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گهوڙي سواري ، پڙهڻ، ترڻ ۽ وڙهڻ جنهن نه سکيو ننڊپڻ ۾ يار جواني ۾ ٿيو خوار.

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Presentation on theme: "گهوڙي سواري ، پڙهڻ، ترڻ ۽ وڙهڻ جنهن نه سکيو ننڊپڻ ۾ يار جواني ۾ ٿيو خوار."— Presentation transcript:

1 گهوڙي سواري ، پڙهڻ، ترڻ ۽ وڙهڻ جنهن نه سکيو ننڊپڻ ۾ يار جواني ۾ ٿيو خوار

2 سائين الانا ( اڳوڻو چيئرپرسن سنڌي ٻولي جو بااختيار ادارو ) چيو هاڻي ڪمپيوٽر به انهي ۾ شامل ڪريو

3 Windows XP Explore Windows With Kirshan

4 Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of software operating systems by Microsoft. Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of software operating systems by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

5 Windows At the 2004 IDC (CONSTRUCTION industrial development ) Directions conference IDC Vice President Avneesh Saxena stated that At the 2004 IDC (CONSTRUCTION industrial development ) Directions conference IDC Vice President Avneesh Saxena stated that Windows had approximately 90% of the client operating system market

6 Market share Source Windows Version Market share All versions 92.42% All versions 92.42% Windows XP 78.37% Windows XP 78.37% Windows Vista 9.19% Windows Vista 9.19% Windows % Windows % Windows % Windows % Windows NT 0.63% Windows NT 0.63% Windows ME 0.43% Windows ME 0.43% Windows CE 0.06% Windows CE 0.06% Windows % Windows %

7 HISTORY In 1983 Microsoft announced its development of Windows, a graphical user interface (GUI) for its own operating system (MS-DOS) that had shipped for IBM PC and compatible computers since In 1983 Microsoft announced its development of Windows, a graphical user interface (GUI) for its own operating system (MS-DOS) that had shipped for IBM PC and compatible computers since It was originally going to be called Interface Manager, but Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the name Windows would be more appealing to consumers It was originally going to be called Interface Manager, but Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the name Windows would be more appealing to consumers

8 HISTORY The first version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released in November 20, 1985, lacked a degree of functionality and achieved little popularity, and was to compete with Apple's own operating system. The first version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released in November 20, 1985, lacked a degree of functionality and achieved little popularity, and was to compete with Apple's own operating system. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system; rather, it extends MS-DOS Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system; rather, it extends MS-DOS

9 HISTORY Microsoft Windows version 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months Microsoft Windows version 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months

10 HISTORY

11 HISTORY Date16-bit32-bit64-bit November 20November 20, Windows 1.0 December 9December 9, Windows 2.0 May 22May 22, Windows 3.0 April 6April 6, Windows 3.1 October 27October 27, Windows for Workgroups 3.1 July 27July 27, Windows NT 3.1 November 8November 8, Windows for Workgroups 3.11 September 21September 21, Windows NT 3.5 May 30May 30, Windows NT 3.51 August 24August 24, Windows 95 August 24August 24, Windows NT 4.0

12 HISTORY June 25June 25, Windows 98 May 9May 9, Windows 98 SE February 17February 17, Windows 2000 September 14September 14, Windows Me October 25October 25, Windows XP April 25April 25, Windows Server 2003 December 18December 18, Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 October 12October 12, Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 Date16-bit32-bit64-bit

13 HISTORY April 25April 25, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition June 8June 8, Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs November 30November 30, Windows VistaWindows Vista for Business use January 30January 30, Windows VistaWindows Vista for Home use; released in fifty countries Q4 2007Windows Home Server February 27February 27, Windows Server Windows 7 Date16-bit32-bit64-bit

14 MS-DOS product progression MS-DOS and PC-DOS MS-DOS and PC-DOS Windows 95 (MS-DOS 7.0) Windows 95 (MS-DOS 7.0) Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2.x, Windows 98 (MS-DOS 7.1) Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2.x, Windows 98 (MS-DOS 7.1) Windows Millennium Edition (MS-DOS 8.0) Windows Millennium Edition (MS-DOS 8.0)

15 Windows 1.0 product progression Windows 1.0 Windows 1.0 Windows 2.0 Windows 2.0 Windows 2.1 (aka Windows/286 and Windows/386) Windows 2.1 (aka Windows/286 and Windows/386) Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1, Windows 3.1 for Workgroups, Windows 3.11, Windows 3.11 for Workgroups (WfW) Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1, Windows 3.1 for Workgroups, Windows 3.11, Windows 3.11 for Workgroups (WfW) Windows 95 (Windows 4.0) Windows 95 (Windows 4.0) Windows 98 (Windows 4.1) Windows 98 (Windows 4.1) Windows Millennium Edition (Windows 4.9) Windows Millennium Edition (Windows 4.9)

16 Current NT line product progression Windows NT 3.1, 3.5 Windows NT 3.1, 3.5 Windows NT 4.0 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000 (Windows NT 5.0) Windows 2000 (Windows NT 5.0) Windows XP (Windows NT 5.1) Windows XP (Windows NT 5.1) Windows Server 2003, Windows XP 64-bit Edition 2003 (Windows NT 5.2) Windows Server 2003, Windows XP 64-bit Edition 2003 (Windows NT 5.2) Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (Windows NT 5.2) Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (Windows NT 5.2) Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (Windows NT 5.1) Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (Windows NT 5.1) Windows Vista (Windows NT 6.0) Windows Vista (Windows NT 6.0)

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18 Windows XP Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general- purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers. Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general- purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers. The letters "XP" stand for eXPerience The letters "XP" stand for eXPerience Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows Me Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows Me

19 Windows XP Development of Windows XP started in 1999 in the form of Windows Neptune. Windows XP was developed for 18 months, from December 1999 to August 2001, and was released on October 25, Development of Windows XP started in 1999 in the form of Windows Neptune. Windows XP was developed for 18 months, from December 1999 to August 2001, and was released on October 25, 2001.

20 Features New user interface New user interface Ability for two users to be logged on simultaneously Ability for two users to be logged on simultaneously Windows Media Player for Windows XP Windows Media Player for Windows XP Windows Messenger Windows Messenger Expanded Help feature Expanded Help feature Advanced security features Advanced security features Integrates features of Windows 9x and 2000 Integrates features of Windows 9x and 2000 Provides added support for multimedia and networking technologies Provides added support for multimedia and networking technologies Slightly different look and feel from its predecessors Slightly different look and feel from its predecessors Plug-in Play Support with new Driver database bank Plug-in Play Support with new Driver database bank

21 Criticism Require High space about 1 GB of Harddisk Require High space about 1 GB of Harddisk Require large memory Require large memory Some time miss match drivers not valid by microsoft Some time miss match drivers not valid by microsoft

22 Windows XP System Requirements

23 Before Explore Can you tell what is Can you tell what is Windows XP

24 Lets learn Windows XP Recognizing an Windows and Application Window

25 Pointer Pointing to the position you want. "(POINT)" 1 – click is "(CLICK)" 2 – click continuously is " (DOUBLE CLICK) Hold the mouse pressing and move the pointer to another position, then release the button "(DRAG & DROP)" Mouse

26 Cursors and Pointer There are many types of arrows, pointers, cursors, and other items, that can be used to navigate around in Windows. To modify mouse pointers, go to My Computer > Control Panel > Mouse > Pointer.

27 The Desktop The main display screen in Windows is known as the desktop. Also called windows shell The Windows desktop has remained consistent for most versions of Windows including 95, 98, 98 SE, Millennium (ME), NT, and 2000.

28 Let’s talk about the windows components 1.Desktop (workspace) 2.Icon 3. Start Button4. Task Bar Windows

29 Windows

30 The Desktop taskbarLocated at the bottom of the desktop is the taskbar. The taskbar contains the Start button, quick launch buttons, and the clock. StartThe Start button displays the Start menu. This menu allows access to virtually every program and function on the PC. Quick launchQuick launch buttons are similar to desktop icons as they are also shortcuts to applications.

31 It is easy... take a look! 1. Start Button 2. Icons on Desktop 3. Right click – get shortcut menu Commands How can we work on Windows?

32 Start Menu of Windows XP

33 Desktop Icons My Computer My Documents Application Icon Keeping deleted files Arranging the Icons Working with Icons Icons are shortcuts to programs or files on the computer desktop that improve navigation.

34 Working with Icons

35 Working with Windows Control Menu Menu Bar Tool Bar Status Bar Title Bar Control Buttons Scroll Bar

36 Recognizing an Application Window title bar tool barmenu barstatus barscroll barApplication windows typically have a title bar, tool bar, menu bar, status bar, and scroll bar. WordPad will be used to demonstrate the features common to most Windows applications. WordPad, or Notepad on some Windows computers, is a word processing program located in the Start > Programs > Accessories directory of a Windows environment.

37 Title Bar Displays the name of the document and application. In this example, it is "Document - WordPad". Minimize, Maximize, and Exit buttonsAlso located in the title bar are the Minimize, Maximize, and Exit buttons that will be discussed soon

38 Menu Bar Menu A list of options to choose from A list of commands for manipulating data

39 Pull-down menu A list of options that pulls down from the top of the screen

40 Fly-out menus Menus that seem to explode out to the right

41 Toolbar A bar across the top of the display window, which displays menus and icons representing frequently used options

42 Status Bar Located at the bottom of the window, the status bar shows useful information, such as page number, whether the file is being saved, how to access the Help feature, etc.

43 Scroll Bar Moving quickly upward, downward, or sideways through the text or other screen display Windows may have scroll bars that appear on the right side, the bottom of the window, or both. Clicking on the arrows on either end of the scroll bar moves the images or text through the window.

44 Recognizing an Application Window

45 Things should be made as simple as possible, but not any simpler. -Albert Einstein

46 But Practice makes man perfect

47 They are similar. Working with Windows

48 Controlling your Window Click Here

49 Point & Click on Windows Bar and Hold It. Press Mouse, Hold it & Drag Moving your Window

50 Window Control Buttons 3 magic buttons Minimize to Task Bar Maximize Close

51 click to minimize click again Window Control Buttons

52 Resizing your Windows We can resize the window you are working on. Point your mouse at the window corner, click and drag the window frame to resize.

53 Do not turn off the machine immediately 1. Click-Start 2. Choose-Turn Off Computer 3. Choose-Turn Off Option (Some machines turn off automatically) Shut down

54 What time is it now? Place your mouse at the time icon on task bar, here is the date. Date - Time

55 Can we adjust the date and time the the actual one? 1. Double click here 2. Adjust date from the calendar, time from the clock and click OK Date - Time

56 Can we have a new desktop color? Of course, you can : 1. Right-click the mouse on Desktop 2.Choose: Properties you will get this window Desktop Properties

57 3.Choose: Desktop tab 4.Choose: Wallpaper (backgroup) and display style 5.Click: OK to confirm the settings Desktop Properties

58 Screen Saver Save your screen: By using the screen saver. 2. Set: the idle wait time before the screen saver is activated. Click OK 1.Choose: Screen Saver tab and one style

59 Other Properties

60 SOME SKILLS TO KNOW Creating shortcut Rename any file Copy, delete, move any file System information Setup any application Getting help Windows explorer Searching Some common task shortcuts Running DOS Dialup connection

61 Standard Applications on Windows What else can we do on Windows? a lot!! We are all familiar with these.

62 There are 2 styles: Standard and Scientific Click on: View Menu Calculator

63 5 + 3 = ? 3 x 5 Sin(45) = ? 15 = ? equals to ?? in binary digit Calculator.. Just Do it!

64 NotePad is a small text editor application, suitable for taking notes or memos. Standard Applications on Windows

65 WordPad is a small word- processing application. Standard Applications on Windows

66 Paint is a painting application with various tools i.e. brush, pen, etc. Standard Applications on Windows

67 Others Application Software Windows is an operating system with some standard applications. We can also install the additional applications on Windows. For example, Microsoft Office Suite, etc.

68 Lab Work… 1. Write at least 3 input and 3 output units with their usage. 2. Design a flag of Pakistan 3. Design any image of your choice and color 4. Copy all images from my document to desktop under a folder names assignment1 5. Make a folder in start menu and paint, notepad icons in that 6. Open help file wordpad and search details on insert object copy text and past it in Wordpad then color red where ever object word is, replace microsoft word with MS.

69 Microsoft Windows components Configuration and maintenance Configuration and maintenance User interface User interface Applications and utilities Applications and utilities Windows Server components Windows Server components File systems File systems Core components Core components Services Services Games Games

70 Configuration and maintenance ComponentDescriptionIntroduced Control Panel Allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, changing accessibility options, and so on.softwareuser accounts accessibility Windows 1.0 Device Manager Allows the user to display and control the hardware attached to the computer, and control what device drivers are used.device drivers Windows 95 Windows Mobility Center Centralizes the most relevant information related to mobile computing. Windows Vista Windows Security Center Centralizes and reports on the status of anti- virus, Automatic Updates, Windows Firewall, and other security-related components of the operating system.anti- virusAutomatic Updates Windows XP SP2

71 List of Control Panel applets In recent versions of Windows, the Control Panel has two views, Classic View and Category View, and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window.IL In recent versions of Windows, the Control Panel has two views, Classic View and Category View, and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window.IL Applications we see in control panel are called applets. Applications we see in control panel are called applets. The control panel then uses these lists to locate the applets and load them into the control panel program (control.exe) when started by the user. In addition to using the control panel a user can also invoke the applets manually via the command processor, for instance the following syntax in XP and Vista respectively will run the internet properties applet The control panel then uses these lists to locate the applets and load them into the control panel program (control.exe) when started by the user. In addition to using the control panel a user can also invoke the applets manually via the command processor, for instance the following syntax in XP and Vista respectively will run the internet properties applet command processorXPVista command processorXPVista Control.exe inetcpl.cpl control.exe /name Microsoft. InternetOptions Control.exe inetcpl.cpl control.exe /name Microsoft. InternetOptions

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73 Accessibility Options (Access.cpl) Allows users to configure the accessibility of their PC. It comprises various settings primarily aimed at users with disabilities or hardware problems. Allows users to configure the accessibility of their PC. It comprises various settings primarily aimed at users with disabilities or hardware problems. The behaviour of the keyboard can be modified, this is aimed at people who have difficulty pressing key- combinations, or pressing a key just once. (StickyKeys, FilterKeys and ToggleKeys) The behaviour of the keyboard can be modified, this is aimed at people who have difficulty pressing key- combinations, or pressing a key just once. (StickyKeys, FilterKeys and ToggleKeys)keyboardStickyKeys FilterKeyskeyboardStickyKeys FilterKeys Behaviour of sounds can be modified. (SoundSentry and ShowSounds) Behaviour of sounds can be modified. (SoundSentry and ShowSounds) High contrast mode can be activated. High contrast mode can be activated. The keyboard cursor can be customized. The keyboard cursor can be customized.cursor The mouse pointer can be controlled using the keyboard. (MouseKeys) The mouse pointer can be controlled using the keyboard. (MouseKeys)mouse pointerMouseKeysmouse pointerMouseKeys

74 Add New Hardware (hdwwiz.cpl) Launches a wizard which allows users to add new hardware devices to the system. This can be done by selecting from a list of devices or by specifying the location of the driver installation files. Launches a wizard which allows users to add new hardware devices to the system. This can be done by selecting from a list of devices or by specifying the location of the driver installation files.wizardinstallationwizardinstallation

75 Add or Remove Programs (appwiz.cpl) The Add/Remove Programs dialog allows the user to manipulate software installed on the system in a number of ways; The Add/Remove Programs dialog allows the user to manipulate software installed on the system in a number of ways; software Allows users to uninstall and change existing software packages, as well as indicating how much space individual programs take and how frequently they are used. Allows users to uninstall and change existing software packages, as well as indicating how much space individual programs take and how frequently they are used. Allows users to manually install software from a CD-ROM or Floppy Disk, and install add-ons from Windows Update. Allows users to manually install software from a CD-ROM or Floppy Disk, and install add-ons from Windows Update.CD-ROMFloppy DiskCD-ROMFloppy Disk Allows users to change which Windows components are installed, via the Windows setup Wizard, which includes Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player and Windows Messenger Allows users to change which Windows components are installed, via the Windows setup Wizard, which includes Internet Explorer, Windows Media Player and Windows MessengerInternet ExplorerWindows Media PlayerWindows MessengerInternet ExplorerWindows Media PlayerWindows Messenger Finally, it allows users to specify the default applications for certain tasks, via the 'set program access and defaults' wizard, such as internet browsers, media players and programs and whether access to these programs is available Finally, it allows users to specify the default applications for certain tasks, via the 'set program access and defaults' wizard, such as internet browsers, media players and programs and whether access to these programs is available

76 Administrative Tools Contains tools for system administration, including security, performance and service configuration. These are links to various configurations of the Microsoft Management Console such as the local services list and the Event Viewer. Contains tools for system administration, including security, performance and service configuration. These are links to various configurations of the Microsoft Management Console such as the local services list and the Event Viewer.linksMicrosoft Management Consolelocal services listEvent ViewerlinksMicrosoft Management Consolelocal services listEvent Viewer

77 Automatic Updates (wuaucpl.cpl) This is used to specify how the Automatic Updates client (wuauclt.exe) should download updates from the Microsoft Update Website, by default this is set to download and install daily, however this can be changed to a more suitable frequency. This also allows the user to specify whether to ask permission before downloading and/or installing updates or to simply switch of Automatic Updates all together. This is used to specify how the Automatic Updates client (wuauclt.exe) should download updates from the Microsoft Update Website, by default this is set to download and install daily, however this can be changed to a more suitable frequency. This also allows the user to specify whether to ask permission before downloading and/or installing updates or to simply switch of Automatic Updates all together.Automatic UpdatesMicrosoft Update WebsitedownloadinstallAutomatic UpdatesAutomatic UpdatesMicrosoft Update WebsitedownloadinstallAutomatic Updates

78 Date and Time (timedate.cpl) Allows user to change the date and time stored in the machines BIOS, change the time zone and specify whether to synchronize the date and time with an Internet Time Server and which server to use. Allows user to change the date and time stored in the machines BIOS, change the time zone and specify whether to synchronize the date and time with an Internet Time Server and which server to use.BIOStime zoneInternet Time ServerserverBIOStime zoneInternet Time Serverserver

79 Display (desk.cpl) Allows the user to change the display characteristics of their computer; Allows the user to change the display characteristics of their computer; Allows users to change the desktop background (wallpaper) to a picture of their choice and specifies how it should be shown. Allows users to change the desktop background (wallpaper) to a picture of their choice and specifies how it should be shown.desktop background (wallpaper)desktop background (wallpaper) Allows the user to change or disable the screensaver, and specify how long it takes to activate and whether to ask for a password on resume Allows the user to change or disable the screensaver, and specify how long it takes to activate and whether to ask for a password on resumescreensaverpasswordscreensaverpassword Allows the user to specify the colour styles of all elements within the system, primarily whether to use the Windows XP / Vista styles (blue by default in XP) or to use the classic Windows 98 / Me styles, this also allows the user to change the My Computer and Recycle Bin icons. Allows the user to specify the colour styles of all elements within the system, primarily whether to use the Windows XP / Vista styles (blue by default in XP) or to use the classic Windows 98 / Me styles, this also allows the user to change the My Computer and Recycle Bin icons.Windows XPVistaWindows 98 MeMy ComputerRecycle BinWindows XPVistaWindows 98 MeMy ComputerRecycle Bin Allows the user to change the screen resolution and colour quality, and provides trouble shooting advice for displays. Allows the user to change the screen resolution and colour quality, and provides trouble shooting advice for displays.screen resolutionscreen resolution

80 Folder Options (Shell32.dll -RUNDLL 0) This item allows for configuration of how folders and files are presented in Windows Explorer. More specifically it allows the user to specify general settings like whether folders open in a new window or the existing window and whether the common tasks pane is shown, as well as more advanced tasks such as whether windows should hide critical system files and whether to show file extensions. It is also used to modify file type associations in Windows ie., which program opens which type of file and other settings like actions for each file type and the file extension This item allows for configuration of how folders and files are presented in Windows Explorer. More specifically it allows the user to specify general settings like whether folders open in a new window or the existing window and whether the common tasks pane is shown, as well as more advanced tasks such as whether windows should hide critical system files and whether to show file extensions. It is also used to modify file type associations in Windows ie., which program opens which type of file and other settings like actions for each file type and the file extensionfoldersfilesWindows ExplorerWindowsfoldersfilesWindows ExplorerWindows

81 Fonts Displays all fonts installed on the computer. Users can remove fonts, install new fonts or search for fonts using font characteristics. Displays all fonts installed on the computer. Users can remove fonts, install new fonts or search for fonts using font characteristics.fonts

82 Internet Options (inetcpl.cpl) Allows the user to change the way the computer manages internet connections and browser settings for Internet Explorer, it has several tags specifying different attributes; Allows the user to change the way the computer manages internet connections and browser settings for Internet Explorer, it has several tags specifying different attributes;browserInternet ExplorerbrowserInternet Explorer General - This specifies the homepage and colour schemes and allows the user to delete internet usage history. General - This specifies the homepage and colour schemes and allows the user to delete internet usage history.homepage Security & Privacy - These specify whether the computer should allow websites to undertake certain processes and download cookies, this panel also gives access to the inbuilt popup blocker (Windows XP SP2 and later) and the phishing controls (Internet Explorer 7). Security & Privacy - These specify whether the computer should allow websites to undertake certain processes and download cookies, this panel also gives access to the inbuilt popup blocker (Windows XP SP2 and later) and the phishing controls (Internet Explorer 7). websitesprocessescookiespopupWindows XP SP2phishingInternet Explorer 7 websitesprocessescookiespopupWindows XP SP2phishingInternet Explorer 7 Content - Allows the parental controls and auto-complete to be configured and also specifies how to deal with certificates. Content - Allows the parental controls and auto-complete to be configured and also specifies how to deal with certificates.certificates Connections, Programs and Advanced - These give access to other aspects of internet settings such as the default modem connection and client, proxy settings and other advanced configurations. Connections, Programs and Advanced - These give access to other aspects of internet settings such as the default modem connection and client, proxy settings and other advanced configurations.modem proxymodem proxy

83 Keyboard (main.cpl keyboard) Lets the user change and test keyboard settings, including cursor blink rate and key repeat rate. Lets the user change and test keyboard settings, including cursor blink rate and key repeat rate.

84 Mail (mlcfg32.cpl) Mail allows for configuration of the mail client in Windows, usually Microsoft Outlook. Microsoft Outlook Express cannot be configured with this item; it is configured through its own interface. Mail allows for configuration of the mail client in Windows, usually Microsoft Outlook. Microsoft Outlook Express cannot be configured with this item; it is configured through its own interface. mail Microsoft OutlookMicrosoft Outlook Express mail Microsoft OutlookMicrosoft Outlook Express

85 Mouse (main.cpl) Mouse allows the configuration of pointer options, such as the double click and scroll speed, and includes visibility options such as whether to leave trails behind the mouse pointer and whether the pointer should disappear when typing. This also allows the user to specify the pointer appearance for each task, such as resize and busy. Mouse allows the configuration of pointer options, such as the double click and scroll speed, and includes visibility options such as whether to leave trails behind the mouse pointer and whether the pointer should disappear when typing. This also allows the user to specify the pointer appearance for each task, such as resize and busy.

86 Network Connections (ncpa.cpl) Displays and allows the user to edit or create network connections such as Local Area Networks (LAN) and internet connections. It also offers troubleshooting functions in case the computer has to be reconnected to the network. Displays and allows the user to edit or create network connections such as Local Area Networks (LAN) and internet connections. It also offers troubleshooting functions in case the computer has to be reconnected to the network.network Local Area Networks (LAN) internetnetwork Local Area Networks (LAN) internet

87 Phone and Modem Options (telephon.cpl) Manages telephone and modem connections. Manages telephone and modem connections.telephonemodemtelephonemodem

88 Power Options (powercfg.cpl) Includes options to manage energy consumption such as; Includes options to manage energy consumption such as; –Specify how long it takes to switch off the display and hard drives and how long it takes for the system to enter standby, if at all. hard drivesstandbyhard drivesstandby –To decide what to do when the computer's on/off button is pressed, such as whether to shut down or to enter standby. button –Whether to allow Hibernation (some systems become unstable when restarting). Hibernation –Allows the user to configure UPS (if available). UPS

89 Printers and Faxes Displays all the printers and faxes currently installed on the computer, and has two main uses; Displays all the printers and faxes currently installed on the computer, and has two main uses;printersfaxesprintersfaxes Firstly, it shows the all the jobs queued for each printer, the file size and status of each job and which user they belong to, it also allows each job to be paused, canceled or moved up or down the list. Firstly, it shows the all the jobs queued for each printer, the file size and status of each job and which user they belong to, it also allows each job to be paused, canceled or moved up or down the list.file sizefile size Secondly, it allows the user to set the printing or faxing preferences, such as paper size and quality via the manufacturers own preferences pane and also specifies how to share the printer across a network, the device drivers, ports etc. Secondly, it allows the user to set the printing or faxing preferences, such as paper size and quality via the manufacturers own preferences pane and also specifies how to share the printer across a network, the device drivers, ports etc. networkdevice driversports networkdevice driversports

90 Regional and Language Settings (intl.cpl) Various regional settings can be altered, for instance: Various regional settings can be altered, for instance: The way numbers are displayed (e.g. decimal separator). The way numbers are displayed (e.g. decimal separator).decimal separatordecimal separator How Currency values are displayed, including the Currency sign. How Currency values are displayed, including the Currency sign.Currency signCurrency sign Time and date notations, such as the date separator and whether the clock should be in 12 or 24 hours. Time and date notations, such as the date separator and whether the clock should be in 12 or 24 hours. Cultural location of the user's computer (The time zone is set in Date and Time). Cultural location of the user's computer (The time zone is set in Date and Time).Date and TimeDate and Time Language; Language; –Input language. –Keyboard layout (mapping between key strokes and characters). –Display language for Menus and Dialog Boxes. MenusDialog BoxesMenusDialog Boxes Whether files necessary for Asiatic language support must be installed. Whether files necessary for Asiatic language support must be installed. Installed code pages. Installed code pages.code pagescode pages

91 Security Center (Windows XP Service Pack 2 and Newer) (wscui.cpl) The security center gives the user access to the inbuilt Windows security components, as well as providing information about any existing antivirus software such as McAfee or Zone Alarm. It includes access to Windows Update, where users can specify whether the computer should check for updates regularly (also available through the Windows Update panel), and options for managing internet security settings. It also includes links to internet articles about PC security and current virus threats and notifies the user when the PCs security is compromised. The security center gives the user access to the inbuilt Windows security components, as well as providing information about any existing antivirus software such as McAfee or Zone Alarm. It includes access to Windows Update, where users can specify whether the computer should check for updates regularly (also available through the Windows Update panel), and options for managing internet security settings. It also includes links to internet articles about PC security and current virus threats and notifies the user when the PCs security is compromised.WindowsMcAfeeZone AlarmWindows UpdatevirusWindowsMcAfeeZone AlarmWindows Updatevirus

92 Sounds and Audio Devices (mmsys.cpl) This panel contains various audio-related functions; This panel contains various audio-related functions; Change the speaker volume and type and specify whether to show the volume icon in the notification area. Change the speaker volume and type and specify whether to show the volume icon in the notification area. Change the sounds played for the system or specific programs when a certain event occurs, i.e Windows Startup or Critical Stop. Change the sounds played for the system or specific programs when a certain event occurs, i.e Windows Startup or Critical Stop. Change default devices for music playback, recording, voice recognition, MIDI etc. Change default devices for music playback, recording, voice recognition, MIDI etc.MIDI Change the Sound card settings and whether to use Hardware acceleration. Change the Sound card settings and whether to use Hardware acceleration.Sound cardHardware accelerationSound cardHardware acceleration Display the audio devices installed on the computer, and allows them to be configured. Display the audio devices installed on the computer, and allows them to be configured.

93 Speech (Sapi.cpl) This applet has two main functions, the first is specify settings for Speech synthesis, allowing the user to select the voice the computer should use to narrate text and how fast it should read. The second is to specify settings forSpeech recognition, allowing the user to set up different profiles detailing how the computer should deal with an individuals dialect, for instance; This applet has two main functions, the first is specify settings for Speech synthesis, allowing the user to select the voice the computer should use to narrate text and how fast it should read. The second is to specify settings forSpeech recognition, allowing the user to set up different profiles detailing how the computer should deal with an individuals dialect, for instance;Speech synthesisnarrateSpeech recognitionSpeech synthesisnarrateSpeech recognition –The amount of grammatical errors in a persons voice (punctuality sensitivity). –The speed at which the person speaks, and the time delay between words. This also allows the user to access the voice recognition training wizard, in which an individual 'teaches' the computer to recognize a person voice interactively using the microphone. This also allows the user to access the voice recognition training wizard, in which an individual 'teaches' the computer to recognize a person voice interactively using the microphone.

94 System (Sysdm.cpl) This is used to view and change core system settings, a user can for instance: This is used to view and change core system settings, a user can for instance: Display general information on the user's machine such as the amount of RAM, CPU speed and type, the version of Windows the system is using and the manufacturer. Display general information on the user's machine such as the amount of RAM, CPU speed and type, the version of Windows the system is using and the manufacturer.RAMCPUWindowsRAMCPUWindows Edit the computer name in a network workgroup. Edit the computer name in a network workgroup.workgroup Manage and Configure hardware devices, and view information such as the manufacturer, user access and driver version of any hardware device installed on the system via Device Manager. Manage and Configure hardware devices, and view information such as the manufacturer, user access and driver version of any hardware device installed on the system via Device Manager. Device Manager Device Manager Enable/Disable system features such as automatic updates and System restore monitoring. Enable/Disable system features such as automatic updates and System restore monitoring. Specify advanced features such as performance logs, virtual memory settings and roaming profiles. Specify advanced features such as performance logs, virtual memory settings and roaming profiles.

95 Taskbar and Start Menu (Shell32.dll -RUNDLL 1) Allows the user to change the behavior and appearance of the task bar and Start Menu; Allows the user to change the behavior and appearance of the task bar and Start Menu;task barStart Menutask barStart Menu Specifies whether to use Windows XP/Vista or Classic 9x/Me styles on the taskbar and start menu. Specifies whether to use Windows XP/Vista or Classic 9x/Me styles on the taskbar and start menu.Windows XPVista9xMeWindows XPVista9xMe Whether the taskbar should Auto-Hide. Whether the taskbar should Auto-Hide. Whether to show the clock in the notification area. Whether to show the clock in the notification area.notification areanotification area Allows the user to manage the tray icons. Allows the user to manage the tray icons. Advanced options such as whether to show Printers & Faxes in the start menu and whether to display My Documents as a menu or as a link to a new window. Advanced options such as whether to show Printers & Faxes in the start menu and whether to display My Documents as a menu or as a link to a new window. My Documents My Documents

96 User Accounts (nusrmgr.cpl) This allows the user to configure their account and other accounts used in the system, should they have sufficient privileges. They can change their username and password, their picture (if enabled) and their.net passport. If the current user has an administrators account they can also add, delete and modify other user accounts as well as make changes to core system settings. This panel also specifies whether the guest account should be active and whether to use the Welcome screen while Windows loads. This allows the user to configure their account and other accounts used in the system, should they have sufficient privileges. They can change their username and password, their picture (if enabled) and their.net passport. If the current user has an administrators account they can also add, delete and modify other user accounts as well as make changes to core system settings. This panel also specifies whether the guest account should be active and whether to use the Welcome screen while Windows loads.accounts usernamepassword.net passport administratorsWindowsaccounts usernamepassword.net passport administratorsWindows

97 Peripheral Devices These are options in the control panel that show devices connected to the computer. They do not actually offer a direct interface to control these devices, but rather offer basic tasks such as removal procedures and links to wizards (Printers & faxes is the exception). These are options in the control panel that show devices connected to the computer. They do not actually offer a direct interface to control these devices, but rather offer basic tasks such as removal procedures and links to wizards (Printers & faxes is the exception). Such Applets include; Such Applets include; Scanners and Cameras Scanners and Cameras Game Controllers Game Controllers Portable Media Devices Portable Media Devices

98 Other Microsoft distributed applets Bluetooth Devices (bthprops.cpl) Available with bluetooth enabled systems running XP SP2 or later, this enables users to configure a Bluetooth connection, showing a list of all bluetooth devices interacting with the system, an addition to the following items; Available with bluetooth enabled systems running XP SP2 or later, this enables users to configure a Bluetooth connection, showing a list of all bluetooth devices interacting with the system, an addition to the following items;bluetooth XP SP2bluetooth XP SP2 Allowing users to create incoming and outgoing 'virtual' COM Ports, which allow devices to have dedicated connections to the system. Allowing users to create incoming and outgoing 'virtual' COM Ports, which allow devices to have dedicated connections to the system. Allowing users to specify general bluetooth characteristics such as whether the computer is discoverable and the computers name which is broadcast. Allowing users to specify general bluetooth characteristics such as whether the computer is discoverable and the computers name which is broadcast.

99 Color (color.cpl) Enables a more advanced control of colour settings within Windows than is available in 'display', suitable for developers and visual specialists it allows users to create and load ICC compliant colour profiles, associate screen colour with printers and cameras and view a 3D graphics plot of the colour gamut. By default this applet is not installed, however it can be installed for free from the Microsoft WebsiteWindows ICCgamutMicrosoft Website Infrared (irprops.cpl) Similar to the Bluetooth applet, this is used to configure how the computer manages any wireless infrared ports installed, including options such as connectivity and security.infrared CSNW (nwc.cpl) The Client Service for NetWare applet is used to select a default tree and context in a Novell Directory Services (NDS) environment, or the NetWare server used most frequently in a non-NDS environment. Novell Directory ServicesNetWare Requirement: Installing the Client Service for NetWare. Software Explorers Part of Windows Defender, allows users to view detailed information about software that is currently running on the computer that can affect the users' privacy or the security of the computer.Windows Defender

100 Third Party Applets Third-party software vendors have released many applets and it is impossible to mention all of them; some of the more common ones are: Third-party software vendors have released many applets and it is impossible to mention all of them; some of the more common ones are: Adobe Gamma (Adobe Gamma.cpl), for altering the screen display with Adobe Imaging Software such as Photoshop Adobe Gamma (Adobe Gamma.cpl), for altering the screen display with Adobe Imaging Software such as PhotoshopPhotoshop Java (jpicpl32.cpl), for changing settings with Java Runtime Console Java (jpicpl32.cpl), for changing settings with Java Runtime ConsoleJava Runtime ConsoleJava Runtime Console Nero Burnrights (NeroBurnRights.cpl), for specifying who is allowed to use the CD burner with Nero Nero Burnrights (NeroBurnRights.cpl), for specifying who is allowed to use the CD burner with NeroNero nVIDIA Control panel, for changing advanced settings on systems using nVIDIA GPUs nVIDIA Control panel, for changing advanced settings on systems using nVIDIA GPUsnVIDIAGPUsnVIDIAGPUs  Quicktime (quicktime.cpl), for specifying settings of the Apple Quicktime Player Apple Quicktime PlayerApple Quicktime Player

101 CONTROL PANEL END CONTROL PANEL END

102 Administrative Tools Microsoft Management Console Provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack Windows System Assessment Tool A built-in benchmarking tool that analyzes the different subsystems (graphics, memory, etc), and uses the results to allow for comparison to other Windows Vista systems, and for software optimizations. It rates the computer's performance using the Windows Experience Index. Windows Vista System Restore Allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed programs, etc., to a previous state in the event of a system failure. Windows Me Windows Recovery Environment Helps diagnose and recover from serious errors which may be preventing Windows from booting successfully, or restore the computer to a previous state using System Restore or a backup image. Windows Vista Windows Disk Defragmenter Rearranges files stored on a hard disk to occupy contiguous storage locations in order to optimize computer performance. Windows 95, Windows 2000 Event Viewer Lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine.event logs Windows NT 3.1 Reliability and Performance Monitor Lets administrators view current system reliability and performance trends over time. Windows Vista Logical Disk Manager A logical volume manager developed by Microsoft in conjunction with Veritas Software.logical volume managerVeritas Software Windows NT 4.0 (as a separate Tool) 2000 (integrated in the Management Console) Registry Editor Edits the Windows registry.Windows registryWindows 3.1 Task Scheduler Allows users to script tasks for running during scheduled intervals Microsoft Plus!Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95

103 Administrative Tools Microsoft Management Console Provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack Windows System Assessment Tool A built-in benchmarking tool that analyzes the different subsystems (graphics, memory, etc), and uses the results to allow for comparison to other Windows Vista systems, and for software optimizations. It rates the computer's performance using the Windows Experience Index. Windows Vista System Restore Allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed programs, etc., to a previous state in the event of a system failure. Windows Me Windows Recovery Environment Helps diagnose and recover from serious errors which may be preventing Windows from booting successfully, or restore the computer to a previous state using System Restore or a backup image. Windows Vista Windows Disk Defragmenter Rearranges files stored on a hard disk to occupy contiguous storage locations in order to optimize computer performance. Windows 95, Windows 2000 Event Viewer Lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine.event logs Windows NT 3.1 Reliability and Performance Monitor Lets administrators view current system reliability and performance trends over time. Windows Vista Logical Disk Manager A logical volume manager developed by Microsoft in conjunction with Veritas Software.logical volume managerVeritas Software Windows NT 4.0 (as a separate Tool) 2000 (integrated in the Management Console) Registry Editor Edits the Windows registry.Windows registryWindows 3.1 Task Scheduler Allows users to script tasks for running during scheduled intervals Microsoft Plus!Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95

104 Software installation and deployment Windows Update An online service which provides critical updates, service packs, device drivers, and other updates. A variation called Microsoft Update also provides software updates for several Microsoft products.Microsoft Update Windows 98 Windows Installer A packaging format and engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software. Includes a GUI framework, automatic generation of the uninstallation sequence and deployment capabilities for corporate networks.GUIframework Windows 2000 ClickOnce Technology for deploying.NET Framework-based software via web pages, with automatic update capabilities. Intended for per- user only applications..NET Framework.NET Framework 2.0

105 User interface ComponentDescriptionIntroduced Windows Shell The most visible and recognizable aspect of Microsoft Windows. The shell is the container inside of which the entire graphical user interface is presented, including the taskbar, the desktop, Windows Explorer, as well as many of the dialog boxes and interface controls. In Windows Vista, a new compositing glass-like user interface called Windows Aero has been introduced.graphical user interface desktopdialog boxesWindows Aero Windows 1.0 Windows Explorer Provides an interface for accessing the file systems, launching applications, and performing common tasks such as viewing and printing pictures.file systems Windows 95 Windows Search Starting with Windows Vista, search is a tightly shell-integrated component of Windows. A downloadable Windows Desktop Search software is available for Windows XP and older versions.Windows Desktop Search Windows Vista, downloadable for older versions Special Folders Folders which are presented to the user through an interface as an abstract concept, instead of an absolute path. This makes it possible for an application to locate where certain kinds of files can be found, regardless of what version or language of operating system is being used. See also, Windows Shell namespace.Windows Shell namespace Windows 95 Start menu Serves as the central launching point for applications. It provides a customizable, nested list of programs for the user to launch, as well as a list of most recently opened documents, a way to find files and get help, and access to the system settings. By default, the Start Button is visible at all times in the lower left-hand corner of the screen. Windows 95 TaskbarThe application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications.Windows 95 Windows SidebarA new panel on the side of the screen to place gadgets.gadgetsWindows Vista File associations Used to open a file with the correct program. File associations can be uniquely assigned to specific actions, known as verbs. Windows 3.0

106 Applications and utilities ComponentDescription Introduced Accessories Windows Calendar Calendaring and task tracking application.Windows Vista Windows Contacts Keeps a single list of contacts that can be shared by multiple programs.Windows Vista Calculator A calculation application.calculationWindows 1.0 Character Map Utility to view and search characters in a font, copy them to the clipboard and view their Windows Alt keycodes and Unicode namesWindows Alt keycodes Windows 3.1 Paint A simple graphics painting program.graphicspaintingWindows 1.0 Notepad A simple text editor.text editorWindows 1.0 Narrator A screen reader utility that reads dialog boxes and window controls in a number of the more basic applications for Windows.screen readerapplications Windows 2000 Sound Recorder A simple audio recording program that can record from a microphone or headset, and save the results in WAVE format and Windows Media Audio format in some Windows versions.microphone headsetWAVE formatWindows Media Audio Windows 3.1

107 COMMAND.COMCOMMAND.COM and Cmd.exe Cmd.exe A text-based shell (command line interpreter) that provides a command line interface to the operating system.shellcommand line interpreter command line interface MS-DOS 1.0 WordPad A simple word processor that is more advanced than Notepad. It has facilities to format and print text, but lacks intermediate features such as a spell checker and thesaurus.word processorNotepadspell checkerthesaurus Windows 95 Private Character Editor Utility to create private use characters as defined under Unicode and various East Asian encoding schemes. Remote Desktop Connection A client implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol; allows a user to securely connect to a computer running Terminal Services (Remote Desktop on Windows XP and Server 2003) and interact with a full desktop environment on that machine, including support for remoting of printers, audio, and drives.Terminal Services Windows XP, downloadable for previous Windows versions Remote Assistance Allows a user to temporarily take over a remote computer over a network or the internet to offer help with and resolve issues. Windows XP Internet Explorer A graphical web browser and FTP client.graphicalweb browserFTP client See also: Features, History, Criticism, Removal, Browser Helper ObjectsFeaturesHistoryCriticismRemovalBrowser Helper Objects Microsoft Plus!Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 Windows Mail An and news client. news client Windows Vista, Outlook Express was introduced in Windows 98 Windows Fax and Scan An integrated faxing and image scanning application.faxingimage scanning Windows Vista, older faxing and scanning applications were present in previous Windows versions Windows Media Player A digital media player and media library application that is used for playing audio, playing video and viewing images. In addition to being a media player, Windows Media Player includes the ability to rip music from, and copy music to compact discs, synchronize content with a digital audio player (MP3 player) or other mobile devices, and let users purchase or rent music from a number of online music stores.digitalmedia playeraudiovideoimagesripcompact discs synchronizedigital audio playerMP3online music stores Windows Me, downloadable for previous Windows versions

108 Windows Photo Gallery A photo management application. Lets users organize their digital photo collection in its Gallery view, by adding titles, rating, captions, and custom metadata tags to photos. Photos can be edited for exposure, color correction, resizing, cropping, red-eye reduction, etc. and also allows printing photos via the Photo Printing Wizard. Windows Vista Windows Movie Maker A video editing software that is intended for use in editing home movies. Source footage can be split into clips, and the final movie created by combining multiple clips along with effects such as transitions, titles/credits, separate audio track, timeline narration etc.video editing software Windows Me Windows DVD Maker A DVD movie encoding and authoring software.DVDmovieauthoringWindows Vista Windows Media Center Designed to serve as a home-entertainment hub, to be viewed from a distance up to 3 meters (~10 feet) and controlled by specially designed remote controls. Lets users browse and view pictures, videos, and music from local hard drives, optical drives, and network locations, along with viewing, recording and deferred-playing live TV. Features an interactive TV guide with scheduled recording capabilites. Can also be used for visualization of other information (like sports scores) within the interface.home-entertainment hub Windows XP Media Center Edition Windows Meeting Space A peer-to-peer collaboration program which lets multiple users start collaboration sessions. Supports desktop sharing, distribution and collaborative editing of documents, and passing notes to other participants.peer-to-peer Windows Vista Windows Task Manager Provides information about computer performance and displays details about running applications, processes, network activity, logged-in users, and system services. Windows 3.0 Disk Cleanup A utility for compacting rarely used files and removing files that are no longer required. Windows 98 Shadow Copy A graphical front end for the Shadow Copy service that lets users choose from multiple versions of a file. The shadow copy service creates multiple copies of a file as they are changed over time, so that users can revert to previous versions. Windows Vista. Windows Server 2003 included Previous Versions support only for client computers. Snipping Tool A screen-capture tool that allows for taking screen shots (called snips). Experience Pack for Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005

109 Windows Server components ComponentDescriptionSupported by Windows Server domain A logical group of computers that share a central directory and user database. All Windows NT- based versions Active Directory A set of technologies introduced with Windows 2000 that allows administrators to assign enterprise-wide policies, deploy programs to many computers, and apply critical updates to an entire organization. Active Directory stores information and settings relating to an organization in a central, organized, accessible database. Networks can vary from a small installation with a few objects, to global-scale directories with millions of objects. Related topics: Active Directory Service Interfaces, Flexible single master operation, IntelliMirror, Active Directory Application ModeActive Directory Service InterfacesFlexible single master operationActive Directory Application Mode Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 Domain controller A server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within a Windows Server domain. Prior to Windows 2000, a domain controller was either a Primary Domain Controller (PDC), of which there could only be one with this role; or a Backup Domain Controller (BDC). In Windows 2000 and later the concept of primary and secondary domain controllers were eliminated, partially to emphasize the multi-master replication technology available in Windows.serverPrimary Domain ControllerBackup Domain Controller All Windows NT- based versions Group Policy Provides centralized management of user and computer settings in an Active Directory environment. Group policy can control a target object's registry, NTFS security, audit and security policy, software installation, logon/logoff scripts, folder redirection, and Internet Explorer settings. Policy settings are stored in Group Policy Objects (GPOs), and may be linked to one or more sites, domains or organizational units. Related topics: Administrative TemplatesregistryNTFSaudit and security policysoftware installationlogonlogofffolder redirectionInternet ExplorerAdministrative Templates Windows 2000 and later Internet Information Services Web server Windows NT family

110 File systems ComponentAcronymDescriptionSupported by File Allocation TableFAT, FAT12, FAT16 The original file systems used with MS-DOS. The standard file systems used with Windows 1.0 through Windows 95.MS-DOS All versions FAT32 Extensions to FAT supporting larger disk sizes. The standard file system for Windows 98 and Me. Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista NTFS Standard file system of Windows NT; supports security via access control lists, as well as file system journaling and file- system metadata. Windows 2000 added support for reparse points (making NTFS junction points and Single instance storage possible), Hard links, file compression, and Sparse files. Encryption of data is provided by Encrypting File System. Symbolic links and transactioning of file operations via Transactional NTFS are features new to Windows Vista. Windows 95 also supports reading NTFS partitions, over a network. access control listsfile system journalingfile- system metadataNTFS junction pointsSingle instance storageHard linksSparse filesEncrypting File System Symbolic links Transactional NTFSfeatures new to Windows Vista Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista

111 ISO 9660 ISO 9660 ("CDFS")CDFS The predominant file system for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM media. Windows includes support for Joliet extensions and the ISO 9660:1999 standard. ISO 9660:1999 is supported since Windows XP.CD-ROMDVD-ROMJoliet extensions MS-DOSMS-DOS and Windows 9x via extensions, such as MSCDEX.EXE (Microsoft CDROM Extension), natively in Windows NTWindows 9x Windows NT Universal Disk FormatUDF A file system for storing files on optical media. It is an implementation of the ISO/IEC standard (also known as ECMA-167). It is considered to be a replacement of ISO Successive versions of Windows have supported newer versions of UDF.file system ECMAISO 9660 Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista HPFS High-Performance File system, used on OS/2 computers. Read and write capability in Windows 95 (where it also listed network computer NTFS-formatted drives as "HPFS", even though it had no direct NTFS capabilities). HPFS write support was dropped in Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98, and dropped altogether shortly before the release of Windows 2000.OS/2Windows 95 Windows NT 4.0Windows 98Windows 2000 Windows 95 (Read/write), Windows 98, Windows NT (read), 3.1/3.51 (read/write/boot)

112 Core components ComponentAcronymDescription Windows kernel (Windows NT) Ntoskrnl.exe The Windows kernel image. Provides the kernel and executive layers of the kernel architecture, and is responsible for services such as hardware virtualization, process and memory management, etc.kernel executive hal.dll HAL Provides and handles the interaction between software and hardware via the Hardware Abstraction Layer.Hardware Abstraction Layer

113 Core processes (Windows NT) System idle process SIP A counter which measures how much idle capacity the CPU has at any given time. The process runs in the background and monitors processing bandwidth, occupied memory and the Windows virtual paging file.CPUpaging file Session Manager Subsystem SMSS Performs several critical boot-time operations, such as the creation of environment variables, starting CSRSS, and performs file-copy operations that were queued up from before the system was booted (pending file rename operations). During system operation, it handles the creation of logon sessions via Winlogon and handles Windows File Protection.environment variablesCSRSSWinlogonWindows File Protection Client/Server Runtime Subsystem CSRSS User-mode side of the Win32 subsystem. Provides the capability for applications to use the Windows API.Windows API Local Security Authority Subsystem Service LSASS Responsible for enforcing the security policy on the system. Verifies users logging on to the computer and creates security tokens.security tokens Winlogon Responsible for handling the secure attention key, loading the user profile on logon, and optionally locking the computer when a screensaver is running. On Windows NT systems prior to Windows Vista, Winlogon is also responsible for loading GINA libraries which are responsible collecting logon credentials from the user.secure attention keyscreensaverGINA Svchost.exe A generic host process name for services that run from dynamic-link libraries (DLLs). Several Svchost processes are typically present on a Windows machine, each running in a different security context, depending on what privileges the contained services require.dynamic-link libraries Windows on WindowsWindows on Windows and WOW64 WOW64 WoW An abstraction layer that allows legacy code to operate on more modern versions of Windows; typically this means running 16-bit Windows applications on 32-bit Windows, and 32-bit applications on 64-bit Windows. Virtual DOS machine NTVDM Allows MS-DOS programs to run on Intel or higher computers when there is already another operating system running and controlling the hardware. Introduced in Windows 2.1; not available in any 64-bit edition of Windows.MS-DOSIntel bit

114 System startup (Windows NT) NTLDRNTLDR, IA64ldr, Winload Winload The boot loader; performs basic system initialization options such as loading the hardware abstraction layer and boot-time device drivers, prior to passing control to the Windows kernel. In versions prior to Vista, NTLDR and IA64ldr also display menus to the user if multiple operating systems are defined in boot.ini, or if F8 is pressed.boot loaderhardware abstraction layerboot.ini Recovery Console Provides the means for administrators to perform a limited range of tasks using a command line interface, primarily to aid in recovering from situations where Windows does not boot successfully.command line interface boot ntdetect.com Used during the boot process to detect basic hardware components that may be required during the boot process. Windows Boot Manager In Windows Vista and later operating systems, displays boot menus to the user if multiple operating systems are configured in the system's Boot Configuration Data.Boot Configuration Data

115 Graphical subsystem Graphics Device InterfaceGDI/GDI+ The kernel graphics component for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers. Desktop Window ManagerDWM The compositing manager introduced in Windows Vista that handles compositing and manages special effects on screen objects in a graphical user interface.compositing manager

116 Services Display nameService nameDescriptionIntroduced Alerter serviceAlerter Sends administrative alerts over the network to client computers, administrators and users. Windows NT Application Layer Gateway service ALG Provides support for plugins that allow network protocols to pass through Windows Firewall and work behind Internet Connection Sharing.Windows FirewallInternet Connection Sharing Windows 2000 Application Management Processes requests to enumerate, install, and remove applications that are installed on the computer or deployed through an organization’s network. Windows 2000 Background Intelligent Transfer Service BITS Transfers files between machines using idle network bandwidth. Used by Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services, and Systems Management Server to deliver software updates to clients, as well as by Windows Messenger.Windows UpdateWindows Server Update ServicesSystems Management Serversoftware updatesWindows Messenger Windows XP Distributed Transaction Coordinator MSDTC Allows transactional components to be configured through COM+ by coordinating transactions that are distributed across multiple computers and/or resource managers, such as databases, message queues, file systems, and other transaction– based resource managers. Windows 2000 and later NT- based Network Location AwarenessNLA Manages network configurations and information, and notifies applications of changes. Windows XP

117 NT LM Security Support Provider NTLMSSP Uses the NTLM MS-CHAP protocol to encapsulate and negotiate options in order to provide signed and sealed communication. Deprecated now in favor of Kerberos authentication.NTLMMS-CHAPKerberos Windows NT Print Spooler Spooler Manages printer devices and moves files into memory for printing. Windows 95, Windows NT Security Account Manager SamSsManages user account security information. Windows NT family Task Scheduler ScheduleLets users setup and schedule automated tasks. Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 Windows Image Acquisition Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) STISvcHandles scanner and camera inputs.Windows Me Windows Time W32TimeSynchronizes the system time with external time servers. Windows NT family Wireless Zero Configuration WZCSvcConfigures and manages wireless adapters Windows XP, Server 2003 only Messenger service Messenger Allows users to send pop-up messages to other computers over the network. Windows NT family MSRPC RPCSs Provides Remote Procedure Call(RPC) technique via remotely accessible Named Pipes.Remote Procedure CallNamed Pipes Windows NT family Volume Shadow Copy Service VSSCreate multiple versions of files that change. Windows XP, ability to store persistent snapshots in Windows Server 2003 Windows FirewallWindows Firewall/Internet Connection SharingInternet Connection Sharing SharedAccess Windows XP

118 Games ComponentDescriptionIntroduced Chess TitansA version of Chess.ChessWindows Vista FreeCellA version of FreeCell.FreeCellWin32s HeartsA version of Hearts using Black Lady scoring.HeartsBlack Lady Windows for Workgroups 3.11 Hold 'EmA version of Texas hold 'em.Texas hold 'em Windows Ultimate Extras InkBall A game employing the use of a stylus or mouse to draw lines to direct balls into holes of corresponding colors. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005 Mahjong TitansA version of Mahjong solitaire.Mahjong solitaireWindows Vista MinesweeperA version of Minesweeper.MinesweeperWindows 3.1 Purble Place An educational game for children, teaching pattern recognition, shapes, and colors. Windows Vista SolitaireA version of Klondike Solitaire.Klondike SolitaireWindows 3.0 Spider SolitaireA version of Spider Solitaire.Spider SolitaireMicrosoft Plus! 98

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