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Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1 By J. Preoperational Thinking Signs Second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development This stage occurs between.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1 By J. Preoperational Thinking Signs Second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development This stage occurs between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 1 By J

2 Preoperational Thinking Signs Second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development This stage occurs between the ages of 2-7years This stage is often broken down into two sub stages: 2-4 years and 5-7years (transition stage) After 7 years of age they enter the operational period Use of symbols Make believe play Egocentric viewpoint Limited focus Children this age do not think like adults, and should not be treated like adults

3 Measuring Intelligence Educators use formal intelligence tests to more accurately determine the intellectual abilities of children These results help teachers, principals to understand and meet students educational needs First intelligence test was developed by French psychologist, Alfred Binet in 1905 In 1916 Lewis M Terman made a major revision, and devised a way to give a persons intelligence a numerical score Eventually was able to determine a child of any age has an IQ between 90 and 110

4 Disadvantages of IQ tests IQ test results are not always consistent, parents and children shouldn’t become too concerned No test gives an absolute accurate estimate of an individuals mental ability Influences can effect the score such as: physical/emotional stability during test, limited experiences, unfamiliarity with language IQ tests do not tell much about specific abilities, different strengths and weakness

5 Screening Instruments These provide an overview of a child's level of development in all areas If a child falls of the “normal”, than an in depth assessments of skills can be done These evaluations help identify problem areas and guide parents

6 Everyday learning opportunities Wide variety experiences provide more learning if a parent shares them with a child Look for opportunities to talk with children Use positive comments, this can encourage interest Questions help children think in new ways and encourages organizing thoughts into answers Explanations/suggestions or asking a child’s advice can be helpful Included in household tasks such as shopping, cooking, chores, this develops responsibility, maturity, independence Answer in simple terms with correct names, so they can understand Encourage positive attitudes, unembarrassed, natural environment Learning should be an everyday family centered event

7 Reading/Art/Music This early school stage is a period which children develop an interest in one or more areas Parents should take the time to read to them Books provide opportunity to learn about world Learning will be made easier 4-6 year old enjoying reading stories that are different from own life-style Children appreciate humor and unusual situations Shows ability to separate reality and fantasy

8 Reading/Art/Music Art helps children express their feelings Children should be encouraged to experiment No “correcting” ridiculing or “lessons” It should enjoyable not a “production” Ask about the painting/praise Singing rhythm games are fun (4-6) Many children are introduced to singing by finger plays Enjoy simple repetitive songs Help develop children's interest in rhythm

9 Chapter 16 Intellectual – Part 2

10 The School Experience It is vital that they develop a good attitude at outset Children who have had a bad experience with classmates or a teach can develop negative feelings about school Bad feelings keep them from learning

11 Learning Disabilities Learning disabled have difficulties with academic achievement and progress Learning disabled show and uneven pattern of development Environmental disadvantage and mental retardation/emotional disturbance are not reasons for learning problems 6 to 10 percent of the school aged population is learning disabled Little is known about causes of learning disabilities Early warning signs of learning disabilities: problems with reading, mathematics, comprehension, writing, spoken language, reasoning abilities. Learning disabilities typically affect 5 general areas: Spoken Language, Written language, Arithmetic, Reasoning, memory

12 Pointers for parents with children with disabilities Take time to listen to your children as much as you can Love them by touching them. Hugging, tickling,wrestling (need lots of physical contact) Look for/encourage strengths, interest, abilities Reward them with praise, good words, smiles Accept them for what they are, be realistic Involved them in rules and regulations Help correct their errors and mistakes Don’t nag Reasonable chores, regular responsibility Provide toys, games Read enjoyable stories, ask questions, discuss, reread Reduce distracting aspects of their environment

13 Children and Learning disabilities Learning disorders is a term for a wide variety of learning problems Learning disability is not a problem with intelligence or motivation Kids are smart like everyone else Children with learning disabilities see, hear, and understand things differently This causes problems with learning new things Most common: reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking

14 Gifted and Talented Children 3 to 10 percent of nations students are gifted Gifted children are children with an IQ of 130+ Children may also be talented in an area that does not show up well on an IQ test These children have special needs for recognition, appreciate and for challenging pursuits in which they can be successful Gifted and talented children need to be free from feelings of inferiority, superiority or being different They also need time with other gifted learners Benefit from play with a variety of children Parent/teachers should avoid overwhelming gifted and talented children with unrealistic expectations Need encouragement, opportunities leadership, creativity Easily bored and frustrated Exhibit recognize signs, by age two Talk early, use complete sentence, demonstrate large vocabulary Read before school age, highly curious, ask challenge question Schools offer special educational programs Enrichment programs, special classes are even special schools

15 Speech Development Language ability most dependable indicators of intelligence Speech reveals child’s interests, personality Gained knowledge of language by listening As children grow their vocabulary will increase Sentences will become more complex Articulation improves dramatically Age three, say 30% of their words correctly By age 6 increased to 90% This improvement depends on physical development Some sounds are more difficult to make than others Child’s vocabulary increase rapidly during this period A normal developing 6 year old can understand and use approximately 2,500 words

16 Speech difficulties Children who speak very little are not yet comfortable with the language These children have trouble keeping up They will not be ready to read Children need to hear and be encouraged to use languages

17 Bibliography 1.Learning Disabilities g/learning_disabilities.shtml (March, 2012) g/learning_disabilities.shtml 2. YouTube 3. The Developing Child Holly E. Brisbane. Glencoe Division 1994.

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