Presentation on theme: "1 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer 12. februar 2010, AAU Aalborg 3. marts 2010, AAU Ballerup Annette Kanstrup-Jensen, PhD, AAU."— Presentation transcript:
1 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer 12. februar 2010, AAU Aalborg 3. marts 2010, AAU Ballerup Annette Kanstrup-Jensen, PhD, AAU
2 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer” A: Eksempler fra Afrika og Sydøstasien B: Vestlig hegemoni i forbindelse med lærings-og forandringsprocesser i ikke-vestlige kulturer - teoretisk imperialisme - teoretisk imperialisme - ”reversals in learning” - ”reversals in learning” - universalitet og retten til uddannelse/læring - universalitet og retten til uddannelse/læring
3 Indigeneity: ”Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived from other parts of the world, overcame them, and by conquest, settlements or other means, reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial situation; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions rather than with the institutions of the country of which they now form a part, under a state structure which incorporates mainly the national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant” ( Karena Shaw 2002: ”Indigeneity and the International”, Journal of International Studies Vol.31 No 1,pp.55-81)
4 ” The true state of the art” of indigenous education (1) The Vertical Time Cycle: Childhood male ”rites of passage ” practical skills ”rites of passage ” practical skills female female Adulthood social skills Adulthood social skills male male ”rites of passage” responsibilities ”rites of passage” responsibilities female female Old age moral and social values
5 The ”true state of the art” of indigenous education (2) The horizontal space learning process: ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ Near/extended family Community Wider society - Basic skills - community - additional - Ancestral lines living/laws skills (trading) - ceremonies - exchange of - ceremonies - exchange of experience and experience and knowledge knowledge
6 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer Epistemology: The philosophical theory of knowledge. A branch of philosophy that examines the nature of knowledge and attempts to determine the limits of human understanding. Central issues include how knowledge is derived and how it is to be validated and tested. The philosophical theory of knowledge. A branch of philosophy that examines the nature of knowledge and attempts to determine the limits of human understanding. Central issues include how knowledge is derived and how it is to be validated and tested.
7 Education: Hmong ”We are stupid, because we didn’t go to school” (Nang Ka (45), Ban Denkang, Lao PDR ”I teach my children good manners, and teach them something they don’t know. When they go to school the teacher will make them clever” (Bohleh Saewang (40), Ban Hmong Hua Mae Kam, Thailand)
8 Education: Akha ” When I can read a book, I am intelligent” (Supatra Tiupah (9), Ban Mae Chan Tai, Thailand) ”The parents have to encourage the children to go to school. They can gain knowledge and cleverness from the school in order to become government officials” (Amae (44), Ban Houaytoumay, Lao PDR
9 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer Thomas Kuhn: (”The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” 1962) ” A paradigm is a world view, a general perspective, a way of breaking down the complexity of the real world. As such, paradigms are deeply embedded in the socialization of adherents and practitioners: paradigms tell them what is important, legitimate and reasonable. Paradigms are also normative, telling the practitioner what to do without the necessity of long existential or epistemological consideration ” (in Lincoln & Guba 1985:15)
10 Modern Primitive Modern Primitive Secular Non-secular Secular Non-secular Scientific Non-scientific Scientific Non-scientific NORTH Rational Irrational SOUTH Superior Inferior Superior Inferior Developed Underdeveloped Developed Underdeveloped Liberated Saveable Liberated Saveable Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer
11 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer Manifestations of present globalisation: - spatial reorganisation of production - interpenetration of industries across borders - spread of financial markets diffusion of identical consumer goods to distant diffusion of identical consumer goods to distant countries countries transfer of population transfer of population (Mittelman J. 2000:15) ” new world disorder” (Jowitt in Bauman 1998:59)
12 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer Ziauddin Sardar 1999: ” Development continues to mean what is has always meant: a standard by which the West measures the non-West” (cf. HDR) ”The real power of the West lies in its power to define” (Sardar in Munck & O’Hearn: Critical Development Theory: Contributions to a New Paradigm
13 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer 1. Cultural ethnocentrism: Modern traditional (”stereotypification” of non-Western cultures) (linguistic and conceptual ignorance of non-Western cultures) (reification of researched groups) (reification of researched groups) 2. Epistemological ethnocentrism: Education equates schooling (de-legitimisation of non-Western learning) (hierarchy of knowledge /horizontal vs. vertical ordering of different but equally valid systems) of different but equally valid systems)
14 Embedded education promotes cultural survival and enables adaptation (Indigenous education) Disembedded edu. entails conceptual colonisation and forces assimilation (Formal schooling) ´------------------------------------------------------------------- Embedded promotes local social control and enables defense against economy free market forces Disembedded entails lack of control and entails dependency on Economy market forces
15 Research considerations: ” reversals in learning ” ”have you come to ask me, normally they come and tell us what to do” (Sohtou, Ban Houaytoumay, Lao PDR) (Sohtou, Ban Houaytoumay, Lao PDR) “ whose side are we on ” - authenticity in the relationship - authenticity in the relationship - trustworthiness - trustworthiness - the dichotomy of knowledge - the dichotomy of knowledge - power equalisation - power equalisation - ethics - ethics - political process - political process
16 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer Artikel 26, Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
17 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer 2: Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to strengthening of respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
18 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer Uløste problemer: a) Der er ingen ”universal justification” af retten til uddannelse b) Der er ingen ”universal definition” af hvad uddannelse betyder. ( Joel Spring )
19 Læring i ikke- vestlige kulturer Education can be seen as serving three main purposes: ( Fägerlind & Saha, 1989) 1. As the main agent for political socialisation of the young into national political culture 2. As the primary agent for selection of training political elites 3. As the main contributor to political integration and the building of national political consciousness.
20 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer The Role of Education (1) Reproduce the dominant culture Inculcate loyalty to the political system Indoctrinate prevailing ideologies Create a docile workforce
21 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer The Role of Education (2) Enrich and cultivate human potential Encourage critical thinking Create free and independent minds Promote cultural assertion and spiritual well- being Liberating
22 Læring i ikke-vestlige kulturer It is good that we have two types of learning, because the indigenous will be good on religious things, for the traditional culture which includes supporting life. The formal schooling is good, because we can learn from non-tribal people, also about the legal actions, when we go down [in the Thai society] we are able to adapt to their society” Lohyoum Mayao (36)(Akha) Village headman, Ban Mae Chan Thai, Thailand) Lohyoum Mayao (36)(Akha) Village headman, Ban Mae Chan Thai, Thailand) ”…il ne faut pas les laisser dans des musées” (Lytou Bouapao, (Hmong) Vice-minister of Education, Lao PDR