What is DDA “User-led” selection of new books Utilises the instant accessibility of e-book acquisitions Enables staff to test the level of demand for a title before purchase Staff select the range (profile) of books on offer Time/cost-effective way to meet reader needs instantly Readers need not know that the books are not owned by the institution
EBL = Electronic Books Library Aggregator offering access to multiple publishers’ e-books Purchase content outright – own in perpetuity Unlimited simultaneous access (up to 325) Non-linear™ Lending = multiple- concurrent access to all titles up to 325 ‘loans’ per year – renewing automatically annually Loan = 24 hours view / download = 1 credit Free Browse Period – 10 Minutes owned / 5 minutes non-owned Books may be “borrowed” to mobile e-reader devices
Mobile devices for EBL i-Pad i-Phones & android phones Sony e-readers Other e-readers using Adobe Digital Library e.g. KOBO, NOOK etc. χ Does not work on Kindles Bluefire reader on i -Pad
EBL reader requests Less than 10 requests via this model in 2 years Is DDA the answer?
Buying from EBL Choose books Choose preselected fund Drop down to fund code Books available in 30 seconds OCLC Marc record loaded centrally to SOLO Charged to subject budget Very popular
The DDA project in Oxford Unlike other universities, no dedicated staff The DDA team Research - Jo Gardner (Health Care Libraries) Operation - Hilla Wait (Philosophy & Theology Librarian) Acquisitions and Payments - Ann Evans, Nicky Mountfort, Zita Vellinga (C&RD staff) Cataloguing - Alison Felstead, Nathalie Chaddock- Thomas (C&RD staff) Techie bits - Nathalie Schulz, Andy MacKinnon (BLDDS) Oversight - Catriona Cannon (Associate Director, Collection Support)
Research on DDA in other UK HE institutions Newcastle University EBL, launched February 2010 King’s College, London EBL, launched December 2010 UWE DawsonEra, launched March 2012 Case studies on JISC web-site https://ebmotmet.wikispaces.com/Case_studies https://ebmotmet.wikispaces.com/Case_studies Patron-driven acquisitions : history and best practices / edited by David A. Swords. De Gruyter Saur. 2011 ISBN: 9783110253016
Newcastle University 18 month project, launched Feb 2010 £80k budget at start All subjects ‘Ebooks Team’ = 4 technical experts, and 8 liaison librarians More than 110,000 DDA records loaded onto catalogue in one week Purchase triggered on third loan request (revised to fifth request) All requests mediated by acquisitions staff, forwarded to subject librarians if >£35.
King’s College, London Service implemented in December 2010 All subjects, but main target groups are humanities and social sciences Staffing: 2 members of technical team Created a ‘Scholarly Collection Profile’ of 90,000 titles Purchase triggered on fourth loan request No requests are mediated Readers are limited to one ‘loan’ per day.
UWE 6 month trial, launched March 2012 £5K budget at start Limited to criminology, forensics, genetics. Staffing: Acquisitions Librarian and 2 subject librarians Collection created by subject librarians, limited by Dewey range and publication date 2800 records loaded onto catalogue Purchase triggered after one loan request Purchase mediated by subject librarians if >£15
DDA in other UK HE institutions: Conclusions Huge variations Budgets Collection profile Staff Configuration Evaluation Need to evaluate, respond rapidly and adjust frequently “Finding a sustainable funding method for PDA remains a challenge”
Adapting DDA for Oxford Difficulties Scale and complexity of Oxford’s operations Membership of cataloguing consortia Large community of external users Materials budget devolved to subject librarians Avoiding duplication with existing e-book subscriptions Finding time Strengths Long experience with e-books Existing relationships with e-book suppliers Very expert technical staff Highly-motivated and diverse readership Aim to test whether the model enables a more rapid and targeted response to reader needs for new acquisitions
DDA In Oxford Pilot scheme was set up for TT 2012 Initial budget - £5,000 Provided by Oxford’s existing e-books supplier EBL Instant access including mobile devices Books limited to recent academic publications (2009-2012) in humanities, medical & biological sciences (33 publishers) 10,000 records added to SOLO Lump sum paid up-front to suppliers Readers encouraged to register to enable tracking of trial books Rental and purchase limited to University members
Acquisitions Workflow A separate distinct fund-code was set up with EBL to pay for these titles Unusually, we paid in advance into a Blackwell's deposit account Invoices were prepaid and added to ORACLE. These invoices were for the initial pilot amount in advance. This was topped up as the project continued and further funding was found. Full title lists of purchased items were supplied and acquisitions staff placed retrospective orders on Aleph against each distinct purchased title A dummy order was placed on the system to link to invoices for loans “Dummy packing-slip invoices” were sent on a weekly basis, and invoices were added to Aleph, including VAT costs. As already prepaid on ORACLE, these were then just scanned online for reference. There were separate invoices for loans and for outright purchases. Subject librarians could continue to make direct purchases from EBL against their own funds without confusion with the DDA pilot.
Cataloguing Workflow 1 Oxford completed a technical profile for the supply of the MARC catalogue records for SOLO EBL provided a file of nearly 10K records, with URLs, based on the subject selection profile BDLSS loaded the full records into the Aleph Resources File, to keep them separate from the main bibliographic database (and prevent export) The records were published to SOLO, and clustered with records for the print titles The titles in SOLO were “switched on” by EBL at the agreed time, to provide access to authenticated readers by clicking the URLs When purchases were triggered by readers, the same mechanism as used for standard ebook purchases kicked in
Cataloguing Workflow 2 A notification was sent to the ebooks cataloguer, and a second catalogue record for each purchased title was made available for downloading from OCLC The ebooks cataloguer downloaded the records from OCLC and prepared them for loading as usual These OCLC records were generally of better quality than those supplied by EBL These records were loaded into the main bibliographic database and published to SOLO This meant there were two records for the same purchased ebook in SOLO for the duration of the pilot: an acceptable risk The ebooks cataloguer sent the record control numbers and titles for purchase to acquisitions staff At the end of the pilot, the EBL records were removed from SOLO by “suppressing” (but not deleting) them in the Resources File These records can be unsuppressed if the project resumes, or deleted in bulk from Aleph
Project Launch Deliberately low-key No publicity to readers (already experienced in using EBL books Information to library staff Background to project How to identify the books (Bib02 system numbers) How to support readers Warning that the books would not be accessible to external readers
Access Model for DDA Titles Free Browse Period of 5 minutes per title First access = 24 hour rental =10% charge Second access = 24 hour rental =10% charge Third access = auto-purchase = permanent = 100% charge Total cost per book = 120% of normal e-book cost Very expensive books required staff mediation for rental or purchase Potential limit on number of rentals per reader per day Regular reports and alerts
The Reader Experience Bibliographical record on SOLO appears identical to other e-book records This book is not yet available in print in Oxford
At the end of 5 minutes browse The reader can choose to carry on And trigger a loan ($19.50 in this example)
Information to project staff E-mail to report rental Invoice report
Access to very expensive books Limit of £25 per rental Staff mediation for more expensive titles 2 requests – both agreed within 3 hours
Adjustments during the Oxford project Additional funding extended the project several times Introduction of registration option to assist with analysis Switching on (and off) the loan/purchase cost display Setting limits for the number of loans per patron per day Additional guidance to reading room staff (external readers issues)
Time-scale and Costs Original budget £5,000 Increase of £3,000 before project start Additional £3,000 Final costs underwritten to end £5,713 Project ran 1 May-15 June 2012 At peak, averaging £3,000 per week Final costs: £16,713.38 80 Auto-purchases 856 rentals
What can the pilot tell us? Analysis Age of purchases Print availability Time of access Reader type Subject areas Feedback Over time, analyse repeat use of purchases
Usage example E-book rented while print copy was on loan
What do we know already The demand is there Way of spending money very fast Way of satisfying reader needs very fast Avoids paying purchase price for books which may only be needed once Difficult to limit by subject without putting in a lot more work on the profile
Accessibility versus availability DDA project moved 10,000 records from EBL catalogue to SOLO Full EBL catalogue accessible from OxLIP+ - 278686 titles University members already had free 10 minutes browse per title and a purchase request option Requests over 2 years <10 Presence on SOLO is critical to usage Confirms JISC emphasis on metadata Have to mediate, either preselecting records to load or mediating the purchase requests
Future plans: the debate A new DDA pilot: Start with a lot more money Newcastle have £180,000 p.a. (operating a mediated system) Have a longer time-frame Include excluded subject areas Include a feedback request at the loan confirmation screen Tighten up restrictions on loans per patron Estimate for 6 month full pilot: £250,00-300,000 Mediated request system Load all non-owned EBL records onto SOLO Use the request form for access requests once browse time has elapsed Smaller budget Requests processed within 24 hours Loans or purchases? More purchases from pilot list