Presentation on theme: "Enzymes … what do you know and will find out these next few lessons Lets find out millionaire styley remember the tips from “Mrs B how to answer MCQ”"— Presentation transcript:
1 Enzymes … what do you know and will find out these next few lessons Lets find out millionaire styley remember the tips from “Mrs B how to answer MCQ”
2 Learning OutcomesRecap enzyme properties, activation energy and factors affecting enzymesExplain the induced fit theoryExamine the effect of substrate concentration
3 Quick Recap ... Enzymes made of proteins (affected by temp & pH) Active site (AS) where it binds to one specific substrate (affinity of one substrate)- denature alters ASEnzymes are biological catalysts;Lower activation energy required for a reaction to proceed(done by reactants forming unstabletransition state which will form products)Speeds up the rate of reaction of a reactionTakes part in a reaction but remains unchanged at the end of it
4 Old model of enzyme -The old idea of enzymes working with their substrate like a “lock and key” is over-simplistic.Better is theInduced fit model ....
5 Induced-Fit modelwhere the substrate molecule induces (a slight change in the shape of the active site to allow the substrate molecule to fit perfectly)The change in shape of the active site makes the reaction take place more easily.After the reaction is over, the product is released and the active site returns to its normal shape and the enzyme is free to attach to more substrate..
6 Induced Fit ModelProposed by Daniel Koshland and is now widely seen as the preferred modelHowever when he first proposed it some resistance difficult getting scientific journals to published his workIndirect support – such as certain chemicals, known not to bind to the active site, altered the binding and catalysis of the substrate (non-competitive inhibition)Eventually direct support such as visualising the active site by X-ray crystallography
7 Induced Fit Model It showed; The activity of enzymes depends on their flexible and dynamic shape. The affinity of substrate molecules for the active site of an enzyme and induced fit.Hint - like hands into a smallrubber glove!Get sponge and make shape to fit?
8 Draw these pictures / add labels and describe what is going on using these key words..... Active siteOrientationSubstrateInducedChemical bondsAffinity
9 Orientation of reactants The active site determines the orientation of the reactants, allowing for them to held so a reaction can occur.The chemical bonds weaken, which reduces the activation energy for the reactants to reach transition state.Finally the products have a low affinity to the active site and are released.Active site free for new substrates.
11 What factors affect enzyme action? Suitable temperatureAppropriate pHCorrect substrateAdequate supply of substratePresence of an inhibitor (more next time)For example the direction in this metabolic pathway if substrate W becomes available enzyme 1 becomes active and converts to X and so one. A continued supply of W ensure the direction drive. Most metabolic reactions are reversible – depending on concentration as pathways are rarely isolated. So alternatively could go back to X if Y concentration high. Enzymes often act in groups; multi-enzyme complex like DNA/RNA polymerases.
12 LO3 – Enzyme activity .....Substrate concentration – hydrogen peroxide concentrationEnzyme concentration – L-Dopa and banana (+colorimeter)Read what is expected of your plan/design/ execution of experiment and write up
13 Homework Complete your plan Next two lessons – carry out and write up your LO3