Give three reasons why social media sites can be damaging. Explain using your own words why the writer has used Lady Gaga as an example to show the influence that Twitter can have. Explain using your own words why the writer has used Lady Gaga as an example to show the influence that Twitter can have.

16 Explain in your own words what the ‘general perception’ of children’s literature is. (Paragraph 2) 1 mark Explain in your own words what the ‘general perception’ of children’s literature is. (Paragraph 2) 1 mark In your own words, what two pieces of information show the extent of Dahl’s popularity? (3) 2 marks In your own words, what two pieces of information show the extent of Dahl’s popularity? (3) 2 marks In your own words explain the two sides of Dahl’s female characters. (10) 2 marks In your own words explain the two sides of Dahl’s female characters. (10) 2 marks

17 The normal view of children's’ books is that they are pleasant and show an ideal image of childhood. The normal view of children's’ books is that they are pleasant and show an ideal image of childhood. He has sold a huge amount of books in Britain. It has also been sold in plenty of other countries as well. He has sold a huge amount of books in Britain. It has also been sold in plenty of other countries as well. Women in Dahl’s books are either extremely kind or they are cruel and frightening. Women in Dahl’s books are either extremely kind or they are cruel and frightening.

18 In your groups come up with at least 5 understanding questions. In your groups come up with at least 5 understanding questions. You must write model answers for each one (Remember own words). You must write model answers for each one (Remember own words). Pay attention to the amount of marks for each question. If you are looking for two things you should offer 2 marks etc. Pay attention to the amount of marks for each question. If you are looking for two things you should offer 2 marks etc. You have 15 minutes You have 15 minutes

19 Swap questions with another group and answer them. Swap questions with another group and answer them. Hand back your completed questions. Hand back your completed questions. Mark the answers you have received. Mark the answers you have received.

20 Homework Find a newspaper article (Metro is fine) Find a newspaper article (Metro is fine) Bring article and questions for Monday Bring article and questions for Monday

21 ANALYSIS Imagery Questions Today you will learn the technique required to answer imagery (A) questions. You will be able to put this into practice.

22 Can you remember the correct way to answer an imagery question? Can you remember the correct way to answer an imagery question? What techniques should you be looking for? What techniques should you be looking for? Similes, metaphors, personification… Similes, metaphors, personification…

23 Technique Explain what the literal origin of the image is. Explain what the literal origin of the image is. Explain the comparison Explain the comparison Explain what point the writer is trying to make. Explain what point the writer is trying to make.

24 Example ‘A tidal wave of immigrants’ A tidal wave is a huge, powerful, destructive body of water. A tidal wave is a huge, powerful, destructive body of water. The writer compares the number of immigrants to a ‘tidal wave’ showing that he believes the country is overrun. The writer compares the number of immigrants to a ‘tidal wave’ showing that he believes the country is overrun. As a ‘tidal wave’ is destructive and overpowering the writer shows his view that immigrants are a negative influence on the country. As a ‘tidal wave’ is destructive and overpowering the writer shows his view that immigrants are a negative influence on the country.

25 Boroughmuir is a hive of activity. A ‘hive’ is a structure that houses a great number of insects. Bees, for example. A ‘hive’ is a structure that houses a great number of insects. Bees, for example. The writer compares Boroughmuir to a hive to suggest a place of bustling action. The writer compares Boroughmuir to a hive to suggest a place of bustling action. As a ‘hive’ is a place of productive and purposeful activity the writer shows his belief that Boroughmuir is a place which is both busy yet organised. As a ‘hive’ is a place of productive and purposeful activity the writer shows his belief that Boroughmuir is a place which is both busy yet organised.

26 Try out the following Morningside Road is one of the city’s main arteries. Morningside Road is one of the city’s main arteries. The manager was met with an avalanche of complaints. The manager was met with an avalanche of complaints. Rush hour traffic is like a tide Rush hour traffic is like a tide Now think up 5 images of your own and write sample answers.

27 Questions from the article How does the image of ‘endless picnics’ help to develop the idea that children’s literature is pleasant in content? 2 How does the image of ‘endless picnics’ help to develop the idea that children’s literature is pleasant in content? 2 Explain the image of Dahl as a ‘towering figure’. 3 Explain the image of Dahl as a ‘towering figure’. 3 Come up with 4 of your own. Come up with 4 of your own.

28 Analysis Word Choice Today you will learn about word choice and the techniques required in answering W.C questions.

29 What is word choice? This refers to particular words a writer has opted to use to obtain a certain effect. This refers to particular words a writer has opted to use to obtain a certain effect. Each word has been carefully selected to influence the reader. Each word has been carefully selected to influence the reader. For example, why might an author use the word ‘staggered’ instead of ‘walked’? For example, why might an author use the word ‘staggered’ instead of ‘walked’?

30 Connotation vs. denotation Denotation: what a word literally means Denotation: what a word literally means Connotation: all the other things that come to mind when thinking of a particular word. Connotation: all the other things that come to mind when thinking of a particular word. E.g. Angel Devil E.g. Angel Devil What do these words denote and what do they connote?

31 Write down the denotations and connotations for the following words: White White Black Black Pig Pig Rocket Rocket Peacock Peacock dagger dagger

32 Technique Quote key words Quote key words Say what you associate with the word (connotations) Say what you associate with the word (connotations) Say what the effect of the word is Say what the effect of the word is Go through the examples on the sheet (in note form). Go through the examples on the sheet (in note form). Extension: Try writing your own sentences for another group to analyse. Extension: Try writing your own sentences for another group to analyse.

33 The hospital walls were green and yellow Why has the author used the words ‘green and yellow’? Why has the author used the words ‘green and yellow’? ‘Green and yellow’ have connotations of sickness and disease. This helps to remind us that hospitals are places of sickness as well as health. ‘Green and yellow’ have connotations of sickness and disease. This helps to remind us that hospitals are places of sickness as well as health.

34 In the second paragraph why does the author use the word ‘pursued’? In the second paragraph why does the author use the word ‘pursued’? What does the word ‘fantastical’ suggest about the kind of stories Roald Dahl writes? What does the word ‘fantastical’ suggest about the kind of stories Roald Dahl writes? For the rest of the article, create 5 more questions. For the rest of the article, create 5 more questions.

35 Analysis Sentence Structure You will learn what features to look for and how to answer a question on sentence structure.

36 What is it? Sentence structure essentially means how a sentence is put together. Sentence structure essentially means how a sentence is put together. There are several things you should look for. What do you think they are? There are several things you should look for. What do you think they are?

37 Features Short/minor sentence Short/minor sentence Rhetorical question Rhetorical question Exclamation Exclamation Parenthesis Parenthesis Lists, climax, anticlimax Lists, climax, anticlimax Antithesis Antithesis Inversion Inversion Repetition Repetition Starting a sentence with a conjunction (and/but) Starting a sentence with a conjunction (and/but)

38 Revision In groups revise the features of sentence structure – you have 12.5 minutes. In groups revise the features of sentence structure – you have 12.5 minutes. Focus on the effect. E.g. Short sentences can be used for emphasis or to create drama. Focus on the effect. E.g. Short sentences can be used for emphasis or to create drama. Revision techniques: Don’t just read! Test each other; read, cover, rewrite, check… You must make sure that everyone knows each feature.

39 Test time!! Give each member of your group a number (1-4) Give each member of your group a number (1-4) Each feature has also been given a number (1- 4) Each feature has also been given a number (1- 4) You have to answer individually for the feature that carries the same number as you. You have to answer individually for the feature that carries the same number as you. Using your Show Me board, write out as much as you can remember for the following features: Using your Show Me board, write out as much as you can remember for the following features:

40 2. What is the effect of these features? Short/ minor sentence to emphasise/create drama/tension. Look for no verb. to emphasise/create drama/tension. Look for no verb. May placed after a really long sentence for effect. May placed after a really long sentence for effect.

41 1. Long Sentence Creates pace Creates pace Creates a list of something Creates a list of something Shows a great deal of ideas Shows a great deal of ideas Perhaps could show confusion Perhaps could show confusion

42 4. Parenthesis Shown by brackets, commas or dashes. Shown by brackets, commas or dashes. Give extra information that is not essential in grasping the overall meaning of a sentence. Give extra information that is not essential in grasping the overall meaning of a sentence. It can also affect the tone – it could be a funny aside, for example. It can also affect the tone – it could be a funny aside, for example.

43 3. Rhetorical question / Exclamation provoke a thought/ make a particular point provoke a thought/ make a particular point Show excitement, outrage, anger, disbelief etc. Show excitement, outrage, anger, disbelief etc.

44 4.Lists, climax, anticlimax Lists – show a number of things. Always be specific when stating what they are Lists – show a number of things. Always be specific when stating what they are Climax – often at the end of a long sentence or an extended section. The most exciting point. Climax – often at the end of a long sentence or an extended section. The most exciting point. Anticlimax - as above, only without the excitement. A disappointing end after initial excitement. Anticlimax - as above, only without the excitement. A disappointing end after initial excitement.

45 2. Antithesis 2 contrasting ideas placed side by side to create a sense of balance. Can sometimes spot it by the semicolon, although not always! 2 contrasting ideas placed side by side to create a sense of balance. Can sometimes spot it by the semicolon, although not always! Cats are interesting, intelligent and independent; dogs are dull, dense and often quite daft! Cats are interesting, intelligent and independent; dogs are dull, dense and often quite daft!

46 1. Inversion When the normal order of words in a sentence is inverted or changed. When the normal order of words in a sentence is inverted or changed. This places emphasis on certain words. This places emphasis on certain words. Think like Yoda! Think like Yoda! ‘Growing stronger is the darkside’ ‘Growing stronger is the darkside’ Emphasis on darkside as a result of inversion Emphasis on darkside as a result of inversion Should read The darkside is growing stronger ( Subject then verb). Should read The darkside is growing stronger ( Subject then verb).

47 3. Repetition Look for repetition of words, clauses etc Look for repetition of words, clauses etc Helps to emphasise particular points. Helps to emphasise particular points. Can often be an accumulation of ideas. Can often be an accumulation of ideas.

48 Starting a sentence with a conjunction Often ‘and’ or ‘but’ Often ‘and’ or ‘but’ This is grammatically incorrect but many writers do this for particular effect. This is grammatically incorrect but many writers do this for particular effect. And – places focus on an additional point, making it more powerful. And – places focus on an additional point, making it more powerful. But – signals a differing point of view or an opposing argument. But – signals a differing point of view or an opposing argument.

49 Technique Identify the feature Identify the feature Explain the effect Explain the effect

50 ‘Edinburgh is everywhere white.’ ‘Edinburgh is everywhere white.’ What is unusual about this particular sentence and what effect does this create? What is unusual about this particular sentence and what effect does this create? This sentence is unusual in that we would normally expect it to be written as ‘Everywhere is white in Edinburgh.’ or ‘White is everywhere in Edinburgh.’ In the bold example the word order is inverted, which emphasises the words ‘white’ and ‘everywhere’, giving the impression the Edinburgh is completely covered in snow. This sentence is unusual in that we would normally expect it to be written as ‘Everywhere is white in Edinburgh.’ or ‘White is everywhere in Edinburgh.’ In the bold example the word order is inverted, which emphasises the words ‘white’ and ‘everywhere’, giving the impression the Edinburgh is completely covered in snow. Sample answer: Sample answer: The writer has used inversion in placing ‘Edinburgh’ at the start of the sentence. This emphasises the words ‘white’ and ‘everywhere’ to show just how much snow had fallen. The writer has used inversion in placing ‘Edinburgh’ at the start of the sentence. This emphasises the words ‘white’ and ‘everywhere’ to show just how much snow had fallen.

51 Try the questions on the handout.

52 Recap Name 3 features of sentence structure. Name 3 features of sentence structure. Say what function they serve Say what function they serve E.g. Rhetorical questions – encourage readers to think of a particular point or idea. E.g. Rhetorical questions – encourage readers to think of a particular point or idea.


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