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Međunarodni kongres BRAŠNO. KRUH ‘03 Opatija, 19-22. 11. 2003. Treba li Hrvatskoj genetički modificirana hrana? Marijan Jošt Visoko gospodarsko učilište.

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Presentation on theme: "Međunarodni kongres BRAŠNO. KRUH ‘03 Opatija, 19-22. 11. 2003. Treba li Hrvatskoj genetički modificirana hrana? Marijan Jošt Visoko gospodarsko učilište."— Presentation transcript:

1 Međunarodni kongres BRAŠNO. KRUH ‘03 Opatija, Treba li Hrvatskoj genetički modificirana hrana? Marijan Jošt Visoko gospodarsko učilište u Križevcima

2 Does Croatia need genetically modified food? Marijan Jošt Agricultural College Križevci, Croatia International Congress FLOUR-BREAD ‘03 Opatija, November 19 – 22, 2003

3 Status of GE today ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ As commercial GM products have been deployed since 1996, there is still considerable debate and uncertainty over their impacts on health, environment, industrial structures and market power.

4 The US - EU conflict _____________________________________________________________________ The deep-seated cultural differences towards science, technology and government regulation between US and EU consumers, trade disputes focusing on GM products will be particularly difficult to resolve.

5 Data on commercial application in agriculture: GLOBAL AREA OF TRANSGENIC CROPS BY YEAR (million hectares)

6 Data on commercial application in agriculture: GLOBAL AREA OF TRANSGENIC CROPS IN 2001 BY COUNTRY (in %)

7 Data on commercial application in agriculture: GLOBAL AREA OF TRANSGENIC CROPS IN 2001 BY CROP (in %)

8 Data on commercial application in agriculture: GLOBAL AREA OF TRANSGENIC CROPS IN 2001 BY TRAIT (in %)

9 Claims of biotechnology: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. GE is precise and safe. 2. GE is necessary to feed the World. 3. GE will protect the environment by lower use of herbicides and pesticides. 4. GE food is like natural food. 5. GE is extension of traditional crossbreeding.

10 Ad 1 GE is far to be precise _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Transfer of artificial gene complex is random, and error prone. Transfer of artificial gene complex is random, and error prone. Scientists are not able to define a destination: Scientists are not able to define a destination: - chromosome, - chromosome, - location on it, - location on it, - nor its neighbour gene in a new host cell - nor its neighbour gene in a new host cell Somaclonal variation is common during cell multiplication in tissue culture. Somaclonal variation is common during cell multiplication in tissue culture.

11 … and GE is not safe _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ There has not been enough time for accumulating sufficient experience to justify any claim to safety. There has not been enough time for accumulating sufficient experience to justify any claim to safety. Vector is a modified pathogen virus or bacterium, able to restore its pathogenicity. Vector is a modified pathogen virus or bacterium, able to restore its pathogenicity. Promoter (CaMV 35S) is closely related to human hepatitis B virus. It has ‘hot spot’ prone to recombination with other DNA fragments, silent DNA etc, capable to create new pathogene viruses. Promoter (CaMV 35S) is closely related to human hepatitis B virus. It has ‘hot spot’ prone to recombination with other DNA fragments, silent DNA etc, capable to create new pathogene viruses. Marker (ABR gene) is responsible for development of new multi-antibiotic resistant patogenic bacteria. The presence of antibiotics resistant genes increase the frequency of horizontal gene transfer 10 to fold. Marker (ABR gene) is responsible for development of new multi-antibiotic resistant patogenic bacteria. The presence of antibiotics resistant genes increase the frequency of horizontal gene transfer 10 to fold.

12 …GE is based on 40 years old ‘Central Dogma’: 1 gene = 1 protein Project of Human Genome (2001) : Project of Human Genome (2001) : On basis of about proteins in human body, genes were expected, but only genes are determined!? On basis of about proteins in human body, genes were expected, but only genes are determined!? Genetic informtion arises not from DNA alone but through its essential collaboration with protein enzymes: Specific cell proteins and ribonucleic acid ansambled in ‘spliceosomes’ can dictate ‘alternative segregation’ and certain genes can code a number of different proteins. A single gene from the cell of inner ear gives rise to 576 proteins. Nearly human genes are alternatively spliced. Genetic informtion arises not from DNA alone but through its essential collaboration with protein enzymes: Specific cell proteins and ribonucleic acid ansambled in ‘spliceosomes’ can dictate ‘alternative segregation’ and certain genes can code a number of different proteins. A single gene from the cell of inner ear gives rise to 576 proteins. Nearly human genes are alternatively spliced.

13 Safety problem - a few examples: rBGH in milk production: 7x increased breast cancer in women and 4x increased prostata cancer in man (1998). rBGH in milk production: 7x increased breast cancer in women and 4x increased prostata cancer in man (1998). Snowdrop lectin and potato, when GE together led to harmful effects on liver and kindney growth of young rats. Responsible CaMV 35S promoter (Pusztai, 1999). Snowdrop lectin and potato, when GE together led to harmful effects on liver and kindney growth of young rats. Responsible CaMV 35S promoter (Pusztai, 1999). Allergy – By adding new protein, which has never been a part of human food chain, unknown alergen, even toxin could be introduced (Bt-corn StarLink, GM soybean with gene from the brazil nut etc.). Allergy – By adding new protein, which has never been a part of human food chain, unknown alergen, even toxin could be introduced (Bt-corn StarLink, GM soybean with gene from the brazil nut etc.). Killer virus – created unintentionaly by inserting gene for human interleukin (Il-4) in virus vector, during work on contraceptive vaccine for mice. Killer virus – created unintentionaly by inserting gene for human interleukin (Il-4) in virus vector, during work on contraceptive vaccine for mice. Antibiotic resistant marker genes (ARM): in recent years in the USA, due to food poisoning 325 thousands seek people and 5 thousands dead were recorded per year. (WHO report) Antibiotic resistant marker genes (ARM): in recent years in the USA, due to food poisoning 325 thousands seek people and 5 thousands dead were recorded per year. (WHO report)

14 Ad 2 GE is necessary to feed the world - False _ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Facts: There are at least 815 million undernourished people on the globe (the UN report), while… There are at least 815 million undernourished people on the globe (the UN report), while… …the World already produces 50% more food than it needs (WHO). …the World already produces 50% more food than it needs (WHO). (Recently media reported that more than sheep were killed per week, because the market was flooded with lamb meat. The hungry people were not considered worthy of feeding.) (Recently media reported that more than sheep were killed per week, because the market was flooded with lamb meat. The hungry people were not considered worthy of feeding.) Hunger is not the result of inadequat food supply. It is the result of social and political circumtances. Hunger is not the result of inadequat food supply. It is the result of social and political circumtances. Contrary to what has been promised, GM crops do not yield more. Contrary to what has been promised, GM crops do not yield more.

15 Ad 3 GE will protect the environment - False _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ‘Super-weeds’ – a weed population can build up multiple resistance to herbicides. Today farmers growing RR soybeans, or RR canola use 2-5 times more herbicides! ‘Super-weeds’ – a weed population can build up multiple resistance to herbicides. Today farmers growing RR soybeans, or RR canola use 2-5 times more herbicides! Insect resistance development -European corn borer is developing resistance to Bt-toxin in GE corn. The refugee zones are constantly increased from 5% at the begeenning, to even 40% now. Insect resistance development -European corn borer is developing resistance to Bt-toxin in GE corn. The refugee zones are constantly increased from 5% at the begeenning, to even 40% now. BT toxin has deleterious effect on other beneficial insects (Green lacewings, ladybugs, monarch butterfly etc.) BT toxin has deleterious effect on other beneficial insects (Green lacewings, ladybugs, monarch butterfly etc.) Cotton succeptibility to cotton pipe after only 3-4 generation increased and today it needs 3 treatements with insecticides. Cotton succeptibility to cotton pipe after only 3-4 generation increased and today it needs 3 treatements with insecticides.

16 Ad 4 Is GE food like natural ? _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ In 1989 the US National Research Council concluded that crops derived from GE do not differ substantially from those derived using traditional techniques - principle of ‘substantial equivalence’. In 1989 the US National Research Council concluded that crops derived from GE do not differ substantially from those derived using traditional techniques - principle of ‘substantial equivalence’. This conclusion is based on completely wrong supposition which states that the introduction of a gene of known and safe function into a crop of known characteristics is tchnologically neutral, and the resulting crop is presumed to be safe. This conclusion is based on completely wrong supposition which states that the introduction of a gene of known and safe function into a crop of known characteristics is tchnologically neutral, and the resulting crop is presumed to be safe.

17 Ad 5 GE is extension of traditional crossbreeding - False ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Traditional crosbreeding respects interaction between gene and the environment Traditional crosbreeding respects interaction between gene and the environment It accepts that all economically important properties of crop result from quantitative interaction of not one, but a number of genes (polygenic inheritance), and environment. It accepts that all economically important properties of crop result from quantitative interaction of not one, but a number of genes (polygenic inheritance), and environment. It includes different branches of science: quantitative and population genetics. It includes different branches of science: quantitative and population genetics.

18 Economic effects ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ GM crops have been an economic disaster in the USA and Canada. It has cost American economy at least $12 billion since due to: farm subsidies, lower crop prices and loss of major export orders. GM crops have been an economic disaster in the USA and Canada. It has cost American economy at least $12 billion since due to: farm subsidies, lower crop prices and loss of major export orders. The latest disaster: In 2002 an area of hectares of Bt cotton has been demaged in Maharastra, India due to root disease. The latest disaster: In 2002 an area of hectares of Bt cotton has been demaged in Maharastra, India due to root disease.

19 Legislation and … ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Integration of ‘the precautionary principle’ into the Biosafety protocol (Convention of Biological Diversity) is significant step in protecting biological diversity from potential hazards related to living modified organism (LMO). Integration of ‘the precautionary principle’ into the Biosafety protocol (Convention of Biological Diversity) is significant step in protecting biological diversity from potential hazards related to living modified organism (LMO). According to the international law, legal value of the Biosafety Protocol is as strong as WTO rules. According to the international law, legal value of the Biosafety Protocol is as strong as WTO rules.

20 … the public oppinion on GE foods ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EC Rule 97/35 requires mandatory labelling of products containing over 0,9 % GMO. EC Rule 97/35 requires mandatory labelling of products containing over 0,9 % GMO. While 92% of Americans support legal requirement for labelling GM food… While 92% of Americans support legal requirement for labelling GM food…... Croatian intention to declare itself as ‘GMO fee country’ was stopped by pressure from the US... Croatian intention to declare itself as ‘GMO fee country’ was stopped by pressure from the US (memo of J.F. Byrnes, First Secretary in Political-Economic Section of U.S. Embassy Zagreb, dated November 28, 2001: (memo of J.F. Byrnes, First Secretary in Political-Economic Section of U.S. Embassy Zagreb, dated November 28, 2001: “United States Views on Croatian Interim Legislation”) “United States Views on Croatian Interim Legislation”)

21 Croatia: Present status Introduction of GMO food and plants are regulated in 2003 by: The Law about Food The Law about Food The Law about Protection od Nature The Law about Protection od Nature NCC for biological safety Food labeling - about 75% of Croatian people do not accept GM food, and believe that their government has a constitutional duty to respect the people’s desire to know what they eat.

22 Conclusion _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ GMO are a huge uncontrolled experiment whose results can not be forecasted. GMO are a huge uncontrolled experiment whose results can not be forecasted. In case of disaster there is no recovery plan, nor it is known who should be liable for negative consequences. In case of disaster there is no recovery plan, nor it is known who should be liable for negative consequences. The multinational corporations own a patent of life, and want to control global food production. The multinational corporations own a patent of life, and want to control global food production. The only solution for Croatia is to foster public scientific debate and to delay application of GE until all fundamental questions are resolved. The only solution for Croatia is to foster public scientific debate and to delay application of GE until all fundamental questions are resolved.


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