Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM LECTURE 1. GV261  OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE – THE IMPORTANCE OF US POLITICS – AN INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH PLUS  ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM LECTURE 1. GV261  OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE – THE IMPORTANCE OF US POLITICS – AN INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH PLUS  ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM LECTURE 1

2 GV261  OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE – THE IMPORTANCE OF US POLITICS – AN INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH PLUS  ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF US: SELF CONGRATULATORY RADICAL/CRITICAL FUNCTIONAL/CRITICAL – 2001 CRISIS OF PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS – INTERNATIONAL CRISIS AND UNCERTAINTY

3 GV 261  BUT CONSISTENCIES THROUGHOUT: - POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION – SEPARATION OF POWERS;PLURALISM - ‘IT’S THE ECONOMY STUPID’ – ECONOMY USUALLY TRUMPS OTHER ISSUES - CONFUSION OVER WORLD ROLE – DOMESTIC CONSENSUS IS RARE - US AS A MELTING POT- RACE AND IMMIGRATION ALWAYS MAJOR ISSUES

4 LECTURE 2 SOCIETY AND ECONOMY 1. SIZE: July , (est), distribution: moving west and south, to suburbs, edge cities, bi-coastal 2. IMMIGRATION: 10.4 per 1000 pop in now about 3.7 per 1000 (over 9 million per year) Origins away from Europe towards L. America Laws 1924; 1929; 1965; recent failures Politicisation of issue

5

6 Society, and Economy 3. AGEING, 1950: 29; 2000:37.3, 2050: 45.5 international perspective 4. SOCIAL STRUCTURE >65% white collar <2% farmers Obsolescence of old categories 5. RACE AND ETHNICITY (slide) Political cleavages Recent Changes 6. RELIGION (slide) The Creedal Passion 7. Gender Family structure; women in labour force; # women working; incomes, gender gap

7 Distribution of U.S. Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2010 and 2050 NOTES: All racial groups non-Hispanic. Data do not include residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or the Northern Marina Islands. Totals may not add to 100%. SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation, based on U.S. Census Bureau, 2008, Projected Population by Single Year of Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2050.http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/downloadablefiles.html Total = millionTotal = million

8 Religious Affiliation US, 2010

9 Views on evolution and climate change

10 Labour force participation rates by race

11 Wome’s earnings as % of men’s

12 Women’s share of Labour force

13 Society and Economy 8. POVERTY Trends 9. HEALTH % GDP, 4 categories: private, HMOs, Government, uninsured - but 2010 reforms 10.CLASS Subjective v. objective social class Fragmentation? Recent Trends

14

15 Lecture 3: Beliefs and Values 1. Origins of beliefs – the Civic Culture and beyond 2. US Beliefs and values a) individualism and self reliance - economic versus cultural self reliance b) Freedom or liberty - notable exceptions

16 c) Equality - of condition - of opportunity - of esteem - of rights d) Democracy - majoritarian values - referenda, initiatives, recalls e) Rule of Law - enforcement of contracts - civic trust - exceptions

17 LECTURE 3: CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT 1.ORIGINS AND INFLUENCES OF INDEPENDENCE - localism - individualism - benign colonial rule - ‘illegitimate colonial power.’ - role of the mob 2. EVENTS Continental Congress fighting in Mass. Seizure of colonial govts War of Independence Declaration of Independence

18 3. TWO CONSTITUTIONS Articles of Confederation powers and weaknesses , 55 delegates in Philadelphia Constitution of the United States 4. INFLUENCES - social contract – Locke, Hobbes - separation powers – Montesquieu - fear of majority rule, of factions and of a strong executive - federalism

19 5. THE GREAT COMPROMISE - NJ Plan; Virginia Plan - detailed provisions – Connecticut Compromise 6. RATIFICATION - 9 of 13 states - Bill of Rights 7. CHANGES TO CONSTITUTION - amendments – only 17 after 1791 changes to elections and representation; changes to powers of federal government - interpretation – role of federal government, executive, Supreme Court, protection of rights

20 The Virginia Plan Branches Three - legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature was more powerful, as it chose people to serve in the executive and judicial branches. Legislature Two houses (bicameral). The House of Representatives was elected by the people and the Senate was elected by the state legislatures. Both were represented proportionally. Other Powers The legislature could regulate interstate trade, strike down laws deemed unconstitutional and use armed forces to enforce laws. The New Jersey Plan Branches Three - legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature appoints people to serve in the executive branch, and the executive branch selects the justices of the Supreme Court. Legislature One house (unicameral). States would be represented equally, so all states had the same power. Other Powers The national government could levy taxes and import duties, regulate trade, and state laws would be subordinate to laws passed by the national legislature.

21 8. ASSESSMENT - changes to USA - separation of powers - US World role - federalism - political fragmentation

22 LECTURE 5: FEDERALISM 1. What is federalism - compared with unitary and confederal - conception of dual sovereignty 2. Advantages and disadvantages of federalism: - protection of minorities, but…. - heterogeneity, but….. - experimental policy ground, but…. - bad features isolated, but…. - government closer to people, but….

23 3. Evolution of American Federalism – 6 stages a. Slavery, the bank and the tariff, b. Reconstruction and the new federal bargain, 1865 – 1932 c. The New deal and its aftermath, – the rise of federal power d. The states in retreat, e. Retrenchment, f. Federal power resurgent?

24 4. Conclusions

25 Political parties 1. the nature of US political parties a. Structure and organisation b. Ideological spread – why no socialists? c. Why only two parties? - institutional obstacles - societal/ideological obstacles

26 LECTURE 8: POLITICAL PARTIES 2. Development a. Jeffersonian to 1824 b. Jacksonian, and after c. Civil war, reconstruction and sectionalism, d. Populism, progressivism and the Republican majority, e. The New Deal coalition, f. Party decline and fragmentation, s g. 1980s- date

27 3. Significance of the changes - Anger – cause and effect - Effects on radical change – 2 periods - Puts premium on individual candidates - Quality of governance, oversight, accountability

28 AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM: INTEREST GROUPS A: Theories of interest group power 1. Populist – big interests v. small players constant theme but popular in populist/ progressive eras. (Justice) 2. Pluralism – balancing concept (Truman, Dahl), systems analysis. (equality) 3. Radical critique Mills, Domhoff. (Inequality) 4. Overload – interest group liberalism; rational choice approaches. (efficiency)

29 B. Rise of interest group activity. Why? 1. access to institutions; changes in institutions 2. Role of media – information revolution 3. Freedom of information 4. Globalization

30 C. Rise and decline of particular groups - Labour - Agriculture - Business – large and small - Advocacy groups – professional and cause - Foreign lobbies - Public interest organizations - Public interests and special interests – definitional and political problems

31 D. Political Action Committees (PACs) for and against E. Conclusions

32 THE MASS MEDIA 1. STRUCTURE a) TV and radio The big 3 ABC, CBS, NBC plus Fox CNN plus many other cable channels PBS Radio similar but…. Regulation FCC, ownership diverse But 1996 Television Communication Act

33 B) The Press Localised Declining readership Opinion and editorial Conservatism Internet 70% plus penetration

34 2. NEWS, BIAS AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE a) TV. Local biases in local stations Balance and big 3, but… Fox Changes in news content; dominant themes; trivialization Political influence – what is not said b) Press. Republican bias, but local variations are declining Political influence – reinforcing theory

35 c) Internet Self selection of news and bias Political influence -only 5/6% of hits are political, but can make a difference – Howard Dean 3. Censorship and control 1 st Amendment freedoms But self censorship, conformity, privileged position of business McCarthyism, Patriot Act

36 4. Uniqueness of US media Less unusual than used to be Trivialization everywhere Print journalism different

37 ELECTIONS AND VOTING 1. Nature of US elections - number of offices, number of levels - votes on offices, referenda, initiatives, recalls - importance of elections, value placed on majority opinion - Who is elected profiles of candidates

38 2. Voting and non-voting - Why is turnout so low? But is it so low? Turnout by state/region - Attempts to increase turnout - Voters and non voters – who votes?

39 3. Who votes for who? - region - race - gender - ideology - age - religion

40 4. Party Identification

41

42 1896: The Urban/Rural divide replaces the North-South divide

43 1968: After faithless (1956) and unpledged (1960) electors, Southern Democrats form third party

44 4. Aftermath: Persistent Regional Blocs West/South vs. North/Great Lakes division persists to this day: 1896 vs. 2004

45

46 3. Significance of the changes - Anger – cause and effect - Effects on radical change – 2 periods - Puts premium on individual candidates - Quality of governance, oversight, accountability

47 CONGRESS 1 1. The Nature of Congress - bicameralism - powers - agenda setting 2. Representation - microcosmic - party - trustee (virtual) - delegated

48 2. The electoral connection -Fenno’ s Home Style and Mayhew’s Congress: the Electoral Connection - Is it still applicable? Recent changes 3. Logrolling and the committee system - The rise of partisanship - Leadership and the committees – centrifugal and centripetal forces - changing status of Congress

49 The characteristics of Congress Overwhelmingly older, white, educated males with law and business backgrounds.  111 th Congress ( ) is a little different Currently, in the House of Representatives, there are 262 Democrats (including five Delegates and the Resident Commissioner) and 178 Republicans. The Senate has 55 Democrats; two Independents, who caucus with the Democrats; and 41 Republicans. There are two Senate vacancies and one House vacancy. The average age of Members of both Houses of Congress at the convening of the 111th Congress is 58.2 years; of Members of the House, 57.0 years; and of Senators, 63.1 years. The overwhelming majority of Members have a college education. The dominant professions of Members are public service/politics, business, and law. Protestants collectively constitute the majority religious affiliation of Members. Roman Catholics account for the largest single religious denomination, and numerous other affiliations are represented. The average length of service for Representatives at the beginning of the 111th Congress is 11.0 years (5.5 terms); for Senators 12.9 years ( 2.2 terms). A record number of 95 women serve in the 111th Congress: 78 in the House, 17 in the Senate. There are 41 African American Members of the House and none in the Senate. This number includes two Delegates. There are 31 Hispanic or Latino Members serving: 28 in the House, including the Resident Commissioner, and three in the Senate. Eleven Members (seven Representatives, two Delegates, and two Senators) are Asian or Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander. The only American Indian (Native American) serves in the House. “111th Congress: Statistically Speaking,” CQ Today, vol. 44, no. 138 (November 6, 2008), p. 72. In the overwhelming majority of previous Congresses, business has followed law as the dominant occupation of Members. However, in the 111th Congress, 214 Members (182 Representatives, 33 Senators) list their occupation as public service/politics, 204 Members (152 Representatives, 51 Senators) list law, and 201 Members (175 Representatives, 27 Senators) list business. Ninety-four (78 Representatives and 16 Senators) list education as a profession. Members often list more than one profession when surveyed by Congressional Quarterly, Inc. As has been true in recent Congresses, the vast majority of Members (95%) of the 111th Congress hold university By comparison, 30 years ago in the 96th Congress ( ), at least 48 Members of the House and 7 Senators had no degree beyond a high school diploma. The average length of service of Members of the House at the beginning of the 111th Congress is 11.0 years (5.5 terms), a year longer than that of the 110th Congress (10.0 years), and a year and half longer than the average service (9.3 years) in the 109th Congress.14 Representatives are elected for two-year terms. Representative John Dingell (D-MI), the dean of the House, has the longest consecutive service of any Member of the 111th Congress (53.0 years).15 He began serving on December 13, The average length of service of Members of the Senate at the beginning of the 111th Congress is 12.9 years (2.2 terms), six months longer than that of the 110th Congress (12.3 years), and slightly more than a year longer than the average service (11.8 years) in the 109th Congress.16 Senators are elected for six-year terms.17 Senator Robert C. Byrd (D-WV), the President pro tempore of the Senate, has served longer (50.0 years) than any other Senator in history. His service began on January 3, Most Members of the 111th Congress cite a specific religious affiliation.18 Protestants (Episcopalians, Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and others) collectively constitute the majority religious affiliation of Members. Roman Catholics, however, account for the largest single religious denomination. Other affiliations include Greek Orthodox, Jewish, Christian Scientist, Quaker, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon). There are also two Buddhists and two Muslims in the House. A record number of 95 women serve in the 111th Congress; 78 serve in the House and 17 in the Senate. Of the 78 women in the House, 61 are Democrats, including 3 Delegates, and 17 are Republicans. Of the 17 women serving in the Senate, 13 are Democrats and 4 are Republicans. There are 41 African American Members in the 111th Congress, all serving in the House. All are Democrats, including two Delegates. Fourteen African American women, including two Delegates, serve in the House. There are a record number of 31 Hispanic or Latino Members of the 111th Congress, one more than the record number who served in the 109th and 110th Congresses.19 Twenty-eight serve in the House and three in the Senate. Of the Members of the House, 22 are Democrats (including one Delegate), three are Republicans, and seven are women. The Hispanic Senators include two Democrats and one Republican. All are male. Two sets of Hispanic Members are brothers, and one set are sisters. Mario and Lincoln Diaz- Balart, Republicans from Florida, serve in the House. Ken Salazar (D-CO) serves in the Senate, and his brother, John Salazar (D-CO), serves in the House. Linda Sánchez and Loretta Sanchez, Democrats from California, serve in the House.20 A record eleven Members of the 111th Congress are of Asian or Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander heritage. Nine (seven Democrats, two Republicans) serve in the House; two (both Democrats) serve in the Senate. Of those serving in the House, two are Delegates and one is an African American Member with Filipino heritage. Included in this count is the first Vietnamese American to serve in Congress. There is one American Indian (Native American) Member of the 111th Congress, who is a Republican Member of the House. In the 111th Congress there are 121 Members who have served in the military, five less than in the 110th CongressThe House has 96 veterans (including two Delegates); the Senate 25. These Members served in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo, as well as during times of peace. Some have served in the Reserves and the National Guard. The number of veterans in the 111th Congress reflects the trend of a steady decline in the number of Members who have served in the military. For example, there were 298 veterans (240 Representatives, 58 Senators) in the 96th Congress ( ); and 398 veterans (329 Representatives, 69 Senators) in the 91st Congress ( )., Matthew Glassman and Julius Jefferson provided assistance.

50 4. The Functions of Congress - Legislation – changing nature of - Oversight - reform attempts, the 1970s to date - Is Congress ‘The Broken Branch?’

51 CONGRESS II 1. The functions of Congress collect taxes; borrow money; regulate commerce; coin money; declare war; raise and support army and navy; power over DC; make laws; ‘necessary and proper clause Oversight and investigations 2. Foci of power - centrifugal forces – the committee system – House and Senate contrasts Committee hierarchies House (Rules, Appropriations, Ways and Means, Budget. Senate- Finance Foreign Relations Judiciary, Budget - centripetal forces – parties and party leadership – Speaker, minority leader, Senate majority and minority leaders

52 3. The changing pattern of power in Congress A. Party control, B. Committee power (and especially ) the central importance of seniority C. The new Congress –reforms Rise of individual members, dispersal of power and the decline of party. New Policy Initiatives in foreign and economic policy D , The new Republican agenda – the Contract with America the rise of earmarking and the decline of oversight and deliberation E. The Democrats in power, 2006 – 11 and beyond?

53 Conclusions – is Congress the Broken Branch? Can Congress act in the public interest, or is it fated to serve only particular interests?

54 THE PRESIDENCY 1: PRESIDENTIAL SELECTION 1. Problems of presidential selection - does the selection system pre-select certain types of candidate? mid century v. late century candidates DE/Stephenson, JK/RMN, LBJ/BG, RMN/HHH v. RMN/McGovern, JC/JF, RR/JC,RR/Mondale, GB/MD, BC/GB/RP, BC/Dole, GWB/AG,GWB/JK

55 3. The Selection Process Pre-primary – recent changes Primary – nature of, state variety - the changing timetable - the rise of super Tuesday The Convention Changing function – now a coronation Vice presidential selection The campaign starts after Labor Day debates – famous achievements and gaffes

56 5. The Electoral College Each state receives a number of votes in the Electoral College equal to its total representation in both Houses of Congress. For example California, which has 53 representatives in the House and two in the Senate, casts 55 votes in the College. Since the passage of the 23rd Amendment, the District of Columbia also receives a number of electoral votes (currently three) equal to the number it would cast if it were a state. No other U.S. territory has any voice in the election of the president.

57 Presidency II 1. Formal Powers - Chief executive - Commander in Chief - Chief legislator (Article 2, Section 3 + the veto power) - Chief recruiting officer - Head of state

58 2. Limits to formal powers - Neustadt – the power to persuade Presidential failure and the formal powers – Steel Mills, McArthur, Little Rock, Bombing N. Vietnam, 1973, Bush and Iraq -

59 3. Informal powers - The public - Defender of the public or National interest - Party leader - World leader

60 4. The Institutional Presidency White House Staff and the Executive Office of the President (EOP) - patterns of organisation Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Clinton and Bush43 compared

61 5. The cabinet - constraints on role of the Cabinet - power of individual cabinet secretaries 6. Independent Agencies and Commissions 7. Conclusions

62 Applies to type of personality and quality of candidate? 2. What accounts for the changes? - closed party caucuses to open primaries - the importance of money - rise of plebiscitary and public presidency

63 Problems - not proportional - minority candidate might win - members may not follow voter intentions Reforms - simple vote - juggle composition

64 2. Limits to formal powers - Neustadt – the power to persuade Presidential failure and the formal powers – Steel Mills, McArthur, Little Rock, Bombing N. Vietnam, 1973, Bush and Iraq -


Download ppt "AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM LECTURE 1. GV261  OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE – THE IMPORTANCE OF US POLITICS – AN INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH PLUS  ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google