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UNIT II DATA TYPES OPERATORS AND CONTROL STATEMENT 1.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT II DATA TYPES OPERATORS AND CONTROL STATEMENT 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT II DATA TYPES OPERATORS AND CONTROL STATEMENT 1

2 Introducing Classes Class Methods Constructors Keyword this

3 Class A class is declared by use of the class keyword. A class is a template for an object, and an object is an instance of a class. The general form of a class is: class class_name { type instance_variable1; type instance_variable2; // ….. type method_name1(parameter_list) { // body of method }

4 A Simple Class class Time { int hour; int minute; int second; }

5 Declaring and Creating Objects An object is nothing but an instantiation of a class. An object declaration is like any other variable. Time t1; //declaration t1 = new Time(); //create You can combine declaration and creation. Time t1 = new Time();

6 Write a program to define and use an object of class Time class Time { int hour; int minute; int second; } class time1{ public static void main(String args[]) { int total; Time t1= new Time(); t1.hour=5; t1.minute=30; t1.second=0; total=t1.hour*60*60 + t1.minute*60+t1.second; System.out.println(" Total seconds "+ total); } time1.java

7 7 //time2.java class Time { int hour; int minute; int second; } class time2 { public static void main(String args[]) { int total; Time t1= new Time(); Time t2= new Time(); t1.hour=5; t1.minute=30; t1.second=0; t2.hour=2; t2.minute=20; t2.second=10;

8 8 total=t1.hour*60*60 + t1.minute*60+t1.second; System.out.println(" Total seconds "+ total); total=t2.hour*60*60 + t2.minute*60+t2.second; System.out.println(" Total seconds "+ total); } time2.java

9 Introducing Methods A class in Java contains data in the form of variables. In addition, a class contains functions to work with these variables. These functions are termed as methods in Java

10 Methods class Time { int hour; int minute; int second; int total () { return 3600*hour + 60*minute + second; } class time3{ public static void main(String args[]) { int result; Time t1= new Time(); t1.hour=5; t1.minute=30; t1.second=0; result=t1.total(); System.out.println(" Total seconds "+ result); } } time3.java

11 Methods with Parameters A parameterized method can operate on a variety of data be used in a number of slightly different situations. class Time { int hour; int minute; int second; void convert(int n) { int temp=n; second=n%60; temp=temp/60; minute=temp%60; hour=temp/60; }

12 12 time4.java void display() { System.out.println(":TIME:"); System.out.println("Hours="+hour); System.out.println("Minutes="+minute); System.out.println("Seconds="+second); } class time4{ public static void main(String args[]) { Time t1= new Time(); t1.convert(7840); t1.display(); }

13 Constructors A constructors method is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when created. They have the same name as the class and do not have any return type. Constructors are two types: Default Constructors Parameterized Constructors

14 Default Constructors Class Box { double width; double height; double depth; Box () // this is the constructor for Box { System.out.println(Constructing Box ); width=10; height=10; depth=10; }

15 15 class Box { double width; double height; double depth; Box() // this is the constructor for Box { System.out.println("Constructing Box"); width=10; height=10; depth=10; } double volume() { return width*height*depth; }

16 16 class Box1 { public static void main(String args[]) { Box mybox= new Box(); // declare,allocate and initialize Box objects double vol; vol=mybox.volume(); System.out.println("Volume is "+vol); } Box1.java

17 Parameterized Constructors Class Box { double width; double height; double depth; // this is the parameterized constructor for Box Box ( double w, double h, double d) { System.out.println(Constructing Box ); width= w; height= h; depth= d; } Box2.java

18 Keyword this The this keyword is used inside any instance method to refer to the current object. The value of this refers to the object on which the current method has been called. class amount { int rupee; int paise; amount(int r1, int p1) // constructor { rupee=r1; paise=p1; } }

19 Keyword this cont… class amount {int rupee; int paise; amount(int rupee, int paise) // constructor { rupee=rupee; paise=paise; } } In this parameter our computer cannot resolve this ambiguity. Keyword this comes solve it.

20 20 class amount { int rupee; int paise; amount( int rupee, int paise) { rupee=rupee; paise=paise; } void disp() { System.out.println("rupee:"+rupee); System.out.println("paise:"+paise); } }

21 21 class amount_out { public static void main(String args[]) { amount am1= new amount(10,50); // declared an object of class amount am1.disp(); } amount_out.java

22 22

23 Keyword this cont… amount(int rupee, int paise) // constructor { this.rupee=rupee; this.paise=paise; } this.rupee refers to rupee for current object and rupee represents the parameter. amount1.java

24 24 class amount { int rupee; int paise; amount( int rupee, int paise) { this.rupee=rupee; this.paise=paise; } void disp() { System.out.println("rupee:"+rupee); System.out.println("paise:"+paise); }

25 25 class amount1 { public static void main(String args[]) { amount am1= new amount(10,50); // declared an object of class amount am1.disp(); }

26 26 Output

27 27 Arrays, and Strings

28 28 Arrays, and Strings Introducing Arrays Declaring Arrays, Creating Arrays, and Initializing Arrays Array of Objects Copying Arrays Multidimensional Arrays String

29 29 Introducing Arrays double[] myList = new double[10] Array is a data structure that represents a collection of the same types of data. Java treats these arrays as objects. An Array of 10 Elements of type double

30 30 Declaring Arrays datatype[] arrayname; Example: int[] myList; datatype arrayname[]; Example: int myList[];

31 31 Creating Arrays arrayName = new datatype[arraySize]; Example: myList = new double[10];

32 32 Declaring and Creating in One Step datatype[] arrayname = new datatype[arraySize]; double[] myList = new double[10]; datatype arrayname[] = new datatype[arraySize]; double myList[] = new double[10];

33 33 Initializing Arrays Using a loop: for (int i = 0; i < myList.length; i++) Declaring, creating, initializing in one step: double[] myList = {1.9, 2.9, 3.4, 3.5}; array1.java

34 34 class array1 { public static void main(String args[]) { float total=0, avg; int j; int marks[];// decalared marks= new int[5];// creation System.out.println("the array is:"); marks[0]=26; marks[1]=43; marks[2]=56; marks[3]=67; marks[4]=45; for(j=0;j

35 35

36 36 Multi – Dimensional Arrays Arrays in Java can have more than one dimension. We are all familiar with N *N matrices. matrix1.java

37 37 // Demonstration of Matrix using Array class matrix1 { public static void main(String args[]) { int i,j; int matrix[][]={ {1,2,3}, {4,5,6}, {7,8,9} }; System.out.println("the matrix is:"); for(i=0;i<=2;i++) { for(j=0;j<=2;j++) { System.out.print("\t"+matrix[i][j]); } System.out.println(); } } }

38 38

39 39 Enhanced for Loop Now we can set a loop as for(int j:marks) { body of the loop } Here, body of the loop is executed for every value j which is present in an array. It is equivalent to a standard for loop like: for(i=0;i

40 40 Copying Arrays Using a loop: int[] sourceArray = {2, 3, 1, 5, 10}; int[] targetArray = new int[sourceArray.length]; for (int i = 0; i < sourceArray.length; i++) targetArray[i] = sourceArray[i];

41 41 The arraycopy Utility arraycopy(sourceArray, src_pos, targetArray, tar_pos, length); Example: System.arraycopy(sourceArray, 0, targetArray, 0, sourceArray.length);

42 42 Strings Strings is a combination of characters. Strings are instances of the class string. Java has a class String defined in the package java.lang. this is a string

43 43 Declaring and Constructing a String An object of class String is declared just like any other object declaration String s1; s1=Good Morning Another way:- String s1= new String(Good Morning); The third way: char [] box={I,C,T,G,B,U}; String s3= new String(box); string1.java

44 44 // string1.java class string1 { public static void main(String args[]) { String s1=new String("Good Morning"); String s2; s2="Sir."; char[] box={'I','C','T','G','B','U'}; String s3= new String(box); System.out.println(s1); System.out.println(s2); System.out.println(s3); }

45 Output 45

46 46 Declaring and Constructing a String You can specify a subrange of a character array as an initializer using the following constructor: String(char chars[ ], int startIndex, int numChars) Here, startIndex specifies the index at which the subrange begins, and numChars specifies the number of characters to use. Here is an example: char chars[] = { 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f' }; String s = new String(chars, 2, 3); This initializes s with the characters cde.

47 47 Copying one String into Other String st1=School of ICT ; String st2=GBU; st1=st2; // copy string

48 48 String Length The length of a string is the number of characters that it contains. To call the length() method int length() char chars[]={a, b, c}; String s = new String(chars); System.out.println(s.length());

49 49 Special String Operations String Concatenation String age=9; String s = He is +age+years old; System.out.println(s); String Concatenation with other Data Types int age=9; String s = He is +age+years old; System.out.println(s); string2.java string3.java

50 50 //string2.java class string2 { public static void main(String args[]) { String age=" 9 "; String s = "He is"+age+"years old"; System.out.println(s); //System.out.println(s2); //System.out.println(s3); }

51 51 Output

52 52 //string3.java string concat with data types class string3 { public static void main(String args[]) { int age=9; String s = "He is "+age+" years old."; System.out.println(s); //System.out.println(s2); //System.out.println(s3); }

53 53 Output

54 54 Special String Operations cont.. String Concatenation with other Data Types String s = four :+2+2; System.out.println(s); This fragment displays four : 22 rather than the four: 4 String s = four :+(2+2); System.out.println(s); s contains the string four : 4; string4.java string5.java

55 55 // String Concatenation with other Data Types class string4 { public static void main(String args[]) { String s = "four:"+2+2; System.out.println(s); }

56 56 Output

57 57 //String concat with other data types class string5 { public static void main(String args[]) { String s = "four:"+(2+2); System.out.println(s); }

58 58 Output

59 59 Character Extraction The String class provides a number of ways that characters can be extracted from a String object. charAt( ) // It returns a character at the specified location To extract a single character from a String char charAt(int where) char ch; ch= abc.charAt(1); char1.java

60 60 class char1 { public static void main(String args[]) { char ch; ch="abc".charAt(2); System.out.println(ch); }

61 61 Output

62 62 Character Extraction cont… If you need to extract more than one character at a time, you can use the getChars ( ) method void getChars(int sourceStart, int sourceEnd, char target[],int targetStart) class getcharsdemo { public static void main (String args[]) { String s = This is a demo of the getchars method.; int start = 10; int end= 14; char buf [] = new char[end - start]; s.getChars(start, end, buf, 0); System.out.println(buf); } } getcharsdemo.java

63 63 class getcharsdemo { public static void main (String args[]) { String s = "This is a demo of the getchars method."; int start = 10; int end= 14; char buf [] = new char[(end - start)]; s.getChars(start, end, buf, 0); System.out.println(buf); }

64 64 Output

65 65 String Comparison The String class included several methods that compare strings or substrings within strings. equals( ) and equalsIgnoreCase( ) String s1=Hello; String s2=Hello; String s3=HELLO; s1.equals(s2); s1.equalsIgnoreCase(s3); stringcomp.java

66 66 class stringcomp { public static void main(String args[]) { String s1="Hello"; String s2="Hello"; String s3="HELLO"; System.out.println(s1.equals(s2)); System.out.println(s1.equalsIgnoreCase(s3)); }

67 67 Output

68 68 Searching Strings The String class provides two methods that allow you to search a string for a specified character or substring. indexOf( ) : searches for the first occurrence of a character or substring. lastIndexOf( ): searches for the last occurrence of a character or substring. int indexOf( int ch); int lastIndexOf(int ch); int indexOf(String str); int lastIndexOf(String str); indexofdemo.java

69 69 class indexofdemo { public static void main(String args[]) { String s="Now is the time for all good man"; System.out.println(s); System.out.println("indexOf(t)= "+s.indexOf('t')); System.out.println("lastIndexOf(t)= "+s.lastIndexOf('t')); }

70 70 Output

71 71 Modifying a String substring( ) you can extract a substring using substring( ). It has two forms. The first is : String substring(int startIndex) startindex specifies the index at which the substring will began. The second form is: String substring(int startIndex, int endIndex) startIndex specifies the beginning index, and endIndex specifies the stopping point stringsub.java

72 72 class stringsub { public static void main(String args[]) { String s="Now is the time for all good man"; String s1,s2; s1=s.substring(10); System.out.println(s1); s2=s.substring(5,25); System.out.println(s2); }

73 73 Output

74 74 Modifying a String concat( ) you can concatenate two string using concat( ),shown here String concat(String str) String s1 = School of ; String s2 = s1.concat(Biotechnology) ; same as String s1= School of ; String s2 = s1 + Biotechnology ;

75 75 Modifying a String replace( ) The replace( ) method replaces all occurrences of one character in the invoking string with another. String replace(char original, char replacement) String s = SoIT.replace(I,B); trim( ) The trim() method returns a copy of the invoking string from which any leading and trailing whitespace has been removed. String trim( ) String s = School of Biotechnology.trim(); stringmod.java

76 76 class stringmod { public static void main(String args[]) { String s1="School of "; String s2= s1.concat("Biotechnology"); System.out.println(s2); String s3 = "SoIT".replace('I','B'); System.out.println(s3); String s4 = " School of Biotechnology ".trim(); System.out.println(s4); }

77 77 Output

78 78 StringBuffer String is a very useful class. You cannot change a string,you have to use copy and modify and replace for every task. Java provided a new class StringBuffer There are following three different constructors. StringBuffer () StringBuffer (int size) StringBuffer(String str1)

79 79 StringBuffer cont… StringBuffer () This string buffer with default capacityof 16. StringBuffer (int size) This string buffer with specified capacity. StringBuffer(String str1) This string buffer creates an object by copying a given string.

80 80 StringBuffer cont… The operations on a StringBuffer can be stated as follows : append insert reverse replace convert to string get substring convert to character array strbuf.java strbuf1.java

81 81 class strbuf { public static void main(String args[]) { StringBuffer st1=new StringBuffer(" "); System.out.println(st1); System.out.println("after insertion"); st1.insert(20,"at 20th col"); System.out.println(st1); }

82 82 Output

83 83 class strbuf1 { public static void main(String args[]) { StringBuffer st1=new StringBuffer("school of ICT"); System.out.println(st1); System.out.println("after reverse"); st1.reverse(); System.out.println(st1); StringBuffer st2=new StringBuffer("biotechnology"); st2.delete(2,6); System.out.println(st2); }

84 84 Output

85 Nested If and If-Else If Ladder 85

86 Syntax of Nested IF Form1 : if(expression) statement; | if(expression) statement; 86

87 Example 1 : Program that checks number is zero, positive or negative using nested if statement class CheckSignNumberDemo { public static void main(String args[]) { int x = 10; if(x > -1) if(x != 0) if(x > 0) System.out.println("x is a positive number having value " + x); } Output x is a positive number having value 10 87

88 Syntax of Nested IF Form2 : if(expression) statement; else if(expression) statement; else if(expression) | else statement; 88

89 Example 2 : Program that checks number is zero, positive or negative using if-else-if ladder class CheckSignNumberDemo { public static void main(String args[]) { int x = 10; if(x <= -1) System.out.println("x is a negative number having value " + x); else if(x == 0) System.out.println("x is a zero number having value " + x); else if(x > 0) System.out.println("x is a positive number having value " + x); } Output x is a positive number having value 10 89


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