Group Presentations Present your teams analysis of the misunderstanding in the scenario you read. What was your discussion like? Did your team members all agree on the problem? What solutions might you suggest for this situation?
Final Project 1.National Identity: What does it mean to be an American? What is the US national identity? 2.Cultural Profile: Describe Americans according to the T/H-T dimensions. Provide recommendations for doing business with Americans. 3.Socializing Influences: How are Americans socialized? What are the most important sources of values for American children? 4.Regional Identity: Is Austin typical of Texas? Is Texas typical of the US? What regional patterns can you identify from your research? 5.Demographics: What cultural sub-groups characterize Austin? What characteristics do various groups exhibit? 6.Cultural Evolution/Influence: What issues (political, social, ethnic, generational, religious, etc.) are currently shaping American culture?
Models of Culture E. T. Hall The Silent Language Culture Defines Boundaries – Dividing Line between What is Normal and What is Not (Consensual Sex vs. Rape in US and Mid-East) Culture Is Subconscious Perceived as Real or Normal Recognized Only when Severely Challenged
Spencer-Oatey, H. (2000). Culturally Speaking : Managing Rapport through Talk across Cultures. London, Continuum Culture Dictates –Expectation of Behavior from Others –Interpretation of Meaning in Others Behavior So what happens when cultural norms are not shared?
Hofstede, Geert, (1991) Values - broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others Three Levels of Culture - Rituals (ways of greeting and paying respect) - Heroes (admired persons who serve as an example for behavior) - Symbols (words, color or other artifacts that carry a special meaning)
Different people may see the same event differently
Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner, (1998) Riding the Waves of Culture Culture is made of Basic Assumptions: Universalism vs. Particularism Analyzing vs. Integrating Individualism vs. Collectivism Time as sequence vs. Time as synchronization Achieved status vs. Ascribed status Equality vs. Hierarchy
Universalism/ Particularism Security, Predictability No Bold Action Self-Determinism Anarchy
Analyzing/Integrating Analytical, Scientific Paralysis by Analysis Holistic, Comprehensive Lack of Clarity about Specifics
Equality/Hierarchy Everyone Is Valued Lacks Direction/Clarity Decisions Made Efficiently Good Ideas Not Heard
Affective/Neutral Problems Clear/Resolvable Emotion over Reason Logical/Rational Difficult to Read
Discussion Based on these cultural parameters, how would you describe the conflicts in the intercultural scenarios you analyzed earlier?
Exercise 3 Imagine that your team is a bi-cultural group as described below. Using the T/H-T handout, predict the challenges for your group working on a project. Team 1: Denmark and Italy – Achievement/Ascription Team 2: Switzerland and Venezuela - Universalist/ Particularist Team 3: Canada and Korea – Individualism/Collectivism Team 4: USA and China – Short Term/Long-Term Focus Team 5: Germany and Spain – Low/High Context Team 6: Spain and Japan – Affective/Neutral Team 7: Great Britain and Germany – Analyzing/Integrating
Discussion Reflect on the cultural models we have discussed. Where do you fall on the continua in the Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner model? Do you believe you are typical of people from your country of residence? What factors are responsible for variation within your country of residence? How helpful do you think the model is in predicting the behavior of people in your country of residence?
Cultural Difference Affects Business Relationships Between Companies and their Representatives Business Systems Business Processes Areas of Emphasis
For Next Time Schedule meeting with instructor for next class Memorize Trompenaars Cultural Features
Review: What Have We Learned So Far about Cultural Interaction?
Cultural Models Identify Differences in Expectation and Behavior They Dont Account for Individual Variation
Homework 2 Due for Session 5 Reflect on the cultural models we have discussed. Based on the Trompenaars model: Austrian and U.S. students: Create a profile of Chinese culture. Chinese Students: Create a profile of Austrian culture using the German values where necessary. Interview Austrian students to learn differences between German and Austrian culture. You will hand in a written cultural outline and present your findings in class.