Presentation on theme: "Diplomacy and World War II, 1929-1945 During World War II, American foreign policy changed from disengagement to neutrality and finally to total involvement."— Presentation transcript:
Diplomacy and World War II, During World War II, American foreign policy changed from disengagement to neutrality and finally to total involvement.
Herbert Hoovers Foreign Policy Hoover reaffirmed the countrys belief that the U.S. should not enter into firm commitments with other nations (League of Nations) Isolationism Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928, initiated by the U.S., most nations in the world signed, renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends
Japanese Aggression in Manchuria Early 1930s, Japan defied the Open Door Policy and League of Nations by invading Manchuria in 1931 League of Nations condemned the attack, but did nothing else Japan walked out The League showed its inability to keep peace
FDRs Policies, Crisis at home prevented Roosevelt from focusing too much on foreign policy Good Neighbor Policy: tried to improve relations with Latin America Persuaded Congress to nullify the Platt Amendment (except Guantanamo Bay) Roosevelt recognized the Soviet Union in 1933
Fascism and Aggressive Militarism Economic hardship, nationalism and bitterness over the outcome of WWI Italy: Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) and the Fascist Party Germany: Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, policy of anti- Semitism – 1933 Japan: Militarists, emperor is a puppet, invaded China and SE Asia for raw materials
American Isolationists Lindbergh joins the America First Committee Many Americans, disillusioned with WWI, do not want to be drawn into another conflict Neutrality Act of 1935 Neutrality Act of 1936 Neutrality Act of 1937 America First Committee: formed by isolationists in 1940 and warned countries against the folly of getting involved in Europes troubles
Prelude to War Late 1930s, the policy of appeasement allowed Hitler to build a powerful army and use it – Rhineland, Sudetenland Munich Conference: 1938, country gives into Hitler to avoid war Italy: invaded Ethiopia in 1935 Japan: entered into a full scale war with China in 1937 FDR argued for neutrality/arms buildup and Congress agrees
Outbreak of War Sept. 1939, Hitler (and Stalin) invaded Poland Britain and France declared war Blitzkrieg: lightning war (air power and fast tanks) Soon most of Europe was under Nazi control/influence Great Britain remained free Americans sympathetic to Britain, but still neutral FDR believed British survival was crucial to U.S. security
U.S. and Neutrality FDR chipped away at the neutrality laws to give aid to Britain Cash and Carry: allowed the U.S. to sell aid to Britain (but transported on British ships) Selective Service Act: 1940, peacetime registration of males for a draft Destroyers for bases: U.S. gave Britain older destroyers for military bases in Caribbean
Election of 1940 Roosevelt breaks the two term tradition Republicans nominated Wendell Willkie FDR won with 54% of popular vote
Election of 1940
Arsenal of Democracy Dec.1940 fireside chat: We must be the arsenal of democracy Lend-Lease Act: 1941, gave Britain arms it needed on credit (neighbors house on fire) Atlantic Charter: FDR and Churchill met to discuss post-war goals Japan joins Axis in 1940, relationship is strained with U.S. U.S. cut off trade of vital resources (oil) to Japan U.S. wanted Japan out of China Negotiations did not work
America Joins the War December 7, ,400 Americans killed FDR addressed Congress the next day and said Dec. 7 th a date that will live in infamy Congress agreed and declared war Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.
The Home Front Hitler invaded Russia in 1941 Allies: U.S., Britain and Soviet Union U.S. government organized a number of agencies to mobilize the war effort War Production Board (WPB) was established to manage war industries By 1944 unemployment virtually disappeared U.S. output was twice that of Axis powers
The Home Front Govt. set production priorities and controlled raw materials Office of Price Administration (OPA) froze prices, wages and rents Rationing of meat, sugar, gasoline and auto tires War bonds to raise $ Shortage of goods made it easier for Americans to save
The Wars Impact on Society Like WWI, jobs were available for African-Ams. and women Great Migration Discrimination and segregation Double V – V for victory over fascism and V for victory for equality at home Mexican immigrants came for jobs, met resentment 25,000 Native Americans served 5 million women entered work force, Women took factory jobs – for less pay than men Rosie the Riveter
Propaganda Governments war propaganda was everywhere Posters, songs, and news bulletins Maintain public morale, encourage people to sacrifice and conserve resources and increase war production Office of war Information controlled news about troop movements and battles Patriotism!
Japanese Americans Suspected of being potential spies/saboteurs for Japan Japanese invasion of West Coast? 1942 – U.S. government ordered +100,000 to leave their homes and reside in interment camps Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) the Supreme Court upheld the interment policy of the government as justified in wartime 1988 – financial compensation was awarded 20,000 Japanese –Americans did serve in WWII
Election of 1944 Many felt that, in the war emergency, there should be no change in leadership FDRs running mate was Harry S. Truman NY governor Thomas Dewey ran for the Republicans Roosevelt and Truman won 53% of popular vote in electoral college FDR died several months into his fourth term
World War II: The Battlefronts D-DayTwo fronts or theatres of operation Pacific and Europe Europe: Driving Germans out of North Africa (Operation Torch) Sicily and Italy D Day invasion on June 6 th 1944 – Nazi occupied France U.S. troops learned of the Holocaust as they pushed into Germany 6 million Jewish civilians died
World War II: The Battlefronts Pacific Theatre Battle of Midway island hopping General Douglas MacArthur kamikaze Iwo Jima Okinawa Manhattan Project directed by Robert Oppenheimer built the atomic bomb Truman decides to have it used on Japan – Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Germany and Japan Surrender Germany surrenders on May 7 th 1945, Hitler committed suicide on April 30 th Japan was still in the war August 6 th and 9 th 1945 the atomic bombs were dropped and Japan surrenders
Wartime Conferences During the war the Big Three met several times to discuss war and post-war plans Casablanca in 1943 Teheran in 1943 Yalta in 1945: Germany divided into zones free elections in liberated Europe Soviets will enter into war with Japan United Nations to be formed
The Wars Legacy Most destructive war in history 300,000 American dead 800,000 wounded Excluding the Civil War, more Americans died in WWII than all other wars combined National debt grew to $250 billion Cities unscarred U.S. emerges as a superpower New rivalry emerged between communist Russia and democratic U.S.
The United Nations Unlike the League of Nations after WWI, Congress accepted the peacekeeping organization that was created after WWII In April, 1945, delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco, where they drafted a charter for the United Nations The Senate quickly voted to accept U.S. involvement in the U.N.