Presentation on theme: "Philosophy Part II. Rationalism We are talking about various theories of epistemology Yesterday we looked at empiricismwe know stuff through perception."— Presentation transcript:
Rationalism We are talking about various theories of epistemology Yesterday we looked at empiricismwe know stuff through perception and experience Rationalism maintains that we learn things through the use of reason (think Socrates) and sensory experience takes a back seat to logic and reasoning Emmanuel Kant is an example. (some folks think he is related to the more optimistic scourge of the Mongolian steppes, Genghis Khanbut I believe this is misguided) Knowledge gained by empiricism would be a posteriori (no Boris this is not another butt joke) but means dependent on evidence and experience. Knowledge gained by rationalism is a priori or existing independent of experience.
Skepticism This is another flavor of epistemology It is a method of trying to find truth by systematic doubt and continuous testing It is close to empiricism, but some skeptics believe that truth is impossible to find (a contradiction because that statement would be a truth) David Hume is an example.
Dialectica different kind We connect this idea with Hegel and Marx Youve probably seen it before. Thesis + antithesis = synthesis Synthesis becomes the new thesis which gives rise to a new antithesis. These two combine to form a new synthesis…etc. Its like a philosophical Song that never ends Mr. Snapedraw zee peecture please.
A couple more isms--utilitarianism Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness and wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. Happiness is defined as pleasure and the absence of pain. Unhappiness is the presence of pain and the absence of pleasure, much like a lecture on philosophy.
Pragmatism In shortwhat good effects does something produce? If none, then it sucks. If some, it may have value. If many then it is so fine, as in a roomful of English teachers. This ism has been temporarily suspended because global warming has severely limited our supply of prag.
This is the last oneI swear. Phenomenology Literally it means study of that which appears. Heidegger (Pedros guy) is way into this so I will only define it. Phenomenology attempts to make subjective--things like emotion, perception and judgmentobjective. Sonaanee, naanee, naanee.