Presentation on theme: "The Lure of Imperialism"— Presentation transcript:
1The Lure of Imperialism The Main IdeaThe United States entered the imperialist competition later than the European powers but soon extended its influence in the Pacific region.Reading FocusWhat inspired the imperialist activity of the late 1800s?How did the United States take control of Hawaii?How did the United States gain influence in China?How did the United States exert influence in Japan?
2ImperialismStronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nationsaka: ExpansionismInvolves the extension of a nation’s power over other lands.Why:Economic interestsMilitary needsIdeologyTerritory
3Alfred T. MahanWrote the book The Influence of Sea Power Upon HistoryGoal: Navy wanted to convince Congress to build modern steam-powered ships to protect tradeBook said: The economic future of the nation depended on gaining new markets abroad and that a powerful navy would be essential to protect these markets.
4Design the cover of the Book Design what you think the cover would look like.(50 points)
5Albert J. Beveridge Justify the conquest of new territories He believed that we are advanced races and we are superior to the “primitive” societies that we conqueredIt is very noble to save those who might otherwise never had encountered such ideas.
6Queen Liliuokalani, LAST QUEEN OF HAWAII X QUEEN LILIUOKALANI WAS FORCED TO ABDICATE HER THRONE IN 1894 UNDER PROTEST.Queen Liliuokalani,LAST QUEEN OF HAWAIIX
7Taking Control of Hawaii British explorer James Cook first visited Hawaii in 1778.Hawaii was ideally located for coaling stations and bases for ships trading between the U.S. and Asia.American missionaries and others came to Hawaii and raised crops, particularly sugarcane.The sugar industry grew and gained influence and control.King Kalakaua negotiated a treaty that made Hawaiian sugar cheap to import to the United States.
8Queen Liliuokalani Sister of King Wanted to do away with bayonet constitution. Wanted Hawaii for Hawaiians!Members of business community wanted to overthrow her.Sugar planters overthrew her with the help of the U.S. marines.Sugar tycoon Sanford Dole became president of the Republic of Hawaii.Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898.
9Open Door to ChinaEuropean powers gained spheres of influence (areas of economic control) in China.The United States feared it would be shut out of the valuable China trade.1899-Secretary of State John Hay wrote to major European power trying to persuade them to keep an “Open Door” to China.US would have equal access to China’s millions of consumersChinese resented foreign influence of any kind.
10Why: Chinese didn’t want foreigners in their country. Boxer RebellionStarted in 1900 led to the massacre of 300 foreigners & Christian ChineseWhy: Chinese didn’t want foreigners in their country.Eventually defeated by Europeans.Hay wrote a 2nd Open Door Notes about preserving the treaty.
11Diplomacy and naval superiority help the U.S. gain influence in Japan. Japan was isolated and unindustrialized until the mid-1800s.Commodore Matthew Perry brought four steamships into Tokyo Bay in 1853 to pressure Japan to open its ports to trade.Japan quickly became an industrial and military power to compete with the West.
12The Spanish-American War The Main IdeaA quick victory in the Spanish-American War gave the United States a new role as a world power.How did simmering unrest in Cuba lead to rebellion?Why did Americans get war fever?What happened in the course of the Spanish-American War?Why was annexing the Philippines controversial?
13Video about SA WARWrite down at least 8 things you learned from the video.
15Simmering Unrest in Cuba Cubans launched a series of revolts against Spain beginning in 1868.Valeriano Weyler was sent by Spain with 150,000 Men to put down the rebellion.José Marti moved to New York City in 1878, continuing to agitate for Cuban independence through newspaper articles and poetry.Marti returned to Cuba to participate in a revolt in February 1895 but was killed, becoming a hero instantly.
16Cuban Guerrillas US refused to get involved Cuban Guerrillas-Soldiers who fought using surprise tacticsTurned their attention to the destruction of American owned sugar Plantations and mills in CubaWHY?
17Why did the US get involved? 1.Business owners were mad because they were losing money.Business owners increased their pressure on the government to act.2. Used Yellow Journalism to get Americans interested in what was going on in Cuba.
18Spanish General Valeriano Weyler Moved the entire rural population of Central and Western Cuba300,000 filled camps where 1000s died from hunger and diseaseYellow Journalism was used to sway American sentiment to the side of the rebels.
19Yellow JournalismFabricated headlines & articles with little attention to the facts, designed to grab the attention & stir up emotions of readersW. Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer – used Yellow Journalism to sell newspapers.“Furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.” (Hearst)Some stories were pure fabrications of Spanish cruelty & atrocity & continually called for U.S. intervention to halt Spanish aggressionPoliticians listened to the public’s sentiments
22USS Maine in Havana harbor. De Lome Letter Explosion of the USS Maine. Steps to WarUSS Maine in Havana harbor.De Lome LetterExplosion of the USS Maine.
23De Lome LetterA letter written by the Spanish minister to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lome, which ridiculed President McKinleyCalled him “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”Was stolen by Cuban rebel and published by the New York Journal.
24Americans resented their President being made fun of. De Lome Letter OUTCOME!Americans resented their President being made fun of.McKinley now had to prove his war courage, or so it seemed!
27Use Yellow Journalism and don’t forget to blame the Spanish. Caption to PictureWrite your own caption that goes along with this picture of the USS Maine exploding. (10 points)Use Yellow Journalism and don’t forget to blame the Spanish.
28USS MaineFebruary 15, 1898Was sent over to protect Americans lives and propertyIt blew up in Havana harbor, killing 266 American sailors.Although there was no proof, the explosion was blamed on a Spanish mineNow, there was huge US support for war with Spain.
31TR-assistant Secretary of the Navy Philippine IslandsTR-assistant Secretary of the NavyTR said “ Philippines could become a key base from which the US might protect its Asian trade”TR cabled navel commanders to prepare for military action again Spain.Admiral George Dewey received orders.
32Admiral George DeweyWas told to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines IF war broke out with Spain.People wanted war to Remember the Maine and war was declared.Therefore, May 1, 1898-Dewey launched a surprise attack on Spanish ships anchored in Manila Bay
33Dilemma in the Philippines We needed help fighting Spain on land.We ask Filipino rebels to join with us and after we win we will give them their independence.Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had already been fighting Spain so joined with us.Surrounded by Dewey (at sea) and Aguinaldo (on land), Spanish forces surrendered.
34Back in Cuba U.S. War Department was unprepared for war in Cuba. American strategy was to control the port city of Santiago.Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders were called into action.Rough Riders were a group of hastily organized volunteers.Went to battle at San Juan Hill.TR led his troops saying “Follow Me”Most famous incident of the war.TR became hero.The U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba.2,500 died in War (400 in battle) the rest died of food poisoning, yellow fever, malaria and bad medical care.
37Treaty of Paris-December 10, 1898 1.Spain gave up all claims to Cuba.2.The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico and Guam.3.Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million.US became a powerful imperialist nation.
38Annexing the Philippines US citizens couldn’t agree if we should annex (take control of) the Philippines or not.For AnnexationBelieved the United States had a duty to spread its values overseas.Philippines had economic and strategic value that should not fall into the hands of other countries.Against AnnexationBelieved annexation would violate the ideal of self-governmentDid not want oppression to occur; The United States should not export racism and violenceSome Americans believed annexation would increase immigration to the United States.
39Dilemma in the Philippines Filipino didn’t want to become US citizensFilipino rebels very angry because they had helped us and we broke our promise to them.Emilio Aguinaldo-rebel leader-refused to accept annexation and declared the Philippines a republicUS ignored his statement and war eruptedWar broke out! Lasted 3 yearsUS lost 4,200 Americans and We killed 16,000 rebels and 100,000 of the Filipino civiliansOn July 4, 1946, finally got independence!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
40Roosevelt and Latin America The Main IdeaThe United States began to exert its influence over Latin America in the wake of the Spanish-American War.How did the United States govern Cuba and Puerto Rico?Why and how was the Panama Canal built?What was the Roosevelt Corollary?How did Presidents Taft and Wilson reshape U.S. diplomacy?
41US controls Cuba and helps by: 1. Set up a military government. 2. Organized school system 3. Fixed the economy 4. Advances were made to eliminate yellow fever (William C. Gorgas)
42Platt Amendment1.This limited Cuba’s ability to sign treaties with other nations2. The U.S. had the right to intervene in Cuban affairs3.Set up military bases (Guantanamo Bay)4. Cuba is now a protectorate – a country under the control and protection of another country.
43The United States in Puerto Rico President McKinley also set up a military government on this island.The United States governed Puerto Rico as a territory.Foraker Act of 1900 established that the U.S. would appoint a governor and upper house of legislature. Puerto Rican voters elected the lower house.A 1917 law granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and ability to elect all legislative representatives.In 1952, Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth, with power over most of its domestic affairs. The U.S. still controls interstate trade, immigration, and military affairs.
44Preparing for the Panama Canal The United States bought the rights to build the canal from the French in 1902.U.S. InterestPanama was a part of the Republic of Colombia. Revolutionaries were plotting to break free of Colombian rule.President Theodore Roosevelt supported the revolution and quickly recognized the new government, the Republic of Panama. A new treaty with the government gave the United States complete control of the 10-mile-wide Canal Zone.Panama’sRevolution
45Why a Canal?Isthmus of Panama-was an ideal for a quick route between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.Problem: Panama was a province of Columbia they had tried to build the canal in 1879 and failed.Yellow fevermismangement.It offered to sell the rights to US for $100 million.In 1901 price went to $40Congress agreed on but we still needed to get land from Columbia
46Panamanian RevoltWaiting for French contract to expire so they could sell it at a higher price.TR mad because they were trying to rob the US.So he conspired with an official of the French company to organize a Panamanian “revolution” against Columbia.Revolt took place and we placed US warships in the area to provide support for the rebels.Therefore: We got the land to build the Canal.
47Building the Panama Canal American work began in May 1904.Harsh working conditions, material shortages, malaria, and the yellow fever hampered construction.Dr. William C. Gorgas focused on sanitation and health concerns.By draining standing water and encouraging spiders, ants, and lizards to breed, malaria was almost eliminated by 1913.Finished in August months ahead of schedule.The SS Ancon became the first ship to pass through the canal.It gave the US a quick route between oceans!
491907-TR sent four squadrons of battleships The Great White Fleet1907-TR sent four squadrons of battleshipsSent on 43,000-mile, around the world journey.Led by Rear Admiral Charles SperryThe fleet stopped at 20 ports on six continents.
51Great White FleetWrite a radio advertisement trying to get people to come look at the Ships.Be Creative-20 points
52Roosevelt Corollary-Background The Monroe Doctrine, proclaimed in 1823, declared the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European nations.After the Spanish-American War, presidents backed up the Monroe Doctrine with military strength.In 1904, the Dominican Republic could not pay back European lenders. To prevent Europeans from using force to collect the debt, Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary.
53The Roosevelt Corollary The United States pledged to use force to prevent European countries from seizing Dominican territory.The United States took control of collecting Dominican customs duties.The Corollary was issued without seeking approval from any Latin American nation.The Roosevelt Corollary succeeded in bringing more stability to the region.
54Russo-Japanese WarJapan became industrialized after the US forced it to open trade.TR believed that Japan and Russia need to be kept in check.Went to war over Korea and ManchuriaTR invited them to Portsmouth, New Hampshire-Where he negotiate a peace treatyThis made Japan the strongest power in East Asia.TR’s role as mediator won him the Nobel Peace Prize
55Dollar DiplomacyPresident William H. Taft promoted advancing U.S. interests in other countries through dollar diplomacy,a policy of promoting American economic interests in other countries and using that economic power to achieve American goals.By 1914, Americans had bought out European loans, resulting in an American investment of more than $1.6 billion in Latin America.Some resentment was caused. In 1912, President Taft sent in U.S. troops to stop an uprising against authorities.