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NORTRIP Cecilia Bennet Göran Blomqvist Mats Gustafsson

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Pavements (D max = 11 mm, 50 km/h) Nordic Ball Mill value PM 10 (mg/m 3 )

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Multipel linear regression (road simulator) PM10 = 1,38NBM-0,087RH+2,9SP-0,00038 NBM = Nordic Ball Mill value RH = relative humidity SP = stud protrusion

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Emission factors derived from road simulator Emissionsfaktor (mg fkm -1 )EF PM0,6 -andel av EF PMXX Emissionsfaktor (antal fkm -1 ) Hastigh et (km h - 1 ) EF PM0,6 EF PM1 Korr EF PM1 EF PM2,5 Korr EF PM2,5 EF PM10 Korr EF PM10 EF PM1 EF PM2,5 EF PM10 EF antal,7-600nm Michelin300,10,30,1031,003913,000,320,030,00214,40E+10 X-Ice North500,10,90,30206, ,670,140,010,00049,90E ,21,90,63248, ,670,120,010,00022,30E+12 Nokian300,20,40,1331,003812,670,510,060,00587,00E+10 Hakkapeliitta 4500,210,33155, ,330,250,020,00151,00E ,32,10,70237, ,000,150,010,00052,80E+12 Bridgestone300,10,20,0720,67124,000,550,060,01068,10E+10 Noranza500,20,80,2793, ,000,30,030,00169,90E ,410,33144, ,000,260,030,00023,60E+12 Michelin300,2 0,070,20,070,70,230,940,790,252,10E+11 X-Ice500,1 0,030,10,030,80,270,920,780,133,10E ,1 0,030,10,0372,330,870,620,018,10E+10 Nokian300,10,20,070,60,2031,000,670,270,0473,30E+10 Hakkapeliitta RSi* 500,10,20,070,50,1762,000,650,240,0222,60E ,10,20,071,10,379030,000,360,050,0014,70E+10 Bridgestone300,3 0,100,30,100,480,160,950,850,5812,20E+10 Turanza500,3 0,100,30,100,450,150,950,850,5691,70E ,2 0,070,20,0720,670,930,770,0042,00E+10 Nokian300,1 0,030,20,070,240,080,920,690,522,10E+10 NRHi Ecosport500,1 0,030,10,030,20,070,90,650,441,40E ,1 0,030,20,070,920,310,830,390,091,20E+10 studded unstudded summer

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Emission factors The road simulator in theory: CSource Sink mg/m3

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Emission factors cont. The source is S=C(eq)*D [mg/m3/h] for this specific room. The speed of the four weels that simulates one car is v [km/h] The volume of the room is V [m3] Emission factor per vehicle km = C*D * V/v [mg/vehicle km] Note: D is sensitive to which data are used for the fitting. D differs for different speeds. S/D seems to differ for different RH. Roughtly, at 30 km/h EF=C(eq)*80

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CMA+ -- Source function -- Theoretical -- Measured concentration

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CMA+

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The RH ”problem”.

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Evaluation of street cleaners Dry Humid

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Passive IVL-filters and on-vehicle measurements of PM10

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Road surface moisture…

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Deposition on passive filters

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…plus mobile measurements…

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…plus road moisture 0-30mm

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Possible contributions Emission factors Pavement and tyre parameters Ongoing development RH? Effects of measures Dust binding (modelling the effect) Street cleaning Importance of surface humidity on gravel roads

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