Presentation on theme: "Lecture V The Role of Communications for Globalization and Cosmopolitansim Johan Lindell, Ph. D Student Media and Communication Studies."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture V The Role of Communications for Globalization and Cosmopolitansim Johan Lindell, Ph. D Student Media and Communication Studies Karlstad University
Info Take-home exam : Posted tomorrow night on Kurstorget Deadline is AM, Wednesday, 17th of Feburary Hand-in – do not mail. Wednesday : Starts Jochen Hoffman will visit Division into 8 groups for presentations Important information on the individual essays ”Kommunikation och Globala Medier” – students. Jakob Svensson will visit on Wednesday to inform you on your essays and the course evaluation Monday 15/2 Open Lecture. Guest lecturer from communication agency. All MKV students invited.
Lecture outline 1.) Technological determinism 2.) Globalization and Communication 3.) The Expressions of Globalization
1.) Technological Determinism
Technological Determinism: A philosophical standpoint emphasizing the impact of technology upon societies Technology determine societies (social structures and cultural values) E.g. global communication infrastructure -> notions of humanity united
Raises questions on what role technology plays in shaping society and culture How does a technology impact upon society? What drives history – human agency vs. technology Common myths/discourses on technological impact on societies:
The technological deterministic discourse1. The printing press (Gutenberg, 15th century) -> - Emergence of the ’imagined community - Formation of nation- states - Democratization of religion -> reformation - Emphasis on vernacular
The technological deterministic discourse 2. Computer mediated communcation (cmc) -> - Re-invention of direct democracy (’e- participation’) - Revolutions in education - Completely new ways of thinking - Knowledge-society - No social classes
Control. History. What makes history progress? Man or Machine? Human agency vs. technology
’Middle-ways’ Smith, M. R & Marx, L (1994), MacKenzie, D & Wajcman, J (1999): - Common discourses : ”the automobile created suburbia”, ”the printing press led to the reformation”. - Before and after – perspective is fallacious. - ’Hard’- vs. ’soft’ determinism Innis, H (1950, 1951): - Communication media (technology) as resources to help/promote human agency that in turn ’bounces back’ as societal effect. Castells, M (1996) - ”technology does not determine society. Nor does society script the course of technological change. Technology is society” - Role of the state Mosco, V (2006). - New technologies enter society, myths of great change/improvement are created around these new technologies. The same political economy dynamics remain.
2. Globalization and Communication
Defining Globalization The uprooting of human activities – political, cultural, economic, social or: interconnectedness -> interdependencies of many different parts in the world. From a communication studies perspective: Why globalization? – because it is possible to communicate on a global scale ”Only in the past couple of centuries, as every human community has gradually been drawn into a single web of trade and a global network of information, have we come to a point where each of us can realistically imagine contacting any other of our six billion conspecifics and sending that person something worth having: a radio, an antibiotic, a good idea.” (Appiah, 2006: x)
Tracing the History of the Globalization of Communication Thompson, J. (1995). Media and Modernity – ch. 5 ’The Globalization of Communication’ Main points: - Today communication is increasingly global - This promotes a ’ reordering ’ of time and space - This in turn, promotes global interconnections interdependencies = globalization. - Globalization is a progress, not an end state. Started mainly with three processes during the 19th century:
Tracing the History of the Globalization of Communication 1.) 1830’s. The telegraph – electric communication via transatlantic underwater cables. No more messengers – Washington and Baltimore connected 1865 – Britain and India connected 1870s – Europe linked to large parts of the world 1924 – King George V sends a message to himself that circulated the globe in 80 seconds 2.) 19th century. Emergence of global news networks. Significant in three ways 1.) News over large territories 2.) Global in scope 3.) Reached big audiences 3.) Electro-magnetic waves. The emergence of organziations with the mission to dissiminate radio frequencies.
Different globalization[ s] – The dimensions of globaliation Cultural : ’Global images’, global audiences, value-spreading, ’neo-imperialism’/’media imperialism’. World culture. Social : Global social relations, mobility, tourism, sense global of community. Political : Supra-national organizations: UN, WTO etc. Supra- national governance: ’world-police’, Obama phenomenon, regionalization: EU. Cosmopolitansim Economic : Common discourse. Trade links, instant money transaction - global business. Global exploitation of labour Common thread: they all depend on global communication infrastructure.
Conceptualizing globalization Appadurai, A. (1996). ’Scapes’ that capture the globalization of all human activity: ethnoscapes, financescapes, mediascapes, technospaces etc. Castells, M. (1996). In globalization – new logic of space : from ’space of place’ to ’space of flows’ ’Flows’ (= purposeful, repetivite, programmable sequences of exchange and interaction between physically disjointed positions) Flows are ”expressions of processes dominating our economic, political and symbolic life.” (p. 442).
How do we notice globalization in everyday life?
3.) Expressions of Globalization How is the organization of our world different now (in the midst of the process of globalization) compared to ’before’?
’Expression 1’: The Rise of Global Cities Mainly located and considered within the economy-dimension of globalization According to Castells’ ’trilogy’, in globalization cities have become increasinlgy important nodes for all human activity. Globalization demands infrastructural nodes
If cities have turned into cultural, social, economic, and political centers….is the rural rendered dysfunctional?
’Expression 2’ - Cosmopolitanism
Cosmopolitanism is: Political cosmopolitanism : Supra-national governance, the lessening power of the nation and the increasing power of supra-national power. E.g. The United Nations. The world as one nation, world citizenship. (e.g Kant, 1795, Habermas, 1996) Socio-cultural cosmopolitanism : A global awareness. Openess towards diveristy and multi- culturalism. Life-style. Travelling. ”A willingness to engage with the Other” (Hannerz, 1990; Rantanen, 2005)
’Mediated Cosmopolitanism’ On the one hand : We can access virtual spaces (internet forums) and engage with ’Others’ on anonymous basis – collective efforts and common goals on a global scale. ’Pop-cosmopolitanism’ (Jenkins, 2005) – ’ Softer ’ cosmopolitanism e.g. fan-communities. Watching anime (alternative cultural experience) -> learn about Japanese culture
’Mediated Cosmopolitanism’ …on the other hand: What do we actually do online? Trolling, flaming -> irrationality and inhospitality on online public spaces. Same 10 websites over and over again. Not ”engaging with the Other”. (Tomlinson, 2001): Technologies of the hearth: new technologies are merely new ways in which we communicate with the same people (Bauman, 2001): Compassion is still local, not global – we can see but cannot/will not act
What do you think? Does media promote cosmopolitanism? - Do we engage with ’the Other’ through media? - Do we better understand other cultures through media?
References and Reading tips Appiah, A. (2005). Cosmopolitansim – Ethics in a World of Strangers. Penguin Books Appadurai, A. (1995). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. University of Minnesota Press Bauman, Zygmunt. (2001). ‘Whatever Happened to Compassion?’ in Bentley, Tom & Stedman Jones, Daniel (ed) The Moral Universe. Demos Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Wiley-Blackwell Castells, M. (2001). The Internet Galaxy – Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society. University of Oxford Press Habermas, J. (1996). The Postnational Constellation. Polity Press Innis, H. (1950). Empire and Communications. University of Toronto Press Innis, H. (1951). The Bias of Communication. University of Toronto Press Kant, I. (1795). Perpetual Peace MacKenzie, D & Wajcman, J (ed). (1999). The Social Shaping of Technology. Open University Press Mosco, V. (2006). The Digital Sublime – Myth, Power and Cyberspace. MIT Press Rantanen, T. (2005). The Media and Globalization. SAGE Publications Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press Smith, M. R & Marx, L. (1994). Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. MIT Press Thompson, J. (1995). Media and Modernity – A Social Theory of the Media. Stanford University Press Tomlinson, John. (2001). Instant access: Some cultural implications of ‘globalising’ technologies. University of Copenhagen