3 LATIN SOURCESOriginal text: OVID, Metamorphoses, liber I, vv ,Translation into English:
4 ZEUS TURNS IO INTO A YOUNG COW OVID’S TEXT Interea medios Iuno despexit in Argos et noctis faciem nebulas fecisse volucres sub nitido mirata die, non fluminis illas esse, nec umenti sensit tellure remitti; atque suus coniunx ubi sit circumspicit, ut quae 605 deprensi totiens iam nosset furta mariti. quem postquam caelo non repperit, 'aut ego fallor aut ego laedor' ait delapsaque ab aethere summo constitit in terris nebulasque recedere iussit. coniugis adventum praesenserat inque nitentem 610 Inachidos vultus mutaverat ille iuvencam; bos quoque formosa est. speciem Saturnia vaccae, quamquam invita, probat nec non, et cuius et unde quove sit armento, veri quasi nescia quaerit. Iuppiter e terra genitam mentitur, ut auctor desinat inquiri: petit hanc Saturnia munus. quid faciat? crudele suos addicere amores, non dare suspectum est: Pudor est, qui suadeat illinc, hinc dissuadet Amor. victus Pudor esset Amore, sed leve si munus sociae generisque torique vacca negaretur, poterat non vacca videri!
5 ZEUS TURNS IO INTO A YOUNG COW KLINE’S VERSION Meanwhile Juno looked down into the heart of Argos, surprised that rapid mists had created night in shining daylight. She knew they were not vapours from the river, or breath from the damp earth. She looked around to see where her husband was, knowing by now the intrigues of a spouse so often caught in the act. When she could not find him in the skies, she said ‘Either I am wrong, or being wronged’ and gliding down from heaven’s peak, she stood on earth ordering the clouds to melt. Jupiter had a presage of his wife’s arrival and had changed Inachus’s daughter into a gleaming heifer. Even in that form she was beautiful. Saturnia approved the animal’s looks, though grudgingly, asking, then, whose she was, where from, what herd, as if she did not know. Jupiter, to stop all inquiry, lied, saying she had been born from the earth. Then Saturnia claimed her as a gift. What could he do? Cruel to sacrifice his love, but suspicious not to. Shame urges him to it, Amor urges not. Amor would have conquered Shame, but if he refused so slight a gift as a heifer to the companion of his race and bed, it might appear no heifer!
6 The Titan Prometheus, bound in the Caucaso, tells Io about her future AESCHYLUS, Prometheus boundvvἔστιν πόλις Κάνωβος ἐσχάτη χθονός, Νείλου πρὸς αὐτῷ στόματι καὶ προσχώματι: ἐνταῦθα δή σε Ζεὺς τίθησιν ἔμφρονα ἐπαφῶν ἀταρβεῖ χειρὶ καὶ θιγὼν μόνον. ἐπώνυμον δὲ τῶν Διὸς γεννημάτων τέξεις κελαινὸν Ἔπαφον, ὃς καρπώσεται ὅσην πλατύρρους Νεῖλος ἀρδεύει χθόνα:Translation into Englishby Herbert WEIR SMYTH, Ph. D., EdThere is a city, Canobus, on the extremity of the land at the very mouth and silt-bar of the Nile. There at last Zeus restores you to your senses by the mere stroke and touch of his unterrifying hand. And you shall bring forth dark Epaphus,thus named from the manner of Zeus' engendering; and he shall gather the fruit of all the land watered by the broad-flowing Nile.HENRY FUSELI, British painter and draughtsman
7 THE MYTHIo is a priestess of the Roman goddess Juno, Jupiter’s jealous wife. Jupiter, the king of the gods, is very unfaithful to his wife.When Jupiter falls in love with Io, he turns himself into the shape of a dark cloud to hide from his jealous wife. However, Juno notices the small cloud and suspects that it is one of Jupiter's tricks. So, she approaches to check the true nature of the cloud. As soon as Juno arrives, Jupiter transforms Io into a white cow to avoid his wife's wrath. But Juno suspects and asks Jupiter to give her the cow as a gift and Jupiter cannot refuse such a little gift.Later, Juno ties the poor cow and sends Argus, her faithful, servant to watch over Io. Argus has a hundred eyes so he is never fully asleep because he can always keep most of his eyes open.
8 THE MYTHTo free Io, Jupiter sends his son Mercury to sing and tell boring stories so as to make Argus sleep with all his eyes. Mercury tells so many stories that finally Argus closes all his hundred eyes. Only then, Mercury kills Argus and unties Io, who runs home free.Yet when Juno discovers what has happened, she is so furious that she sends a vicious gadfly to sting the cow forever. Moreover, to honour the memory of her faithful servant, Juno puts Argus’ hundred eyes on the tail of her favourite bird, the peacock.Meanwhile, Io, who is still a prisoner in the shape of a cow, cannot get rid of the malicious gadfly. Finally, after Jupiter vows to no longer pursue his beloved Io, Juno releases her from her inhuman prison, and Io settles in Egypt, becoming the first queen of this country.
9 IO IS SEDUCED BY ZEUSCORREGGIO1532JOHN HOPPNER1785
15 HERA PUTS ARGUS’ EYES ON THE TAIL OF HER SACRED ANIMAL, THE PEACOCK, by RUBENS
16 SPANISH LITERTURE THE ENCOUNTER BETWEEN MERCURY AND ARGUS IS ONE OF THE IMAGES USED TO SHOW HOW THE SWEET SOUNDS OF ADULATION COULD EVENTUALLY CAUSE A GREAT EVILJ. DE HOROZCOEmblemas morales1589Ordena de tañerle, y uno a unoLos ojos todos ciento se han cerradoY así le hurto la vaca que por JunoGuardava, en que a las gentes à mostradoQue al mas despierto engaña de ligeroEl dulce son del falso lisonjeroBALTHASAR DE LA VICTORIA,Theatro de los dioses de la gentilidad1620Muy mal podrás huyr de un graue engaño,Si hay celada encubierta, y paliada,Que no ay firmeza donde sobra engaño:Que vigilante es Argos, pero nada,Al canto de Mercurio tan estranoLe fue imposible el impedir la entrada
17 IO IN ENGLISH LITERATURE Io in Egyptby RICHARD GARNETT, 1859N0 palm-grove, green 'mid lion-coloured sands,No forest-heaving mount, no river coil' dInvolving in clear silver fair champaigns,Saw Io, mad and dizzied vagabond,Full thirty days, so long the visible wrathOf Hera as a gad-fly followed her.(…)
18 THE MYTH IN MUSICIo is an unfinished opera by JEAN-PHILLIPE RAMEAU in the form of a one-act acte de ballet. The date of its composition is unknown and it was probably unperformed during Rameau's lifetime.THE IO PASSION is a chamber opera written by SIR HARRISON PAUL BIRTWISTLE, who is a British contemporary composer, born in 15th July 1934.
19 THE MYTH IN ASTRONOMY: IO IN THE SKY When Galileo discovered the major moons of Jupiter in 1610, they were named for the mythological sweethearts of Jupiter, one of them, of course, being Io.When Voyager 1 passed Io in March 1979 and took a photo of the surface, the image showed the hoofprint of a young cow!
20 THE ERUPTING VOLCANO PROMETHEUS ON IO This volcano, called Prometheus, found on Jupiter's moon Io, could be called the Old Faithful of the outer solar system, because its volcanic plume of smoke has been visible every time it has been observed since This particular image, one of the highest-resolution pictures ever taken of Io, was obtained by NASA's Galileo spacecraft as it approached Io on July 3, 1999.
21 THE MYTH IN CARTOONS: WATCH THIS FUNNY VERSION OF IO
22 THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION I.E.S. Camilo José Cela(Padrón – A Coruña)Galicia, SpainStudents:Written by Alejandro Senín Rodríguez (4th grade of Secondary Compulsory Education)Presented by Candela Quintáns Cristobo(2nd Grade of Post Compulsory Education)Teachers:Chus Senín (Headmistress)Paloma Suárez de CentiMarta GendeLoli DovalEsther PérezCristina EstévezXaime González