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By: Nurma Khoirun Nisa’ IX A class

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1. Quantity International Unit System: International Unit System: –Quantity which are usually used in physics are divided into two: –Fundamental quantity is quantities of units of which are predetermined and they are not derived from another quantities. –Derived quantity is quantities which are derived from fundamental quantity.

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2. Mass Mass: Mass: Mass is constant in everywhere. But weight is influenced by gravitational force in place.

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3. Density (I) Density: Density every object is different 1 g/cm3 =1000 Kg/m3 1 Kg/m3 = 0,001 g/cm3

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3. Density (II) (Proportional of density an object and density of water) (Proportional of density an object and density of water) (Proportional of density between some objects) (Proportional of density between some objects)

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4. Expansion coefficient Manner: α = length expansion coefficient ℓ1= final length (m) ℓo= initial length (m) t1= final temperature (°C) to= initial temperature (°C) Δℓ= the change of length (m) Δt= the change of temperature (°C) OR A. Length expansion

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4. Expansion coefficient Manner: β= Area expansion coefficient A 1 = final area (m²) A o = initial area (m²) t 1 = final temperature (°C) t o = initial temperature (°C) ΔA= the change of area (m²) Δt= the change of temperature (°C) B. Area expansion OR

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4. Expansion coefficient Manner: γ= volume expansion coefficient V1= final volume(m³) Vo= initial volume(m³) t1= final temperature (°C) to= initial temperature (°C) ΔV= the change of volume (m³) Δt= the change of temperature (°C) C. Volume expansion OR

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5. Heat Heat to increase Q = m.c.∆t Heat to change state of solid to liquid Q = m.L Heat to change state of solid to gas Q= m.U Q1=Q2 Black Asas Q1=Q2 m1.c1.(t 1 -t c ) = m2.c2.(tc-t2) Manner: Q = heat (joule) m = mass (kg) c = specific heat of matter (J/Kg°C) Δt = change of temperature (°C) L = melting heat (J/kg) U= boiling heat (J/kg) t c = x temperature A B C D A=condensation point B=boiling point C=melting point D=freezing point 0°C 100°C 1 kalori = 4,2 Joule 1 Joule = o,24 kalori

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6. Motion Velocity=displacement : time Velocity=displacement : time Speed= total distance : total time Speed= total distance : total time 30 m 21 m displacement distance 11 s 6 s

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6. Motion Uniform Rectilinear Motion Uniform Rectilinear Motion s = distance (m) v = velocity (m/s²) t = time (s) s = v.t

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Accelerated Uniform Rectilinear Motion Vo= initial velocity (m/s) Vt= final velocity (m/s) a= acceleration (m/s²) t= time (s) s= distance (m) 6. Motion For decelerating acceleration has negative(-) value Vt = Vo+a.t S = Vo.t+½a.t²

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7. Force Force Force F = m.a Power Power P = W.t Work W=F.s F = force (Newton) m = mass (kg) a = acceleration (m/s²) W = Work (Joule) s = distance (m) P= power (Newton) t= time (s)

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8. Pressure A. Pressure of solid p = pressure (pascal /Pa) F = force (Newton) A = surface area of object (m²) 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

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Pressure of liquid Pressure of liquid Hydraulic system (Pascal’s Law) Hydraulic system (Pascal’s Law) 8. Pressure ρ = density of liquid (kg/m³) g = gravitational acceleration (m/s²) h = deep of liquid (m) F1 = force in roll 1 (N) F2 = force in roll 2 (N) A1 = Area in roll 1 (m²) A2 = area in roll 2 (m²) Hydraulic system is applied on car lift machine so the heavy charge can be lifted by smaller force.

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Floating force/ force to up Floating force/ force to up FA = wu – wf FA = ρ.V.g 8. Pressure FA= force to up (N) wu= weight of object in air (N) wf= weight of object in liquid (N) V= volume of liquid that be moved (m³) ρ = density of liquid (kg/m³) g = gravitational acceleration (m/s²) ρ.V.g are weight of liquid that be moved by object when object is dipped to liquid

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Pressure of gas in closer place P 1.V 1 = P 2.V 2 P = Pressure (atm) V = gas volume (m³) Temperature of air is considered constant 8. Pressure

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9. Energy Potential energy Potential energy Ep = m.g.h Kinetic energy Kinetic energy Ek = m.v.2 m = mass (kg) g = gravitational acceleration (m/s²) h = high (m) v = velocity (m/s)

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10. Simple Plane Lever w arm. w = F arm. F Mechanic beneficial Lever KM = = Pulley KM = Sloping plane KM = = w = weight F = force W=weight arm F= force arm KM = mechanic beneficial s = length of sloping plane h = high of sloping plane from surface flat

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11. Vibrations Vibration f = vibration frequency (Hertz) T = vibration period (s) n = total vibrations t = time (s) Hertz = 1/sekon λ= length (one) wave v= Velocity of wave Wave f = wave frequency (Hertz) T = wave period (s) n = total waves t = time (s)

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12. Sound d = deep (m) v = the velocity of sound (m/s) t = time (s) This formula can be used for measure the deep of water (sea) or cave. Ultrasonic wave Velocity of sound V=Velocity of sound (m/s) ג =the distance of wave (m) f=frequency of sound T=period of sound

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Resonance Resonance 12. Sound n= odd numbers ג = number of waves Marsenne Law f= frequency of wave (Hertz) ℓ = length of wide (m) T= Force (N) ρ= density of wide (kg/m³) A= area of wide (m²)

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13. Light formula for concave and convex mirror Concave and convex mirror Concave and convex mirror f = focus distance mirror centre of curvature C = centre of curvature So = distance object from the mirror Si = distance image from the mirror Hi = high of image Ho = high of object M = magnifying f, concave mirror (+) f convex mirror (-) Si (+)=real image Si (-)=virtual image M > 1 image be bigger M = 1 image larger M < 1 image smaller

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13. Light Determine properties image of mirror Object room + image room = 5 fC I II III IV Object Room Image Room Image properties IIVvirtual, straight, be larger IIIIIReality, inverse, be larger IIIIIReality, inverse, be smaller RRReality, inverse, equal size ffIsn’t make image A. CONCAVE MIRROR B. CONVEX MIRROR fC I IIIII IV Object in R I,II, and III Object in R IV Image that be formed by convex mirror always: virtual, straight, be smaller.

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13. Light Lens (concave and convex) Object Room Image Room Image properties O-f 2 In front of lens Virtual, straight, be larger f 2 – 2f 2 In left 2f 1 Reality, inverse, be smaller 2f22f2 2f12f1 Reality, inverse equal size f2f2-- Image that be formed by concave lens always : virtual, straight, be smaller. A. Convex lensB. Concave lens 2f12f1 f2f2 f1f1 2f22f2 Object room Image room

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13. Light formula for concave and convex lens Concave and convex lens Concave and convex lens f = focus distance mirror C = centre of curvature So = distance object from the mirror Si = distance image from the mirror Hi = high of image Ho = high of object M = magnifying f, concave mirror (+) f convex mirror (-) Si (+)=real image Si (-)=virtual image M > 1 image be bigger M = 1 image larger M < 1 image smaller

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13. Light OPTICS A. Eye P= the power of lens (dioptri) PR = Punctum Rematum (cm) Myopia P= the power of lens PR = Punctum Proximum (near point) Sn = normal read distance (25 cm) Hypermyopia

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13. Light OPTIC B. Magnifying Glass a. When the eye doesn’t accommodate: b. When the eye accommodate maximum: c. When the eye accommodates at distance x, the Magnification is: Sn = near point f= focus of magnifying glass

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13. Light OPTIC P = power of lens (dioptri) M = magnifying (times) C. Camera f = focus distance mirror C = centre of curvature So= distance object from the mirror Si = distance image from the mirror Hi = high of image Ho= high of object

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13. Light OPTIC The similarity of microscope : M = M ob x M ok The similarity of objective lens : M ob = h i ob h o ob S i ob S o ob = No accommodates : M ok = S n f oc x Si ob S o ob The similarity of ocular lens : Eye accommodates maximum : M ok = S n f ok 1+ S i ob S o ob x () Length of tube: D= fob + foc

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14. Electric Static electricity Static electricity F = Coulomb force (C) k = constant of coulomb force (Nm²/c²) Q = electric charge (C) r = distance between charge (m) I = electric current (Ampere=A) t = time (s)

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14. Electric Dynamic electricity Dynamic electricity V = I.R Coulomb law Conductor wire V = different potential (Volt) W= energy (Joule) Q = electric charge (C) R = Resistance (Ω) ρ = Resistivity (Ωm) I= electric current (Ampere) l = length of the wire (m) A = Area of the wire (m²)

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