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For Whom Do You Speak? Understanding Media Regulation in a Luhmanian Way: Functional Differentiation and Contingency Ge Xing The University of Tokyo 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "For Whom Do You Speak? Understanding Media Regulation in a Luhmanian Way: Functional Differentiation and Contingency Ge Xing The University of Tokyo 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 For Whom Do You Speak? Understanding Media Regulation in a Luhmanian Way: Functional Differentiation and Contingency Ge Xing The University of Tokyo 2012

2 Outline Motivation & Problem Statement Related Work Theoretical Background Discussions Conclusive Points Further Discussion & Future Work

3 Motivation and Problem Statement For whom do you speak for? Asked by officials to reporters (2009, 2011) Two systems communicate within itself Functional differentiation and Globalization Function systems which are operationally closed How can state steer the society if systems are closed?

4 Motivation and Problem Statement Two questions to be discussed 1, How to understand regulation from the perspective of functional differentiation 2, How to understand regulation from the perspective of autopoietic organizations

5 Related Work What is regulation? Regulation is the sustained and focused attempt to alter the behavior of others according to define standards or purposes with the intention of producing a broadly identified outcome or outcomes, which may involve mechanisms of standard-setting, information-gathering and behavior-modification. ( Black 2002:20 )

6 Related Work External factors affecting regulation in previous researches: Market, Political Reform, Cultural structure, Public Interests ( B.H.Winfield & Z.Peng,2005; R.Cullen & H.L.Fu,1998; B H.Winfield, T Mizuno & C E.Beaudoin,2000; Lin,2006; Zhao,1998 ) Social Consensus (Ideology or cultural Structure) ) Mass MediaStateMarket

7 Related Work A Economic System/ Market, Enterprise G Political System/ Party-State L Local culture/ Journalism Education / Ideology Mass media in I level I Market-OrientedMouthpiece Role Professionism/ Public interests Inner Structure

8 Discussion I: Social Differentiation and Function Systems Differentiation is not harmonious Function systems construct realities respectively There are no “good” or “bad” function systems Pseudo-communication between systems based on observation and irritation or HACS ( Hierarchical Autonomy Communication System, Nishigaki 2008 )

9 Discussion II: Organizations and Function Systems Organization and social systems I level of AGIL Market-OrientedMouthpiece Role Professionism/ Public interests Inner Structure Mass media organization Academic System Mass media System Economic System Political system

10 Two Types of Organizations Mass media as an autopoietic organization coupled with several function systems (for instance, mass media system, political system & economic system) State as a special organization which is also autopoietic ( Thyson,2007;W.Schirmer,2007 ) - mainly coupled with one function system - a second order organization that supports the society - try to steer other organizations in a paradoxical way

11 Observation: Daily Regulation on Shanghai media Shanghai Style: media in a developed capitalist market with relatively close relationship with government Journalists and editors deal with daily regulation frequently everyday

12 Observation: Daily Regulation on Shanghai media We receive official documents everyday and sometimes we try to make the news stories appear on screen or newspapers before the documents come. (Informants from different media) Some press even can disobey the official demand occasionally. But usually we try to guess the meaning of the documents and find the “grey zone” for reporting. (One informant from one TV station)

13 Decision-making Through Double Contingency Situation Propaganda Department Mass Media (Decisions coupled with political system) (Decisions coupled with several function systems) high contingency low Demand (Positive) Obedience (Negative) Further punishment/ Tacit permission (Negative) Disobedience (Positive) Demand (Positive) Game (Contingent) Further decisions (Contingent) Game (Contingent) Observation & Irritation

14 Conclusive Points Contingent media regulation 1, Regulation can be regarded as pseudo- communication between function systems from the perspective of function differentiation 2, Regulations from the perspective of autopoietic organizations can be regarded as contingent decision- making produced through a situation of double- contingency, as is shown in Shanghai Style


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