Presentation on theme: "Fair & Balanced. Bellringer Read the following background information for the clip we will watch: The most famous of all campaign commercials, the Peace."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer Read the following background information for the clip we will watch: The most famous of all campaign commercials, the Peace Little Girl, or Daisy Girl, ad, ran only once as a paid advertisement, during an NBC broadcast on September 7, 1964. Without any explanatory words, the ad juxtaposes a scene of a little girl happily picking petals off of a flower and an ominous countdown to a nuclear explosion. The frightening ad was instantly perceived as a portrayal of Barry Goldwater as an extremist. In fact, the Republican National Committee spelled this out by saying, This ad implies that Senator Goldwater is a reckless man and Lyndon Johnson is a careful man. This was precisely the intent; in a memo to President Johnson on September 13, Bill Moyers wrote, The idea was not to let him get away with building a moderate image and to put him on the defensive before the campaign is old. It was replayed in its entirety on ABCs and CBSs nightly news shows, amplifying its impact.
Peace Little Girl Closely watch the Daisy Girl advertisement: –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uO0R4k1tVMshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uO0R4k1tVMs
QuickWrite Record your reaction to the Peace Little Girl ad in a quickwrite over the following prompts: What images, sounds, or dialogue affected you? Why? What elements contribute to the power of the ad? Why do you think this ad was yanked from the air after only running once during the 1964 campaign?
Extreme, but not extraneous… While the Peace Little Girl ad presents an extreme example, writers often use inflammatory rhetorical techniques, known as slanters, in place of logical arguments. Slanters are used to manipulate readers into accepting a position. Today, we will look at a number of different types of slanters, which will ultimately be applied to an analysis of an editorial text.
Slanters Sometimes a writer compensates for a lack of evidence and logical argumentation by using slanted language and emotional appeals to present a prejudiced depiction of a subject. A slanter is a rhetorical devices used to present a subject in a biased way.
Labeling – Euphemisms and Dysphemisms: Labeling is the use of a highly connotative word or phrase to name or describe a subject or action. Its a technique also called using loaded language. When the connotations are positive (or less negative), the writer is using euphemism. Conversely, when overtly negative connotations are used, the writer is using dysphemism. For Example: Consider the differences between the terms pre- owned vehicle and used car. Pre-owned vehicle is a euphemism while used car is a dysphemism. Think of the terms freedom fighter and terrorist. Freedom fighter is a euphemism while terrorist is a dysphemism.
Rhetorical Analogy A rhetorical analogy is the use of a figurative comparison (sometimes a simile or a metaphor) to convey a positive or negative feeling towards the subject. For Example: In the 2008 presidential race, Sarah Palin jokingly suggested that she was like a pit bull with lipstick. In another famous moment of the campaign, John McCain compared Barack Obama to Paris Hilton, thus suggesting he was an unqualified celebrity.
Rhetorical Definition A rhetorical definition is the use of emotively charged language to express or elicit an attitude about something. A rhetorical definition stacks the deck either for or against the position it implies. For Example: When arguing against capital punishment, many people define it as government- sanctioned murder.
Rhetorical Explanation A rhetorical explanation is expressing an opinion as if it were fact, and doing so in biased language. For Example: You might say someone didnt have the guts to fight back when taunted by another person. This paints the person as motivated by cowardice. Or you might say the person took the high road, instead of taking a swing.
Innuendo Innuendo is the use of language to imply that a particular inference is justified, as if sayinggo ahead and read between the lines! In this way, the speaker doesnt have to actually make a claim that cant be supported; instead, the audience is led to make the leap on their own. For Example: A presidential candidate might say, Think carefully about whom you choose; you want a president who will be ready to do the job on day one. The implication is that the opposing candidate is not ready.
Downplayers Downplayers is the use of qualifier words or phrases to make someone or something look less important or significant. Words like mere and only work this way, as well, as does the use of quotation marks, to suggest a term is ironic or misleading. Often these references are linked to concessions with connectors such as nevertheless, however, still, or but. For Example: She got her degree from correspondence school..
Hyperbole Hyperbole is the use of extravagant overstatement, which can work to move the audience to accept the basic claim even if they reject the extremes of the word choice. Many of the other slanters can be hyperbolic in the way they are worded, but the key part is that the statement or claim is extreme. For Example: In response to a dress code, a student might say This school administration is fascist!
Truth Surrogates Truth Surrogates hint that proof exists to support a claim without actually citing that proof. If the evidence does exist, the writer is doing a poor job of citing it; meanwhile, the writer has not actually identified any source – or made any claim – that can be easily disproven or challenged. For Example: Ads often say studies show, and tabloids often say things like according to an insider or theres every reason to believe that...
Ridicule/Sarcasm Ridicule or Sarcasm is the use of language that suggests the subject is worthy of scorn. The language seeks to evoke a laugh or sarcastically mock the subject. For Example : This week, in the New York Daily News, Hank Gola says the following about Tony Romo The G-forces between those poles have Romo taking the faithful on a dizzying ride that often leads to nausea. The maddening things is that he doesn't stink. He just does dumb things. Gola is ridiculing Romo for losing a game in the fourth quarter, again.
Apply it! Now that you are familiar with the list of slanters, apply this knowledge to a reading of the editorial, Abolish High School Football! on pages 136-7 of your SpringBoard book. As you read, highlight or mark the words and phrases that show the writers feelings about the topic. Because the text is an editorial, it will obviously be biased towards a particular position on the issue. Your job is to focus on how the language helps construct that biased perspective.
Identify it! Now that you have read and marked the text, go back to the beginning of the editorial,Abolish High School Football! on pages 136- 7 of your SpringBoard book, and identify the following slanters as follows: Labeling – Highlight Rhetorical Definition – Underline Innuendo – Mark with an *asterisk* Hyperbole – Underline with a swiggly line Ridicule/Sarcasm – Circle
SMELL it! I know, I know, SMELL is a strange name for a graphic organizer, but it actually stands for: Sender-Receiver Relationship Message Emotional Strategies Logical Strategies Language SMELL is an effective strategy for analyzing a writers use of language in support of a position. Now that you have read the editorial Abolish High School Football! and identified the slanters used, you need to complete the graphic organizer on page 138 of your SpringBoard book.
Generalize it! Ok, so now you have read the editorialAbolish High School Football! and identified the slanters used, youve SMELLED it by completing the graphic organizer on page 138 of your SpringBoard book. The last step is to use deductive reasoning to compose a generalization about the followingessential question: How does a writer use tone to advance an opinion? Write your generalization as a complete sentence on page 138 of your SpringBoard book.
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