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Presentation on theme: "CIRCULATORY SYSTEM GRADE XI SMAK BPK PENABUR SUKABUMI."— Presentation transcript:


2 Circulatory system Pulmonary vein Right atrium Right ventricle Posterior vena cava Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs Aorta Left ventricle Left atrium Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Capillaries of left lung Capillaries of head and forelimbs Anterior vena cava Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Aorta

3 HEART  Formed by heart muscle and connective tissue  3 layers : 1. Epicardium 2. Myocardium : control the heart pulse 3. Endocardium  Septum to separates left and right  Valve to maintain the blood flow direction

4 The Heart These are arteries. They carry blood away from the heart. This is a vein. It brings blood from the body, except the lungs. Coronary arteries, the hearts own blood supply The heart has four chambers 2 atria 2 ventricles now lets look inside the heart

5 Aorta Pulmonary veins Semilunar valve bicuspid valve Left ventricle Right ventricle Anterior vena cava Pulmonary artery Semilunar valve tricuspid valve Posterior vena cava Pulmonary veins Right atrium Pulmonary artery Left atrium

6 The control of heart rhythm SA node (pacemaker) AV node Bundle branches Heart apex Purkinje fibers 2 Signals are delayed at AV node. 1 Pacemaker generates wave of signals to contract. 3 Signals pass to heart apex. 4 Signals spread Throughout ventricles. ECG

7  A region of the heart called the sinoatrial (SA) node, or pacemaker  Sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract  Impulses from the SA node  Travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node  At the AV node, the impulses are delayed  And then travel to the Purkinje fibers that make the ventricles contract  The impulses that travel during the cardiac cycle  Can be recorded as an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

8 How does the Heart work? blood from the body blood from the lungs The heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria. STEP ONE

9 The atria then contract because the impuls form SA node and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles. How does the Heart work? STEP TWO

10 How does the Heart work? The valves close to stop blood flowing backwards. The ventricles contract forcing the blood to leave the heart. At the same time, the atria are relaxing and once again filling with blood. The cycle then repeats itself. STEP THREE

11  The heart beat for a healthy person during resting is 60 to 80 per minute  The blood pressure : 120/80  120 : known as cystolic when ventricle contracts  80 : known as diastolic when the ventricles relaxes

12 The ARTERY thick muscle and elastic fibres Arteries carry blood away from the heart. the elastic fibres allow the artery to stretch under pressure the thick muscle can contract to push the blood along.

13 The VEIN Veins carry blood towards from the heart. thin muscle and elastic fibres veins have valves which act to stop the blood from going in the wrong direction.

14 The CAPILLARY Capillaries link Arteries with Veins the wall of a capillary is only one cell thick they exchange materials between the blood and other body cells. The exchange of materials between the blood and the body can only occur through capillaries.

15  All blood vessels  Are built of similar tissues  Have three similar layers Artery Vein 100 µm Artery Vein Arteriole Venule Connective tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Connective tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Valve Endothelium Basement membrane Capillary

16 No.ObservedArteryVein 1Blood flow directionAway from heartGo to heart 2Take placeInner skinNear to surface 3PulsePresentAbsent 4If get hurtsBlood will sprout outBlood only drop out 5ValveOne near heartMany along vessel 6Wall vesselThick, elasticThin, rigid 7Content of gas typeOxygen except pulmonary artery CO2 except pulmonary vein

17 Circulatory system Pulmonary vein Right atrium Right ventricle Posterior vena cava Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs Aorta Left ventricle Left atrium Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Capillaries of left lung Capillaries of head and forelimbs Anterior vena cava Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Aorta

18 Lungs Body cells Our circulatory system is a double circulatory system. This means it has two parts parts. the right side of the system deals with deoxygenated blood. the left side of the system deals with oxygenated blood.

19 lungs head & arms liver digestive system kidneys legs pulmonary artery aorta pulmonary vein main vein LeftRight How does this system work? Circulatory System

20 Plasma A straw- coloured liquid that carries the cells and the platelets which help blood clot. carbon dioxide glucose amino acids proteins minerals vitamins hormones waste materials like urea. It also contains useful things like;

21 PLASMA PROTEIN 1. ALBUMIN : maintain blood osmotic pressure & carry billirubin molecules 2. GLOBULIN : carry cholesterol and froms phrothrombin and antibody 3. FIBRINOGEN : blood coagulation Serum : protein that can be separated from the plasma a. agglutinin  coagulate antigen b. precipitin  precipates antigen

22 Cellular elements 45% Cell type Number per  L (mm 3 ) of blood Functions Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 5–6 million Transport oxygen and help transport carbon dioxide Leukocytes (white blood cells) 5,000–10,000 Defense and immunity Eosinophil Basophil Platelets Neutrophil Monocyte Lymphocyte 250,000  400,000 Blood clotting  The cellular elements of mammalian blood Separated blood elements

23  Produced in the red bone marrow  The amount is around 5 million/mm3  Round shape  In mammals, it doesn’t have nucleus  Have a red pigment  haemoglobin  Life time : 120 days Red Blood Cell (Erythrocites)

24  Produced in the yellow bone marrow and lymphatic node  The amount is around /mm3  Irregular shape, have nucleus  Play role in immune system White Blood Cell (Leucocytes) B cells T cells Lymphoid stem cells Pluripotent stem cells (in bone marrow) Myeloid stem cells Erythrocytes Platelets Monocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes

25 NameFunction Granulocyte (a lot of nucleus & phagocyte) 1. Neutrophil (57%)Largest amount,various shape of nucleus, phagocytosis 2. Basophil (1%)U shape nucleus, releases histamine (allergic respond), heparin (prevent blood coagulation) 3. Eosinophil (1-3%)Red spot, Eat big paracytes Agranulocyte (1 nucleus) 1. Monocyte (10%)Largest, nut shape nucleus, move fast,can differentiate into macrophaga 2. Limphocyte (25-30%) B  antibody T  destroy the cell containing antigen

26  The amount is around /mm3 Platelets (Thrombocytes) Broken thrombocytes thrombochynase ProthrombinThrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin Calcium ion Vit K

27 Platelets Platelets are bits of cell broken off larger cells. Platelets produce tiny fibrinogen fibres to form a net. This net traps other blood cells to form a blood clot.

28 Functions of Blood red blood cells Antibody platelets Sustain body temperature carbon dioxide Nutrients waste (urea) hormones oxygen

29 1. As transport system : nutrients, hormones, waste product, Oxygen, carbon dioxide 2. Sustain body temperature at fixed level 3. Avoid infections with antibody, white blood cells, and blood clotting Function of Blood

30  Body fluids that enter the capilarry lymphatic vessels called lymph  Along the lymphatic vessels there are lymphatic glands  filter germs  Spleen : 1) Erythrocytes and Leucocytes production 2) Breaking down of erythrocytes 3) Produce antibody LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

31 Lymphatic System

32 Adenoid Tonsil Lymph nodes Spleen Peyer’s patches (small intestine) Appendix Lymphatic vessels Masses of lymphocytes and macrophages Tissue cells Lymphatic vessel Blood capillary Lymphatic capillary Interstitial fluid Lymph node  The lymphatic system  Plays an active role in defending the body from pathogens Interstitial fluid bathing the tissues, along with the white blood cells in it, continually enters lymphatic capillaries. 1 Fluid inside the lymphatic capillaries, called lymph, flows through lymphatic vessels throughout the body. 2 Within lymph nodes, microbes and foreign particles present in the circulating lymph encounter macro- phages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes, which carry out various defensive actions. 3 Lymphatic vessels return lymph to the blood via two large ducts that drain into veins near the shoulders. 4

33 Arthropoda  open circulatory system  Hemolymph do not contain Hb  Hemolymph bathes the organ

34 Annelida  Closed circulatory system  Dorsal vessel  Ventral vessel  5 auxiliary hearts Interstitial fluid Heart Small branch vessels in each organ Dorsal vessel (main heart) Ventral vessels Auxiliary hearts (b) A closed circulatory system

35 FISHES AMPHIBIANSREPTILES (EXCEPT BIRDS)MAMMALS AND BIRDS Systemic capillaries Lung capillaries Lung and skin capillariesGill capillaries Right Left RightLeft Right Left Systemic circuit Pulmocutaneous circuit Pulmonary circuit Systemic circulation Vein Atrium (A) Heart: ventricle (V) Artery Gill circulation A V V VVV A A A AA Left Systemic aorta Right systemic aorta Vertebrate circulatory systems


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