Presentation on theme: "The Main Idea The United States entered the imperialist competition later than the European powers but soon extended its influence in the Pacific region."— Presentation transcript:
The Main Idea The United States entered the imperialist competition later than the European powers but soon extended its influence in the Pacific region. Reading Focus What inspired the imperialist activity of the late 1800s? How did the United States take control of Hawaii? How did the United States gain influence in China? How did the United States exert influence in Japan? The Lure of Imperialism
Imperialism Stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations aka: Expansionism Involves the extension of a nations power over other lands. Why: Economic interests Military needs Ideology Territory
Alfred T. Mahan Wrote the book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History Goal: Navy wanted to convince Congress to build modern steam-powered ships to protect trade Book said: The economic future of the nation depended on gaining new markets abroad and that a powerful navy would be essential to protect these markets.
Design the cover of the Book Design what you think the cover would look like. (50 points)
Albert J. Beveridge Justify the conquest of new territories He believed that we are advanced races and we are superior to the primitive societies that we conquered It is very noble to save those who might otherwise never had encountered such ideas.
Queen Liliuokalani, LAST QUEEN OF HAWAII
Taking Control of Hawaii British explorer James Cook first visited Hawaii in Hawaii was ideally located for coaling stations and bases for ships trading between the U.S. and Asia. American missionaries and others came to Hawaii and raised crops, particularly sugarcane. The sugar industry grew and gained influence and control. King Kalakaua negotiated a treaty that made Hawaiian sugar cheap to import to the United States.
Queen Liliuokalani Sister of King Wanted to do away with bayonet constitution. Wanted Hawaii for Hawaiians! Members of business community wanted to overthrow her. Sugar planters overthrew her with the help of the U.S. marines. Sugar tycoon Sanford Dole became president of the Republic of Hawaii. Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898.
Open Door to China European powers gained spheres of influence (areas of economic control) in China. The United States feared it would be shut out of the valuable China trade Secretary of State John Hay wrote to major European power trying to persuade them to keep an Open Door to China. US would have equal access to Chinas millions of consumers Chinese resented foreign influence of any kind.
Boxer Rebellion Started in 1900 led to the massacre of 300 foreigners & Christian Chinese Why: Chinese didnt want foreigners in their country. Eventually defeated by Europeans. Hay wrote a 2 nd Open Door Notes about preserving the treaty.
Diplomacy and naval superiority help the U.S. gain influence in Japan. Japan was isolated and unindustrialized until the mid-1800s. Commodore Matthew Perry brought four steamships into Tokyo Bay in 1853 to pressure Japan to open its ports to trade. Japan quickly became an industrial and military power to compete with the West.
The Main Idea A quick victory in the Spanish-American War gave the United States a new role as a world power. The Main Idea How did simmering unrest in Cuba lead to rebellion? Why did Americans get war fever? What happened in the course of the Spanish-American War? Why was annexing the Philippines controversial? The Spanish-American War
Video about SA WAR Write down at least 8 things you learned from the video.
Cuban Rebellion Should we get involved?
Simmering Unrest in Cuba Cubans launched a series of revolts against Spain beginning in Valeriano Weyler was sent by Spain with 150,000 Men to put down the rebellion. José Marti moved to New York City in 1878, continuing to agitate for Cuban independence through newspaper articles and poetry. Marti returned to Cuba to participate in a revolt in February 1895 but was killed, becoming a hero instantly.
Cuban Guerrillas US refused to get involved Cuban Guerrillas-Soldiers who fought using surprise tactics Turned their attention to the destruction of American owned sugar Plantations and mills in Cuba WHY?
Why did the US get involved? 1.Business owners were mad because they were losing money. Business owners increased their pressure on the government to act. 2. Used Yellow Journalism to get Americans interested in what was going on in Cuba.
Spanish General Valeriano Weyler Moved the entire rural population of Central and Western Cuba 300,000 filled camps where 1000s died from hunger and disease Yellow Journalism was used to sway American sentiment to the side of the rebels.
Yellow Journalism Fabricated headlines & articles with little attention to the facts, designed to grab the attention & stir up emotions of readers W. Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer – used Yellow Journalism to sell newspapers. Furnish the pictures and Ill furnish the war. (Hearst) Some stories were pure fabrications of Spanish cruelty & atrocity & continually called for U.S. intervention to halt Spanish aggression Politicians listened to the publics sentiments
Steps to War 1. USS Maine in Havana harbor. 2. De Lome Letter 3. Explosion of the USS Maine.
De Lome Letter A letter written by the Spanish minister to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lome, which ridiculed President McKinley Called him weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd. Was stolen by Cuban rebel and published by the New York Journal.
De Lome Letter OUTCOME! Americans resented their President being made fun of. McKinley now had to prove his war courage, or so it seemed!
Caption to Picture Write your own caption that goes along with this picture of the USS Maine exploding. (10 points) Use Yellow Journalism and dont forget to blame the Spanish.
USS Maine February 15, 1898 Was sent over to protect Americans lives and property It blew up in Havana harbor, killing 266 American sailors. Although there was no proof, the explosion was blamed on a Spanish mine Now, there was huge US support for war with Spain.
Philippine Islands TR-assistant Secretary of the Navy TR said Philippines could become a key base from which the US might protect its Asian trade TR cabled navel commanders to prepare for military action again Spain. Admiral George Dewey received orders.
Admiral George Dewey Was told to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines IF war broke out with Spain. People wanted war to Remember the Maine and war was declared. Therefore, May 1, 1898-Dewey launched a surprise attack on Spanish ships anchored in Manila Bay
Dilemma in the Philippines We needed help fighting Spain on land. We ask Filipino rebels to join with us and after we win we will give them their independence. Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had already been fighting Spain so joined with us. Surrounded by Dewey (at sea) and Aguinaldo (on land), Spanish forces surrendered.
Back in Cuba U.S. War Department was unprepared for war in Cuba. American strategy was to control the port city of Santiago. Theodore Roosevelts Rough Riders were called into action. Rough Riders were a group of hastily organized volunteers. Went to battle at San Juan Hill. TR led his troops saying Follow Me Most famous incident of the war. TR became hero. The U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba. 2,500 died in War (400 in battle) the rest died of food poisoning, yellow fever, malaria and bad medical care.
Treaty of Paris-December 10, Spain gave up all claims to Cuba. 2.The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico and Guam. 3.Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million. US became a powerful imperialist nation.
Annexing the Philippines For Annexation Believed the United States had a duty to spread its values overseas. Philippines had economic and strategic value that should not fall into the hands of other countries. US citizens couldnt agree if we should annex (take control of) the Philippines or not. Against Annexation Believed annexation would violate the ideal of self- government Did not want oppression to occur; The United States should not export racism and violence Some Americans believed annexation would increase immigration to the United States.
Dilemma in the Philippines Filipino didnt want to become US citizens Filipino rebels very angry because they had helped us and we broke our promise to them. Emilio Aguinaldo-rebel leader-refused to accept annexation and declared the Philippines a republic US ignored his statement and war erupted War broke out! Lasted 3 years US lost 4,200 Americans and We killed 16,000 rebels and 100,000 of the Filipino civilians On July 4, 1946, finally got independence!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
The Main Idea The United States began to exert its influence over Latin America in the wake of the Spanish-American War. The Main Idea How did the United States govern Cuba and Puerto Rico? Why and how was the Panama Canal built? What was the Roosevelt Corollary? How did Presidents Taft and Wilson reshape U.S. diplomacy? Roosevelt and Latin America
US controls Cuba and helps by: 1.Set up a military government. 2.Organized school system 3.Fixed the economy 4.Advances were made to eliminate yellow fever (William C. Gorgas)
Platt Amendment 1.This limited Cubas ability to sign treaties with other nations 2. The U.S. had the right to intervene in Cuban affairs 3.Set up military bases (Guantanamo Bay) 4. Cuba is now a protectorate – a country under the control and protection of another country.
The United States in Puerto Rico President McKinley also set up a military government on this island. The United States governed Puerto Rico as a territory. Foraker Act of 1900 established that the U.S. would appoint a governor and upper house of legislature. Puerto Rican voters elected the lower house. A 1917 law granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and ability to elect all legislative representatives. In 1952, Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth, with power over most of its domestic affairs. The U.S. still controls interstate trade, immigration, and military affairs.
Preparing for the Panama Canal Panama was a part of the Republic of Colombia. Revolutionaries were plotting to break free of Colombian rule. President Theodore Roosevelt supported the revolution and quickly recognized the new government, the Republic of Panama. A new treaty with the government gave the United States complete control of the 10-mile-wide Canal Zone. U.S. Interest The United States bought the rights to build the canal from the French in Panamas Revolution
Why a Canal? Isthmus of Panama-was an ideal for a quick route between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Problem: Panama was a province of Columbia they had tried to build the canal in 1879 and failed. Yellow fever mismangement. It offered to sell the rights to US for $100 million. In 1901 price went to $40 Congress agreed on but we still needed to get land from Columbia
Panamanian Revolt Waiting for French contract to expire so they could sell it at a higher price. TR mad because they were trying to rob the US. So he conspired with an official of the French company to organize a Panamanian revolution against Columbia. Revolt took place and we placed US warships in the area to provide support for the rebels. Therefore: We got the land to build the Canal.
Building the Panama Canal American work began in May Harsh working conditions, material shortages, malaria, and the yellow fever hampered construction. Dr. William C. Gorgas focused on sanitation and health concerns. By draining standing water and encouraging spiders, ants, and lizards to breed, malaria was almost eliminated by Finished in August months ahead of schedule. The SS Ancon became the first ship to pass through the canal. It gave the US a quick route between oceans!
The Great White Fleet 1907-TR sent four squadrons of battleships Sent on 43,000-mile, around the world journey. Led by Rear Admiral Charles Sperry The fleet stopped at 20 ports on six continents.
Great White Fleet Write a radio advertisement trying to get people to come look at the Ships. Be Creative-20 points
Roosevelt Corollary-Background The Monroe Doctrine, proclaimed in 1823, declared the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European nations. After the Spanish-American War, presidents backed up the Monroe Doctrine with military strength. In 1904, the Dominican Republic could not pay back European lenders. To prevent Europeans from using force to collect the debt, Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary.
The Roosevelt Corollary The United States pledged to use force to prevent European countries from seizing Dominican territory. The United States took control of collecting Dominican customs duties. The Corollary was issued without seeking approval from any Latin American nation. The Roosevelt Corollary succeeded in bringing more stability to the region.
Russo-Japanese War Japan became industrialized after the US forced it to open trade. TR believed that Japan and Russia need to be kept in check. Went to war over Korea and Manchuria TR invited them to Portsmouth, New Hampshire- Where he negotiate a peace treaty This made Japan the strongest power in East Asia. TRs role as mediator won him the Nobel Peace Prize
Dollar Diplomacy President William H. Taft promoted advancing U.S. interests in other countries through dollar diplomacy, a policy of promoting American economic interests in other countries and using that economic power to achieve American goals. By 1914, Americans had bought out European loans, resulting in an American investment of more than $1.6 billion in Latin America. Some resentment was caused. In 1912, President Taft sent in U.S. troops to stop an uprising against authorities.