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Craig Stewart Dr. Alexandra I. Cristea ( XML.

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1 Craig Stewart Dr. Alexandra I. Cristea ( XML

2 2 XML history Inception: circa 1996 The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) v1.0 became a W3C Recommendation 10. February –Currently v1.0 is in it’s fifth version –v1.1 published 2004 End of line issues > Unicode v2.0 character sets Other non-Unicode special characters

3 3 What is XML? XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language XML is a markup language much like HTML XML was designed to describe data XML is more of a standard and supporting structure than a standalone programming language – wrong!

4 4 How does XML work? XML tags are not predefined. You must define your own tags XML uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML Schema to describe the data –Also Relax NG (ISO DSDL) XML with a DTD or XML Schema is designed to be self-descriptive

5 5 Main Difference XML, HTML XML was designed to carry data. XML is not a replacement for HTML. XML and HTML were designed with different goals: –XML was designed to describe data and to focus on what data is. –HTML was designed to display data and to focus on how data looks. HTML is about displaying information, while XML is about describing information. Syntax: XML is well formed, just like XHTML

6 6 XML does not DO anything XML was created to structure, store and to send information John Jane Reminder Don't forget the book!

7 7 XML is Free and Extensible XML tags are not predefined. You must "invent" your own tags. The tags used to mark up HTML documents and the structure of HTML documents are predefined. The author of HTML documents can only use tags that are defined in the HTML standard (like,, etc.). XHTML is an application of XML but not vice- versa.

8 8 Benefits XML extensibility and structured nature of XML allows it to be used for communication between different systems from one source of XML-based information you can format and distribute it via a multitude of different channels – XSL files act as templates, allowing a single stylesheet to be used to format multiple pages or the same content for multiple distribution channels

9 9 XML is a Complement to HTML XML is not a replacement for HTML. –In future Web development it is most likely that XML will be used to describe the data, while HTML will be used to format and display the same data. XML is a cross-platform, software and hardware independent tool for transmitting information.

10 10 XML in Future Web Development XML is going to be everywhere. the XML standard has been developed quickly and a large number of software vendors have adopted it. XML might be the most common tool for all data manipulation and data transmission.

11 11 XML Can be Used to Create New Languages XML is the mother of WAP and WML. The Wireless Markup Language (WML), used to markup Internet applications for handheld devices like mobile phones, is written in XML. And many others …

12 12 Viewing XML to view XML documents hierarchically or view their output, you need an XML parser and processor. there are a number of these tools available: See examples at: Please note, however: XML was not designed to display data.

13 13 The basic XML flow

14 14 XML Rules 1.Every start-tag must have a matching end-tag. 2.Tags cannot overlap. Proper nesting is required. 3.XML documents can only have one root element. 4.Element names must obey the following XML naming conventions: a)Names must start with letters or the "_" character. Names cannot start with numbers or punctuation characters. b)After the first character, numbers and punctuation characters are allowed.

15 15 XML Rules (cont.) c)Names cannot contain spaces. d)Names should not contain the ":" character as it is a "reserved" character. e)Names cannot start with the letters "xml" in any combination of case. f)The element name must come directly after the "<" without any spaces between them. 5.XML is case sensitive. 6.XML preserves white space within text. 7.Elements may contain attributes. If an attribute is present, it must have a value, even if it is an empty string "".

16 16 Spot the error! Tove Jani

17 17 Spot the error! Tove Jani

18 18 With XML, CR / LF is converted to LF Windows: CR + LF Unix: LF Macintosh: CR

19 19 There is Nothing Special About XML plain text with XML tags Software that can handle plain text can also handle XML. In an XML-aware application, the XML tags can be handled specially: –Visibility, –Functional meaning, etc.

20 20 Is this an error? Tove Jani Don't forget me this weekend! Reminder

21 21 XML Elements have Relationships Elements are related as parents and children. Root element / Parents Children / Siblings

22 22 Elements An element consists of all the information from the beginning of a start-tag to the end of an end-tag including everything in between. E.g. from (X)HTML, all of the following would be the equivalent of one element, named h1: This is a heading. –Where, is the start tag, is the end tag, and the content is in between. Each XML document has a root element within which all other elements are nested.

23 23 Examples See at: – /ij_02_10_04a.html /ij_02_10_04a.html – egIntAdv.xml egIntAdv.xml – /ij_02_10_04a.html – egIntAdv.xml –Search more by yourself and familiarize yourself with the syntax!

24 24 XML Attributes XML elements can have attributes. From HTML you will remember this: The SRC attribute provides additional information about the IMG element.

25 25 Attributes versus Elements Anna Smith female Anna Smith

26 26 Comments same as in any other languages with line(s) of code whose sole purpose is to provide the developer, and anyone reading the code in the future, information about the code.

27 27 XML declaration Every XML document begins with a declaration (not mandatory, but good practice) Or, using optional attributes:

28 28 Document Type Definition (DTD) which tags and attributes are allowed, where they can be placed, whether or not they can be nested within a given document and what additional entity definitions are required

29 29 Document Type Declaration (DOCTYPE) Root document URL to DTD (external subset via a system identifier)

30 30 Internal vs External DTD declaration Internal: ]> External, public:

31 31 Valid XML Documents A "Valid" XML document is a "Well Formed" XML document, which also conforms to the rules of a Document Type Definition (DTD): Tom Jane Reminder Don't forget me this weekend!

32 32 Validator syntax-check any XML file Also at:

33 33 Internal DTD Tove &cs; Reminder Don't forget me this weekend!

34 34 External DTD >> saved as file note.dtd

35 35 Character Entities What are they? How would you write an XML element called ‘summary’ for the following data: –The result is <17% of the original The result is ??

36 36 Character Entities Character entities are a way to solve this problem and get around the limitations of computer character sets (old ones) and keyboards. << >> '‘ "“ && Are all standard XML entities and can be used without fear of compatibility issues.

37 37 Numeric Character Reference “A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode” –Wikipedia Eg: –Σ Σ Σ Σ –All represent "Σ"

38 38 Defined Entities in DTDs Three types: –Internal –External –Parameter For parameterizing the DTD Start with a % not a & Entirely different to other entities ity_references

39 39 XML Schema (XSD) XML Schema is an XML based alternative to DTD. W3C supports an alternative to DTD called XML Schema:

40 40 Displaying your XML Files with CSS? It is possible to use CSS to format an XML document. Example: XML file: The CD catalogThe CD catalog style sheet: The CSS fileThe CSS file product: The CD catalog formatted with the CSS fileThe CD catalog formatted with the CSS file Below is a fraction of the XML file. The second line,, links the XML file to the CSS file

41 41 Displaying XML with XSL XSL is the preferred style sheet language of XML. XSL (the eXtensible Stylesheet Language) is far more sophisticated than CSS. examples: –View the XML file, the XSL style sheet, and View the result.View the XML filethe XSL style sheetView the result

42 42 XML Conclusions We have learned: –XML history –What it is –How it works –Differences to (X)HTML –XML flow –XML Rules –XML Elements, Relationships, Attributes, Comments –Well-formed-ness concept –XML supporting frame: XML Schema or DTD –Generics on displaying XML

43 43 Next we are looking into more specific information about how to display XML and more, with …

44 44 XSL

45 45 XSL XSL is an XML-based language used for stylesheets that can be used to transform XML documents into other document types and formats. XSL is a family of recommendations for defining XML document transformation and presentation. It consists of three parts.

46 46 XSL parts: XSL Transformations (XSLT)XSLT –a language for transforming XML XML Path Language (XPath)XPath –an expression language used by XSLT to access or refer to parts of an XML document. (XPath is also used by the XML Linking specification)XML Linking XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO)XSL-FO –an XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics

47 47 Conclusion XSL We have learned: –What is XSL –What are its parts Next: –Not all parts are equally important –We look at the most important one …

48 48 XSLT

49 49 XSLT XSLT became a W3C Recommendation 16. November most important part of XSL transforms input document (source tree) into a particular way in a specified output document (result tree). built on a structure known as an XSL template: e.g., this selects one/all movies Multiple templates: first the root template; if that doesn’t match, the next, etc. XPath

50 50 XSLT Browsers nearly all major browsers support XML and XSLT. Mozilla Firefox –v 1.0.2, Firefox has support for XML and XSLT (and CSS). Mozilla –XML + CSS. Namespaces. Available with an XSLT implementation. Netscape –v 8, uses the Mozilla engine. Opera –v 9, XML, XSLT (and CSS). V 8 only XML + CSS. Internet Explorer –v 6, XML, Namespaces, CSS, XSLT, and XPath. V 5 NOT ! compatible

51 51 XSLT Elements in common use used as root element of nearly all XSLT stylesheets. Version number: current number of XSLT specification from W3C.W3C xmlns is the path to the XML Namespace defined by the W3C for the XSLT Transformation language. Currently, that path is

52 52 Example Correct Style Sheet Declaration

53 53 Example use of template My CD Collection Title Artist.. XML: xsl/cdcatalog.xml xsl/cdcatalog.xml Result:http://www.w3schoo ex1.xmlhttp://www.w3schoo ex1.xml

54 54 XSLT Elements in common use (2) call other templates repeatedly insert specified content from source tree into result tree output method to use, e.g., xml, text, or html.

55 55 Pull method: value-of My CD Collection Title Artist.. View the XML fileView the XML file, View the XSL fileView the XSL file, and View the resultView the result

56 56 Push method: apply-templates My CD Collection Title: Artist: View the XML fileView the XML file, View the XSL file, and View the result.View the XSL fileView the result

57 57 XSLT Elements in common use (3) dynamically create generic elements during the transformation process insert some specified text (PCDATA)

58 58 XSLT Elements in common use (4) evaluate an expression; if true, the contents are evaluated. Some content or XSL elements here more flexibility: one of any number of choices + default choice

59 59 Format choose: Result number one. Result number two. The default result.

60 60 Example: choose result XLS fileXML file

61 61 XSLT Elements in common use (5) loop for a set of nodes; to form template within template. take sections of source tree and copy them directly to the result tree

62 62 Example: for-each result XLS fileXML file

63 63 Why an XML Editor? XML Schema to define XML structures and data types XSLT to transform XML data SOAP to exchange XML data between applications WSDL to describe web services RDF to describe web resources XPath and XQuery to access XML data SMIL to define graphics Altova's XMLSpy –30 days free trial –

64 64 Conclusions XSLT We have learned: –XSLT Definition –Correct style sheet declaration –XSLT common elements –Looked at some examples –Browsers and their support for XSLT and more –About XML editors for editing XSLT and more

65 65 Next: –We look at how to access elements and attributes inside the XML (for XSLT and more) –This can be done via … –XPATH

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