Presentation on theme: "IP Addressing. Internet Protocol: Which version? There are currently two versions of the Internet Protocol in use for the Internet IPv4 Specified in 1980/81."— Presentation transcript:
Internet Protocol: Which version? There are currently two versions of the Internet Protocol in use for the Internet IPv4 Specified in 1980/81 (RFC 760, 791) Four byte addresses Universally deployed Problem: Address space almost exhausted IPv6 Specification from 1998 (RFC 2460) Significant differences to IPv4, but not fundamental changes 16-byte addresses Problem: Not widely used (yet?) Google Study from Oct 2008: IPv6 available to 0.238% of users
What is an IP Address? IP address = Internet Protocol Version 4 address 32-bit label for a network interface –Each interface has a separate IP address On the public Internet, IP address is unique global address The IP address is to used by hosts and routers for delivery of IP datagram Important special cases: –Dynamically assigned IP addresses ( DHCP) –IP addresses in private networks ( NAT)
Dotted Decimal Notation IPv4 addresses are written using dotted decimal notation Each byte is identified by a decimal number in the range [0..255] Example: 10001111100000001000100110010000 1 st Byte = 128 2 nd Byte = 143 3 rd Byte = 137 4 th Byte = 144 220.127.116.11
IP address consists of a network prefix and a host number –Network prefix identifies a network –Host number identifies an interface on the network How do we know how long the network prefix is? –The length of the network prefix is indicated 1.by a netmask, or 2.by a suffix given the length as a number (CIDR notation) –Netmask is often called subnetmask (there are subtle differences) Structure of an IP address network prefixhost number
Example: Network address is: 18.104.22.168 (or 128.143) Host number is: 137.144 Netmask is: 255.255.0.0 (or ffff0000) Prefix or CIDR notation: 22.214.171.124/16 »Network prefix is 16 bits long Notation of IP address 128.143137.144
Network Prefix and Host Number Each IP network (often called subnetwork or subnet) has an IP address: IP address of a network = Host number is set to all zeros, e.g., 126.96.36.199 IP routers are devices that forward IP datagrams between IP networks Delivery of an IP datagram proceeds in 2 steps: –Use network prefix to deliver datagram to the right network –Once the network is found, use the host number to deliver to the right interface
How does one get an IP network address? IP address allocation is managed by five Regional Internet Registries (RIR) Each RIR manages ranges of addresses: http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space/ipv4-address-space.xml
Special IP Addresses Special addresses: Loopback interfaces –all addresses 127.0.0.1-127.0.0.255 are reserved for loopback interfaces –Most systems use 127.0.0.1 as loopback address –loopback interface is associated with name localhost IP address of a network –Host number is set to all zeros, e.g., 188.8.131.52 Broadcast address –Host number is all ones, e.g., 184.108.40.206 –Broadcast goes to all hosts on the network –Often ignored due to security concerns Test / Experimental addresses Certain address ranges are reserved for experimental use. Packets should get dropped if they contain this destination address (see RFC 1918): 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0- 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0- 192.168.255.255 Convention (but not a reserved address) Default gateway has host number set to 1, e.g., e.g., 220.127.116.11
Subnetting Scenario: Organization has a large network prefix and wants to delegate management of IP addresses Subnetting: Use a portion of the host name to identify a smaller network ( subnetwork, subnet). Each subnets is a separate IP network UofT Network Faculty of A&S Library Faculty of Engineering 18.104.22.168/16 22.214.171.124/24 126.96.36.199/24 188.8.131.52/24
Basic Idea of Subnetting Split the host number portion of an IP address into a subnet number and a (smaller) host number. Result is a 3-layer hierarchy The extended network prefix is also called subnetmask Then: Subnets can be freely assigned within the organization Internally, subnets are treated as separate networks Subnet structure is not visible outside the organization network prefixhost number subnet number network prefix host number extended network prefix
Routers and hosts use an extended network prefix (subnetmask) to identify the start of the host numbers Subnetmask
Example: Subnetmask 184.108.40.206/16 is the IP address of the network 220.127.116.11/24 is the IP address of the subnet 18.104.22.168 is the IP address of the host 255.255.255.0 (or ffffff00) is the subnetmask of the host When subnetting is used, one generally speaks of a subnetmask (instead of a netmask) and a subnet (instead of a network)
Advantages of Subnetting With subnetting, IP addresses use a 3-layer hierarchy: »Network »Subnet »Host Reduces router complexity. Since external routers do not need to know about subnetting, the complexity of routing tables at external routers is reduced. Note: Length of the subnet mask need not be identical at all subnetworks.
Creating and Managing Subnetting Use of subnetting or length of the subnetmask is decided by the network administrator, who acts as owner of Subnets are created by setting the subnetmask of an IP interface Important: Subnetmasks must be set consistently
No Subnetting All hosts think that the other hosts are on the same network
With Subnetting Hosts with same extended network prefix belong to the same network
Different subnetmasks lead to different views of the scope of the network With Subnetting
Classful IP Addresses and CIDR In 1993, there was a major shift for interpreting and allocating IP addresses: until 1993: Classful Addresses until 1993: Classful Addresses after 1993: CIDR = Classless Interdomain Routing after 1993: CIDR = Classless Interdomain Routing
Classful IP Addresses When Internet addresses were standardized (early 1980s), the Internet address space was divided up into classes: –Class A: Network prefix is 8 bits long –Class B: Network prefix is 16 bits long –Class C: Network prefix is 24 bits long –Class D: Used (multicast) group addresses –Class E: Reserved Each IP address contained a key which identifies the class: –Class A: IP address starts with 0 –Class B: IP address starts with 10 –Class C: IP address starts with 110 No need for netmasks (unless subnetting is used)
We will learn about multicast addresses later in this course.
IP Allocation with Classful IP Addresses Limited flexibility for obtaining a network address: 254 IP addresses: Class C 2 16 -1 = 65534 IP addresses:Class B 2 24 -1 = 16,772,214 IP addresses:Class A Too few network addresses for large networks 2 7 = 128 Class A networks 2 14 = 16,384 Class B networks Flat address space. Routing tables in the backbone Internet need one entry for each network address. Class C networks: up to 2 21 = 2,097,152 entries By 1993, the lookup time of routing tables had become a bottleneck for Internet performance
CIDR - Classless Interdomain Routing Goals: –New interpretation of the IP address space –Restructure IP address assignments to increase efficiency –Enable routing table aggregation to minimize route table entries CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing) –Abandons the notion of classes –Key Concept: The length of the network prefix in the IP addresses is kept arbitrary –Consequences: Size of the network prefix must be provided with an IP address ( CIDR notation of IP addresses) Hierarchical routing aggregation introduces dependency of IP addresses to service provider Need for new lookup algorithms for routing tables
CIDR Notation CIDR notation of an IP address: 192.0.2.0/18 "18" is the prefix length. It states that the first 18 bits are the network prefix of the address (and 14 bits are available for specific host addresses) CIDR notation can replace the use of subnetmasks (but is more general) –IP address 22.214.171.124 and subnetmask 255.255.255.0 becomes 126.96.36.199/24 CIDR notation allows to drop traling zeros of network addresses: 192.0.2.0/18 can be written as 192.0.2/18
CIDR address blocks CIDR notation can nicely express blocks of addresses Blocks are used when allocating IP addresses for a company and for routing tables (route aggregation) CIDR Block Prefix # of Host Addresses /2732 /2664 /25128 /24256 /23512 /221,024 /212,048 /204,096 /198,192 /1816,384 /1732,768 /1665,536 /15131,072 /14262,144 /13524,288
Subnetting and Supernetting CIDR is compatible with subnetting: –Subnets are created by extending the prefix CIDR can do more: –CIDR can refer to multiple networks with a single prefix: 188.8.131.52/16 and 184.108.40.206/16 can be summarized as 220.127.116.11/15 –This is called supernetting (In fact, CIDR and supernetting are often used as the same thing) –If neighboring networks have similar address blocks, supernetting reduces the size of routing tables
CIDR and Hierarchical IP address allocation Exploiting supernetting to reduce size of routing tables: –Backbone ISPs obtain blocks of IP addresses and allocate portions of their address blocks to their customers –Customers can allocate a portion of their address block to their own customers
Hierarchical Structure of IP Addresses 128.100/16 Rest of Internet ISP X owns: Company Y : ISP Z : Organization A: Organization B:
Hierarchical Structure of IP Addresses 128.100/16 Rest of Internet ISP X owns: Company Y : 128.100.2/24 ISP Z : 128.100.11/24 Organization A: 18.104.22.168/26 Organization B: 22.214.171.124/26 Obtained from ARIN Obtained from ISP X Obtained from ISP Z
Hierarchical Structure of IP Addresses 128.100/16 Rest of Internet ISP X owns: Company Y : 128.100.2/24 ISP Z : 128.100.11/24 Organization A: 126.96.36.199/26 Organization B: 188.8.131.52/26 Only one routing entry for 128.100/16 No entries needed for network addresses of Company Y, ISP Z, or Organizations A, B. Routing table entry for 128.100.2/24 and 128.100.11/24 (no entry for 184.108.40.206/26 and 220.127.116.11/26.
Drawback of Hierarchical IP Addresses IP address assignment depends on service provider 128.100/16 Rest of Internet ISP X owns: Company Y : 128.100.2/24 ISP Z : 128.100.11/24 Organization A: 18.104.22.168/26 Organization B: 22.214.171.124/26 Must change IP addresses when changing service provider 126.96.36.199/26
CIDR and Routing Tables Aggregation of routing table entries: –188.8.131.52/16 and 184.108.40.206/16 can be represented as 220.127.116.11/15 Longest prefix match: Routing table lookup finds the routing entry that matches the the longest prefix What is the outgoing interface for 18.104.22.168/24 ? Route aggregation can be exploited when IP address blocks are assigned in an hierarchical fashion PrefixInterface 22.214.171.124/4interface #5 126.96.36.199/9interface #2 188.8.131.52/17interface #1 Routing table
IPv6 - IP Version 6 IP Version 6 –Is the successor to the currently used IPv4 –Specification completed in 1994 –Makes improvements to IPv4 (no revolutionary changes) One (not the only !) feature of IPv6 is a significant increase in of the IP address to 128 bits (16 bytes) IPv6 will solve – for the foreseeable future – the problems with IP addressing 10 24 addresses per square inch on the surface of the Earth.
IPv6 vs. IPv4: Address Comparison IPv4 has a maximum of 2 32 4 billion addresses IPv6 has a maximum of 2 128 = (2 32 ) 4 4 billion x 4 billion x 4 billion x 4 billion addresses
Notation of IPv6 addresses Convention: The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16- bit integers (using hexadecimal digits for each integer) CEDF:BP76:3245:4464:FACE:2E50:3025:DF12 Short notation: Abbreviations of leading zeroes: CEDF:BP76:0000:0000:009E:0000:3025:DF12 CEDF:BP76:0:0:9E :0:3025:DF12 :0000:0000:0000 can be written as :: CEDF:BP76:0:0:FACE:0:3025:DF12 CEDF:BP76::FACE:0:3025:DF12 IPv6 addresses derived from IPv4 addresses have 96 leading zero bits. Convention allows to use IPv4 notation for the last 32 bits. ::80:8F:89:90 ::184.108.40.206
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