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Main activities in NORTRIP 2010/11 (until next meeting) Focus on the processes that affect road dust generation and emission Identify the most critical.

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Presentation on theme: "Main activities in NORTRIP 2010/11 (until next meeting) Focus on the processes that affect road dust generation and emission Identify the most critical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Main activities in NORTRIP 2010/11 (until next meeting) Focus on the processes that affect road dust generation and emission Identify the most critical processes that affect road dust emissions Gather all relevant (existing) datasets that may be used to understand generation and emissions due to these processes Make sensitivity tests with new or existing parameterisations using the data sets

2 Agenda 9 – 10 Coffee buffé is served 10 – 12 NILU and SMHI road dust emission models (Bruce and Gunnar) – Current parameterizations of important processes – Urgently needed improvements of existing parameterizations – Urgently needed new parameterizations 12 – 13 Lunch 13 – 15 Experimental data and proposed parameterizations for PM10 emissions due to influence of: – Pavement and tire type (VTI) – Sand/salt (FMI) – Road wetness (SLB) – Wind and traffic induced suspension (DMU) – Vehicle speed (SLB/ITM) – Studded tyre share (SLB/ITM) – Any other process (all) 16 – 17 Conclusions, how to proceed with model testing and validation – 16 Coffee buffé is served

3 Effect on vehicle speed

4 VTI road test facility Several test roads Different pavements Different tyres Gustafsson et al.

5 Speed Emission measurement using EMMA Mixed rural roads Both suspension and direct emission

6 Reduced speed on RV4 Oslo (NILU) In 2005, relative to 2004: Traffic volume on Rv4 was reduced by 3% 10% less studded tyres Measured speed was reduced by 12 km/h Foto: Aftenposten, Tor Richardsen

7 Reduced speed on RV4 Oslo (NILU) Changed concentration on RV4 compared to other station without reduced speed limit: PM10:- 36 % PM10, max hour:- 30 % PM10, max daily:- 20 % PM coarse fraction:- 39 % (Road dust)

8 Speed dependent PM10 emission factor multiple linear regression of road side data Johansson et al., 2010 mgPM10/vkm per 10 km/h Motorways Road tunnel Motor- way

9 Impact on PM10 of speed reductions Johansson et al., 2010

10 Data to be used for Vehicle speed Institution/RefSiteConditionsEF mg/vkm per km/h VTI Gustafsson et al Laboratory100% studded Dry road Quartzite 70 km/h? SLB Johansson et al 2010 (unpublished) Highways (E18, E4) Ca km/h Quartzite Studded tyres (70%) Range: 6.7 – 10 SLB Johansson et al 2010 (unpublished) Road tunnel Ca km/h Quartzite Studded tyres (70%) Range: 5.4 – 7.0 NILU Tönnesen et al Highway Speed restriction Different seasons 20% studded(-39% for -12 km/h if 200 mg/vkm=> 6.5 mg/vkm per km/h) NILU Rosland et al Oslo, Kirkeveien20%? studded tyresTo be calculated ITM Hussein et al Rural roadsStudded/summer Potential emission Metropolia Pirjola et al Various roadsStudded, non- studded, summer

11 STUDDED TYRES

12 Studded tyres VTI road test facility Gustafsson et al.

13 Tyre type VTI road test facility 30 km/h 50 km/h 70 km/h Studded winter tyres Non-studded Nordic winter tyres Summer tyres Gustafsson et al.

14 Studded tyres Södra länken road tunnel Measurements of PM10/Nox ratio => emission factor =f(studded tyre share)

15 Christmas Holiday Summer Holiday Ban on studded tyres reduced amount of traffic Hornsgatan Trafiken minskade med 25 % jan – apr 2010

16 Reduced studded tyre share due to ban ~40 % av fordonen hade dubbat på Hornsgatan ~50-55 % på andra gator och 65 % på infarterna Förbud från 1 jan 2010 Förbud

17 Studded tyre influence on emissions in street canyons ~40% lägre emissioner under Jan-Mar Samband mellan PM10 halter och dubbandel: Veckomedelvärden av PM10 halterna som funktion av dubbandelen Okt –Dec 2003 ~15-20 % lägre emissioner under hela året

18 Studded tyre fees in Norway Study from 2001 shows that: 10 % reduction (absolute) studded tyres 1 µg PM10/m3 reduction winter season mean value Impact on emission factor?

19 Studded tyre share InstitutionSiteConditionsEF mg/vkm per % VTI Gustafsson et al LaboratoryDry road Quartzite 5 – 10?? SLB Unpublished Road tunnel 50 – 100 km/h Quartzite4 SLB Unpublished Street canyon 40 km/h Quartzite NILU Tönnesen? Oslo Trondheim? Long term decrease of studded tyre use

20 Road wetness InstitutionSiteConditionsEF SLB Norman & Johansson Hornsgatan+Sveavä gen 40 km/h veh/day Street canyon NILU Rosland… Oslo, KirkeveienStreet canyon

21 Pavement InstitutionSiteConditions VTI Gustfsson et al Laboratory

22 2009/10 Snörik vinter => färre överskridande Antal dygn >50 ug/m 3 Rullande veckomedelvärden ug/m 3

23 Betongbeläggning Emissionsmätning Betong ger 25% - 30% lägre emission med dubbdäck Johansson et al, 2009

24 Bullerdämpande beläggning Emissionsmätning Referens Bullerdämp. Johansson, 2010 Mängden suspenderbart material vägytorna viktigare än beläggningsegenskaperna

25 Factors/processes FactorPrioritySIMAIRNILU NILU TÖNNESEN DMU Possible to improve in NORTRIP INFO AVAILABLE ? TIRE TYPE FACTORS Studded tire shareHYYYNOYES Road surface factors Dust layerHYYNO YESNO Road wetnessHYYNO YESMODELED PAVEMENT RELATED FACTORS Pavement type (abt/abs/???)MNO HARDLYSOMETIMES Pavement material (stone mineral, stone size) HNO YESSOMETIMES TextureLNO HARDLYSOMETIMES Surface temp Frozen roads LNO ? SOMETIMES MODELED Snow/ice coverHNO HARDLY? Relative humidity of the airHNOYES NO?YES Vehicle composition (axel weight, tire size, vehcile size) HNOYES SOMETIMES Vehicle induced suspension Dust in shoulder MYES NO YESNO

26 Factors/processes FactorPrioritySIMAIRNILU NIUL TÖNNESEN DMU Possible to improve in NORTRIP INFO AVAILABLE ? ABATEMENT RELATED FACTORS Sanding Sand type HYNO YESSOMETIMES SaltingMNO?NO YESSOMETIMES Vehicle speedMNOYYYYES Dust bindingMNO YES Street cleaningMNO YES?SOMETIMES Shadowing of houses Solar radiation LNO ?SOMETIMES Trees (leaf area index) Shadowing Bioaerosols LNO ?SOMETIMES Side walk sandingL?NO ?SOMETIMES PrecipitationHYYYNO YES DrainageMYYNO YES?NO Slope of the roadMNNNNNSOMETIMES Wind induced turbulenceLNNNNYYES Brake /tyre?


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