2 Group PresentationsPresent your team’s analysis of the misunderstanding in the scenario you read. What was your discussion like? Did your team members all agree on the problem? What solutions might you suggest for this situation?
3 Final ProjectNational Identity: What does it mean to be “an American”? What is the US “national identity”?Cultural Profile: Describe Americans according to the T/H-T dimensions. Provide recommendations for doing business with Americans.Socializing Influences: How are Americans socialized? What are the most important sources of values for American children?Regional Identity: Is Austin typical of Texas? Is Texas typical of the US? What regional patterns can you identify from your research?Demographics: What cultural sub-groups characterize Austin? What characteristics do various groups exhibit?Cultural Evolution/Influence: What issues (political, social, ethnic, generational, religious, etc.) are currently shaping American culture?
5 Models of Culture E. T. Hall The Silent Language Culture Defines Boundaries – Dividing Line between What is Normal and What is Not (Consensual Sex vs. Rape in US and Mid-East)Culture Is SubconsciousPerceived as “Real” or “Normal”Recognized Only when Severely Challenged(Taken from Dahl “Overview” Article)
6 Spencer-Oatey, H. (2000). Culturally Speaking : Managing Rapport through Talk across Cultures. London, ContinuumCulture DictatesExpectation of Behavior from OthersInterpretation of Meaning in Others’ BehaviorSo what happens when cultural norms are not shared?
7 Hofstede, Geert, (1991)Values - broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over othersThree Levels of Culture- Rituals (ways of greeting and paying respect)- Heroes (admired persons who serve as an example for behavior)- Symbols (words, color or other artifacts that carry a special meaning)
8 Different people may see the same event differently
9 Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner, (1998) Riding the Waves of Culture Culture is made of Basic Assumptions:Universalism vs. ParticularismAnalyzing vs. IntegratingIndividualism vs. CollectivismTime as sequence vs. Time as synchronizationAchieved status vs. Ascribed statusEquality vs. Hierarchy
15 Lacks Direction/Clarity Decisions Made Efficiently Equality/HierarchyEveryone Is ValuedLacks Direction/ClarityDecisions Made EfficientlyGood Ideas Not Heard
16 Problems Clear/Resolvable Affective/NeutralProblems Clear/ResolvableEmotion over ReasonLogical/RationalDifficult to Read
17 DiscussionBased on these cultural parameters, how would you describe the conflicts in the intercultural scenarios you analyzed earlier?
18 Exercise 3 Team 1: Denmark and Italy – Achievement/Ascription Imagine that your team is a bi-cultural group as described below. Using the T/H-T handout, predict the challenges for your group working on a project.Team 1: Denmark and Italy – Achievement/AscriptionTeam 2: Switzerland and Venezuela - Universalist/ ParticularistTeam 3: Canada and Korea – Individualism/CollectivismTeam 4: USA and China – Short Term/Long-Term FocusTeam 5: Germany and Spain – Low/High ContextTeam 6: Spain and Japan – Affective/NeutralTeam 7: Great Britain and Germany – Analyzing/Integrating
20 Discussion Reflect on the cultural models we have discussed. Where do you fall on the continua in the Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner model?Do you believe you are typical of people from your country of residence?What factors are responsible for variation within your country of residence?How helpful do you think the model is in predicting the behavior of people in your country of residence?
21 Cultural Difference Affects Business Relationships Between Companies and their RepresentativesBusiness SystemsBusiness ProcessesAreas of EmphasisRelationships Between Companies and their RepresentativesCustomer/Supplier, Partners, CompetitorsBusiness SystemsAccounting, Management, HR, Finance, PR/Marketing,Business ProcessesProject Planning, Staffing, Scheduling, Delivery, Customer Support, MaintenanceEmphasisOn-Time Delivery, Product Quality, Customer Responsiveness,
22 For Next Time Schedule meeting with instructor for next class Memorize Trompenaars Cultural Features
23 Review: What Have We Learned So Far about Cultural Interaction?
24 Cultural Models Identify Differences in Expectation and Behavior They Don’t Account for Individual Variation
26 Homework 2 Due for Session 5 Reflect on the cultural models we have discussed. Based on the Trompenaars model:Austrian and U.S. students: Create a profile of Chinese culture.Chinese Students: Create a profile of Austrian culture using the German values where necessary. Interview Austrian students to learn differences between German and Austrian culture.You will hand in a written cultural outline and present your findings in class.