Presentation on theme: "Genetic Counseling Becky Bettin May 24, 2011 Raymond Walters College."— Presentation transcript:
Genetic Counseling Becky Bettin May 24, 2011 Raymond Walters College
Goal To engage you in the world of genetics and clarify any misconceptions about genetics and the genetic counseling profession through discussion and active learning
What do you know about Genetic Counseling? Turn to your neighbor and discuss what you know or have heard about genetic counseling: DefinitionWhat they do Where they work Who has known someone who has seen a genetic counselor?
Objectives Describe the four major roles of a clinical genetic counselor Define non-directive counseling and describe why it’s a genetic counselor’s guiding principle List the four major areas a genetic counselor would practice Explain the reasons for and benefits of genetic services
Definition “Genetic counseling is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease” – National Society of Genetic Counselors 2006
Brief History Genetic info used for a long time –Didn’t circumcise brothers of bleeders, societal taboos against marriage of relatives Mid 1900s- purview to Public Health-genetics to better the human race 1947- term Genetic Counseling coined 1969 - Sarah Lawrence started first GC program 1970 - GC Profession is born 1975 - ASHG first defined GC 1979 - NSGC formed 1993 - ABGC was created to certified GCs As of today: –~3000s practicing GCs in US –30 accredited programs in US
Roles of a Genetic Counselor 1.Interpret family and medical history to assess the chance (risk) of disease occurrence or recurrence 2.Education about inheritance, testing, management, prevention, resources and research 3.Counseling to promote informed choices and adaptation to the risk or condition 4.Serve as advocates to empower patients
Interpret family and medical history to assess the chance (risk) of disease occurrence or recurrence HOW? Create a Pedigree Look for patterns with in the family Use statistical models Research from the literature Boys are Squares; Girls are Circles Draw your family
What are some genetic traits, conditions or diseases that can be passed down through families? Color blindness Cleft chin Widow’s peak hair line Rolling your tongue
What are some genetic traits, conditions or diseases that can be passed down through families? Huntington Disease Some Cancer What about Down Syndrome? Hemophilia Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cystic fibrosis
What is responsible for carrying this information? ALL our cells contain DNA Packaged as Chromosomes Contain Genes
Chromosomes Contain all of our genetic material, tell our bodies how to grow and develop 23 pairs = 46 chromosomes In each pair one is from Mom and one is from Dad Females are typically XX, males are XY
Inheritance Autosomal: the gene responsible is located on one of the 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex determining chromosomes). –Dominant: conditions that are manifest in just one copy of the changed gene. –Recessive: conditions are only manifest in individuals who have two copies of the changed gene. X-linked: the gene that encodes for the trait is located on the X sex chromosome.
Counseling to promote informed choices Rogers Person Centered Care –Positive view of humans and trust in self for greater inner directedness Unconditional Positive Regard - see the best in all people Empathy - strive to stand in the patient’s shoes Counselor Genuineness - formation of an open relationship where patient’s feel safe and free to explore their thoughts and emotions
Counseling to promote informed choices Non-directive Counseling – Guiding Principle –Intention of enabling clients to make independent, informed decisions free from coercion –GCs direct the process of the session, but are careful not to direct the outcome –GCs need to be aware of their own bias, and intentions How does this differ from the medical model?
Areas of Practice Prenatal –Infertility, multiple miscarriage, still birth or early infant death –Pregnant women at high risk for a genetic condition like cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia –Advanced Maternal Age (over 35) –Interpretation of prenatal screening tests
Areas of Practice Pediatrics –Children with multiple birth defects –(CL/CP, heart defects, clenched hands, clubfeet) developmental delay –(not meeting their milestones for motor skills, speech) –Children with a known genetic conditions (Down syndrome, William syndrome, tuberous sclerosis)
Areas of Practice Cancer –Personal or family history of cancer Breast/Ovarian Colon Adult –Family history Huntington Disease
Genetic Testing FISH Chromosomes Sequencing Microarray
Discrimination Protection HIPAA, 1996 –Health Insurance Privacy and Accountability Act Protects health information from being shared GINA, 2008 –Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act prohibits the improper use of genetic information in health insurance and employment.
Questions, Comments? QUIZ –Name the 4 roles a clinical genetic counselor –List the 3 primary areas of practice –What do the circles and squares mean in a pedigree –List one benefit of genetic services Evaluate Me: –Please write down: What you liked about my presentation How you think it could be improved