Presentation on theme: "Diplomacy and World War II,"— Presentation transcript:
1Diplomacy and World War II, 1929-1945 During World War II, American foreign policy changed from disengagement to neutrality and finally to total involvement.
2Herbert Hoover’s Foreign Policy Hoover reaffirmed the country’s belief that the U.S. should not enter into firm commitments with other nations (League of Nations)IsolationismKellogg-Briand Pact: 1928, initiated by the U.S., most nations in the world signed, renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends
3Japanese Aggression in Manchuria Early 1930s, Japan defied the Open Door Policy and League of Nations by invading Manchuria in 1931League of Nations condemned the attack, but did nothing elseJapan walked outThe League showed itsinability to keeppeace
4FDR’s Policies,Crisis at home prevented Roosevelt from focusing too much on foreign policyGood Neighbor Policy: tried to improve relations with Latin AmericaPersuaded Congress to nullify the Platt Amendment (except Guantanamo Bay)Roosevelt recognized the Soviet Union in 1933
5Fascism and Aggressive Militarism Economic hardship, nationalism and bitterness over the outcome of WWIItaly: Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) and the Fascist Party -1922Germany: Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, policy of anti-Semitism – 1933Japan: Militarists, emperor is a puppet, invaded China and SE Asia for raw materials
6American Isolationists Lindbergh joins the America First CommitteeMany Americans, disillusioned with WWI, do not want to be drawn into another conflict Neutrality Act of 1935 Neutrality Act of 1936 Neutrality Act of 1937 America First Committee: formed by isolationists in 1940 and warned countries against the folly of getting involved in Europe’s troubles
7Prelude to WarLate 1930s, the policy of appeasement allowed Hitler to build a powerful army and use it – Rhineland, SudetenlandMunich Conference: 1938, country gives into Hitler to avoid warItaly: invaded Ethiopia in 1935Japan: entered into a full scale war with China in 1937FDR argued for neutrality/arms buildup and Congress agrees
8Outbreak of War Sept. 1939, Hitler (and Stalin) invaded Poland Britain and France declared warBlitzkrieg: lightning war (air power and fast tanks)Soon most of Europe was under Nazi control/influenceGreat Britain remained freeAmericans sympathetic to Britain, but still neutralFDR believed British survival was crucial to U.S. security
9U.S. and NeutralityFDR chipped away at the neutrality laws to give aid to Britain“Cash and Carry”: allowed the U.S. to sell aid to Britain (but transported on British ships)Selective Service Act: 1940, peacetime registration of males for a draftDestroyers for bases: U.S. gave Britain older destroyers for military bases in Caribbean
10Election of 1940 Roosevelt breaks the two term tradition Republicans nominated Wendell WillkieFDR won with 54% of popular vote
12Arsenal of DemocracyDec.1940 fireside chat: “We must be the arsenal of democracy”Lend-Lease Act: 1941, gave Britain arms it needed on credit (neighbor’s house on fire)Atlantic Charter: FDR and Churchill met to discuss post-war goalsJapan joins Axis in 1940, relationship is strained with U.S.U.S. cut off trade of vital resources (oil) to JapanU.S. wanted Japan out of ChinaNegotiations did not work
13America Joins the War December 7, 1941 2,400 Americans killed FDR addressed Congress the next day and said Dec. 7th “a date that will live in infamy”Congress agreed and declared warThree days later Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.
14The Home Front Hitler invaded Russia in 1941 Allies: U.S., Britain and Soviet UnionU.S. government organized a number of agencies to mobilize the war effortWar Production Board (WPB) was established to manage war industriesBy 1944 unemployment virtually disappearedU.S. output was twice that of Axis powers
15The Home FrontGovt. set production priorities and controlled raw materialsOffice of Price Administration (OPA) froze prices, wages and rentsRationing of meat, sugar, gasoline and auto tiresWar bonds to raise $Shortage of goods made it easier for Americans to save
17The War’s Impact on Society Like WWI, jobs were available for African-Ams. and womenGreat MigrationDiscrimination and segregation“Double V” – V for victory over fascism and V for victory for equality at homeMexican immigrants came for jobs, met resentment25,000 Native Americans served5 million women entered work force, Women took factory jobs – for less pay than men“Rosie the Riveter”
18Propaganda Government’s war propaganda was everywhere Posters, songs, and news bulletinsMaintain public morale, encourage people to sacrifice and conserve resources and increase war productionOffice of war Information controlled news about troop movements and battlesPatriotism!
19Japanese AmericansSuspected of being potential spies/saboteurs for JapanJapanese invasion of West Coast?1942 – U.S. government ordered +100,000 to leave their homes and reside in interment campsKorematsu v. U.S. (1944) the Supreme Court upheld the interment policy of the government as justified in wartime1988 – financial compensation was awarded20,000 Japanese –Americans did serve in WWII
22Election of 1944Many felt that, in the war emergency, there should be no change in leadershipFDR’s running mate was Harry S. TrumanNY governor Thomas Dewey ran for the RepublicansRoosevelt and Truman won 53% of popular votein electoral collegeFDR died several months into his fourth term
23World War II: The Battlefronts D-DayTwo fronts or “theatres of operation”Pacific and EuropeEurope:Driving Germans out of North Africa (Operation Torch)Sicily and ItalyD Day invasion on June 6th 1944 – Nazi occupied FranceU.S. troops learned of the Holocaust as they pushed into Germany6 million Jewish civilians died
24World War II: The Battlefronts Pacific TheatreBattle of Midway“island hopping”General Douglas MacArthurkamikazeIwo JimaOkinawaManhattan Project directed by Robert Oppenheimer built the atomic bombTruman decides to have it used on Japan – Hiroshima and Nagasaki
25Germany and Japan Surrender Germany surrenders on May 7th 1945, Hitler committed suicide on April 30thJapan was still in the warAugust 6th and 9th 1945 the atomic bombs were dropped and Japan surrenders
26Wartime ConferencesDuring the war the Big Three met several times to discuss war and post-war plansCasablanca in 1943Teheran in 1943Yalta in 1945:Germany divided into zonesfree elections in liberated EuropeSoviets will enter into war with JapanUnited Nations to be formed
27The War’s LegacyMost destructive war in history 300,000 American dead 800,000 wounded Excluding the Civil War, more Americans died in WWII than all other wars combined National debt grew to $250 billion Cities unscarred U.S. emerges as a superpower New rivalry emerged between communist Russia and democratic U.S.
28The United NationsUnlike the League of Nations after WWI, Congress accepted the peacekeeping organization that was created after WWIIIn April, 1945, delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco, where they drafted a charter for the United NationsThe Senate quickly voted to accept U.S. involvement in the U.N.