Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 – Humans, conservation and the future Lesson Objectives: To outline the reasons for the conservation To discuss the consequences of global climate."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15 – Humans, conservation and the future Lesson Objectives: To outline the reasons for the conservation To discuss the consequences of global climate change on the biodiversity To explain the benefits of maintaining biodiversity
Biodiversity, which is short for biological diversity, is the term used to describe the whole variety of life on Earth (first used by Wilson in 1986). Biodiversity We still have not documented/discovered all living organisms on Earth At the moment ~1.5 million species have been described Estimates of total number of species range from 2 to 100 million … but we don’t really know! ‘the variety of habitats, communities and species in an area, and the genetic diversity within populations’
Outline the reasons for the conservation of animal and plant species Economic reasons Money … creating new drugs from plants found in ‘at risk’ habitats/areas Ecological reasons What impact will a loss of a particular species have on a habitat/ecosystem? Ethical reasons A UN summit meeting in 2002 received information that human activities are responsible for a huge loss of species in the recent past – is this a good thing? Aesthetic reasons Being able to enjoy the world around us
Discuss the consequences of global climate change on the biodiversity of plants and animals, with reference to changing patterns of agriculture and spread of disease The mean global climate is changing … … why is this? What is happening to the British climate and does it matter really?
The 20 th century was a time of accelerating global change: time the human population spike the consumption spike the carbon dioxide/global temperature spike the extinction spike 4 “spikes” of global change
Human consumption spike
1.28 billion cattle occupy nearly 24 percent of earth’s landmass. They weight more than the entire human population.
Bovine population density Forest converted to pasture or production of cattle feed. Desertification of marginal rangelands in semi-arid and arid regions. Production of greenhouse gases (CO 2, methane, nitrous oxide). Decreased water quality through runoff from fertilized fields and feed lots. Introduction of invasive species.
Antarctic ice core analysis The atmospheric CO 2 spike Etheridge et al. (1998) : Shift from wood burning to fossil fuel burning : First cars appear ’s: scientists suspect link between CO 2 emissions and global warming : Kyoto protocol : Bush withdraws US support of Kyoto agreement
The global temperature spike IPCC 2007
In a study published in the November issue of the journal, Science, an international group of ecologists and economists show that the loss of biodiversity is profoundly reducing the ocean’s ability to produce seafood, resist diseases, filter pollutants, and rebound from stresses such as over fishing and climate change. Loss of seafood species is faster in low-diversity regions, as compared with high- diversity regions.
Explain the benefits for agriculture of maintaining the biodiversity of animal and plant species New alleles from wild species introduced into agricultural crops/animals (which generally have low variation) producing: -‘better’ varieties more suited to a particular habitat -breeding in more desired characteristics -resistance to a new disease/pest
IUCN Red List International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Annually publishes a ‘Red List’ of species threatened with extinction Eg: orang-utans The Red List contains a high proportion of vertebrates, more green plants than protoctists and no prokaryotes – why do you think that this is?
PLENARY – exam question
Conservation matters Lesson Objectives: To describe different conservation methods To discuss the importance of international cooperation in species conservation To discuss the use of environmental impact assessments
Describe the conservation of endangered plant and animal species, both in situ and ex situ, with reference to the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches Oryx – an example of how people have collaborated successfully across the world to prevent its extinction Read about this success story on p. 238 – what issues did the people involved have to overcome? -Maintaining biodiversity – through movement of individuals or use of IVF -Some species may not breed successfully in captivity -Making a safe habitat for the Oryx to be returned to -Sometimes it is difficult to recreate/maintain the original habitat
Describe the conservation of endangered plant and animal species, both in situ and ex situ, with reference to the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches In situ – In the place where the organism normally lives Ex situ – Away from a place where the organism normally lives AdvantagesDisadvantages In situ Ex situ
Discuss the role of botanic gardens in the ex situ conservation of rare plant species or plant species extinct in the wild, with reference to seed banks
Discuss the importance of international co-operation in species conservation with reference to The Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Rio Convention on Biodiversity Is international cooperation important in the conservation of a species? Why/why not? CITES makes decisions about which species in the world are endangered and how trade in these species/products from these species should be limited Appendix I – most endangered – international trade prohibited Appendix II – not threatened with extinction now but trade needs monitoring to ensure that they don’t become at risk. Trade allowed with an export permit Appendix III – regulated international trade – permits are needed
Who has signed up for CITES?
Discuss the importance of international co-operation in species conservation with reference to The Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Rio Convention on Biodiversity Earth Summit – 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – led to a Convention on Biological Diversity Developing strategies to maintain biodiversity across the world and the sustainable use of Earth’s resources From this there are National and Local Biodiversity Plans for each of the countries involved Eg: SSSI – Sites of Special Scientific Interest Eg: Encouraging industries to create and maintain ‘wild’ areas Eg: New housing developments are required to submit an Environmental Impact Assessment
Discuss the significance of environmental impact assessments (including biodiversity estimates) for local authority planning decisions Environmental Impact Assessments Investigating the likely effect of a new development on local species within and around the area Completed by environmental consultants – they investigate what species are found in the area and identify any species that are protected If the survey finds that there may be harm done, the developer must put measures in place to prevent this Do you think that these assessments are a good or a bad thing? Why/why not?