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Dr. Ion Comendant, Institute of Power Engineering ASM Development and Assessment of M/A Climate Change policy portfolios for R. of Moldova EU FP-7 ROMITHEAS.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Ion Comendant, Institute of Power Engineering ASM Development and Assessment of M/A Climate Change policy portfolios for R. of Moldova EU FP-7 ROMITHEAS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Ion Comendant, Institute of Power Engineering ASM Development and Assessment of M/A Climate Change policy portfolios for R. of Moldova EU FP-7 ROMITHEAS -4 Project “Knowledge transfer and research needs for preparing mitigation/adaptation policy portfolios” 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece 6 th International Scientific Conference Policy portfolios for emerging economies

2 Content Introduction IPE Profile Moldova National Workshop Project Team Members Moldova Climate Change policies applied Climate Change policy mixtures Data collection Characteristics of Scenarios Results of three scenarios Assessment of the policy mixtures Best policy mixture Needs and gaps observed Further actions 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece 2

3 Institute of Power Engineering IPE ASM was founded in 1991, public institution : - 28 scientific researchers: including 2 Full Member of the Academy of Sciences, 8 Doctors of sciences and 9 PhDs. - Laboratories&Departments: controlled power transmission lines; simulation and diagnostics of power equipment; Electric- power equipment and power electronics; Energy efficiency and RES Research Domain: - Energy system development planning and optimal operation - Elaboration of new methods, devices, tools and equipment for increasing energy efficiency and RES promotion IPE Scientific Journal: Regional Energy Problems - 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece 3

4 Moldova National Workshop On May 14, 2013 in the framework of PROMITHEAS-4 Project the National Workshop „Development and evaluation of the M/A policy portfolios for the R. of Moldova” was organized by IPE in Chisinau, Hotel “Codru” - 48 participants, including: Gheorghe Salaru, Ministry of Environment; Victor TVIRCUN, Ambassador, BSEC-PERMIS General Secretary; Vladimir Berzan, IPE Director; Prof. Dimitris Mavrakis, Project Coordinator; Dr. Popi Konidari 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece 4 The Workshop agreed on the following conclusions: 1. The Workshop was very helpful for audience by new results obtained in the domain the project PROMITHEAS-4 was devoted. 2. As a result of trainings devoted to scenarios calculation using LEAP model, the last was tailored to correspond Moldova specific conditions, where 96% of energy sources are from import. 3.The list of research needs and gaps identified would help to ensure pragmatic platform for more accurate outcomes on GHG emissions calculation in the future. 4.The Workshop recognize that for the purpose of renewable electricity involvement into the climate change scenarios calculation the lack of effective balancing power on country territory should be taken into consideration, their share being put in compliance with this shortage.

5 PROMITHEAS-4 Moldova Team ■ Total number of Moldova team in the PROMITHEAS-4 project – 6: ● Prof. Mihai Chiorsac, Moldova team general coordinator, tel , ● Dr. Ion Comendant, Scientific coordinator, management, Evaluation of policy portfolios, tel , ● Dr. Vasile Scorpan, Scenarios and policy portfolios, tel , ● Marius Taranu, Evaluation of available data and information, tel , ● Sergiu Robu, Choice and implementation of models, tel , ● Iulia Panfilchina, Choice and implementation of models, tel , 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

6 Data collection National Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Yearbooks of the R. Moldova and Energy Balance for 1990 – 2011; National Bank of Moldova; State Hydrometeorological Service of Moldova; Government Decisions; Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources; National Agency for Energy Regulation; Climate Change Office; World Energy Outlook 2010, IEA; World Bank; UNDP; United Nations Economic Commission for Europe; UNEP/Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources; IPCC, Climate Change. 6 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

7 Moldova climate change policies applied ■ No specific climate change policies documents are approved up to now. The existing normative acts are oriented to resolve country priorities, M/A impact is considered as tangible result. ■ In 2013 both the Low Emission Development Strategy and Climate Change Adaptation Strategy are planned to be approved. They gather the actions from all existing first level legal documents that have M/A impact as well. ■ The main climate mitigation impact is expected to have from the realization of Energy Strategy up to 2030 approved in 2012, that promote energy efficiency and RES, including to reach by 2020: - energy intensity reduction by 10%; - grid electricity losses reduction up to 11%, grid gas losses by 39%, grid heat losses by 5%; - energy consumption reduction in buildings by 20%; - 10% of public buildings renovated; - the share of annual electricity from renewable energy sources up to 10%. - the use of energy from renewable sources relative to total gross domestic consumption: 20% ; - the share of biofuels in total transport fuel consumption: 10%. 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

8 Scenarios developed  Three Scenarios ● Business as Usual (BAU); ● Optimistic (OPT); ● Pessimistic (PES). Time horizon: OPT and PES scenarios are oriented to the following national objectives: - 20% share of RES in the total energy mix by % reduction of the total primary energy consumption by 2020, compared to that of year Only the territory of right bank of river Nistru is considered in calculation 8 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece Model is applied for calculation

9 Sectors Review Key Assumptions ResourceTransformationDemand - Population - GDP - GDP per capita - GDP real growth - GDP per Sector - Annual Household Income - Climate Statistic - World Prices for Resources PRIMARY: - Coal - Gasoline, Dieel - Fuel Oil, LPG - Hydro SECONDARY: - Electricity - Heat - Natural Gas - Electricity Generation - District Heating - Losses - Agriculture - Household - Industry - Transport - Non Specified 9 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

10 Key Assumptions for the BAU Scenario  Population: -0.69% by 2050;  GDP: +5.0% by 2030;  GDP distribution for Industry Sector: 2.5% by 2050;  GDP distribution for Agriculture Sector: 1.5% by 2050;  Import electricity from Ukraine and Transnistria (76%);  No intensification of renewable energy resources usage;  No energy efficiency policy;  Excessive dependence (100%) on natural gas imported from a single supplier. Natural gas is widely used for electricity generation;  Energy dependence will grow;  Emissions of greenhouse gases and oxides will increase;  The BAU scenario is only a mitigation policy portfolio th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

11 Key Assumptions for the OPT Scenario  Population and GDP as in BAU Scenario;  GDP distribution for Industry Sector: 3.5% by 2050;  GDP distribution for Agriculture Sector: 2.0% by 2050;  Energy reduction in buildings up to 10% until 2020;  The share of biofuel consumption is expected to reach the level of 4% in the transport sector by 2015 and by 10% in 2020;  Rehabilitation of existing CHPs with electricity generation growth;  Electricity imported from Ukraine and Transnistria will decrease  Electricity, heat and natural gas losses in T&D will decrease  Mini hydro stations with a capacity of 1.2 MW are planned to be built on the Reut River;  Effective energy efficiency policy promotion th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

12 Key Assumptions for the PES Scenario  Population and GDP as in BAU Scenario;  GDP distribution for Industry Sector: 2.0% by 2050;  GDP distribution for Agriculture Sector: 1.5% by 2050;  Partial rehabilitation of existing CHPs and growth of electricity generation;  Electricity imported from Ukraine and Transnistria will decrease;  Electricity, heat and natural gas losses in T&D will decrease;  Developing renewable energy resources for own needs (small HPP, wind, biogas and solar power) th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

13 LEAP Results: Evolution of the Global Warming Potential 13 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece Scenario Growth of Total GHG emissions, % from BAU Opt Pes Scenario Total GHG emissions reduction, % from BAU BAU Opt 199 Pes 156

14 Criteria Scenarios BAUOPTPES Direct contribution to GHG emission reductions (0,833)083,30065,822 Indirect environmental effects (0,167)16,70009,342 Environmental performance (0,168) - A16,70083,30075,164 Cost efficiency (0,474)047,3007,837 Dynamic cost efficiency (0,183)5,0608,0805,060 Competitiveness (0,085)2,3633,7742,363 Equity (0,175)017,50013,810 Flexibility (0,051)1,3902,2201,390 Stringency for non-compliance (0,032)1,133 Political acceptability (0,738) - B9,94780,00731,593 Implementation network capacity (0,309)13,5348,683 Administrative feasibility (0,581)19,367 Financial feasibility (0,110)2,1795,4243,397 Feasibility of implementation (0,094) - C35,08033,47431,447 Total (A+B+C)13,44476,18638,899 Assessment of the policy mixtures OPT is distinguished by a better performance (grade) in responding to the climate change policy needs of the country taking into consideration the national framework. Results of AMS Method applied: 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

15 15 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece It is assumed that the share of RES in the electricity generation will be the following: Wind – 600MW by 2050; Solar – 600MW by 2050; Biogas – 50MW by The total efficiency of the cogeneration power plant will not be less than 80% and for electricity production efficiency 45-50% OPT: Best Policy Mixture

16 Needs and gaps observed: MITIGATION & ADAPTATION POLICY DATA  To develop country specific emission factors and methodologies, specifically for key source and sink categories;  To reduce the inventory uncertainties by improving the statistical data collection system;  To Enhance quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and verification activities, by setting-up a sustainable MRV system;  RM needs to develop data collection forms and detailed procedures to establish the legal foundation, guidelines and procedures for annual preparation of energy balances and other statistic datasets, required for MARKAL and LEAP models application, according to International Energy Agency (IEA) and Eurostat guidelines;  RM should develop the required legislation to require the electricity and natural gas distribution companies to include NACE codes in customer records for non- residential customers and report energy consumption to National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Ministry of Economy (MoE) by NACE categories;  For the following sectors the data are not available and need extra analyses: “Frequency of extreme events” index; GDP for the periods is not available; “Energy water use (km³)” index is not covered by RM statistical system; Information about financial incentives, Carbon Taxes, Feed in tariffs, Penalties are not available for the whole studied period; energy demand cost (in EUR) is not available; Primary and Secondary fuels lack for the years ; a lot of data is lack for Transformation th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

17 Needs and gaps observed: MITIGATION & ADAPTATION SCENARIOS AND POLICY PORTFOLIOS  As the country is distinguished by low energy security (70% electricity import) and low capacity to pay for energy consumed specific studies are needed to demonstrate the share of affordable renewable electricity to cover power demand during the years;  The potential for CHP promotion should be determined on country territory taking into consideration that 4500 hours of high and constant heat demand is needed to make such PP economical;  Centralize heating demand for the years up to 2050 needs to be revised because of persisting factors leading the consumers to select autonomous heating systems;  The total energy demand in BAU scenario is easily estimated, as it is proportionate to the GDP per capita in the Household sector and to GDP in all other sectors. However, this estimation is much more complicated in OPT and PES scenarios, as the effect of specific mitigation measures has to be added. According to the Energy Strategy up to 2030 the shares of renewable energies, energy losses and power capacities are pre-established in the national balance by 2020, but neither the time horizon is sufficient, nor these shares are differentiated per economic sector;  there is no studies that would show the limits of sectors technologies dissemination and what may be the speed of their implementation during the years up to 2050, Other 17 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

18 Needs and gaps observed: EVALUATION OF MITIGATION & ADAPTATION POLICY INSTRUMENTS  Because of big import of energy resources in the RM, the case study developed with LEAP model was refined in order to obtain correct outputs: It was needed to fix the negative production problem in the energy balance, to add a new “Transformation” module for oil production; the capacity variable was used in that module to limit the domestic production and set the module to use gap filling imports for any demand not met by domestic production; the data that specifies natural gas imports have been removed, etc.  Build capacities for gathering, analyzing and disseminating climate risk information, including weather data, climate modeling and impact assessment. Needs: Study tours and research stays organized with relevant international centers for climate assessment; Risk maps generated for the three regions of the country (South, Centre, North), and by sector; High-risk areas identified and prioritized.  Develop regional climate change scenarios in the Republic of Moldova for mid (2020s) and long term (2050s and 2080s) based on Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs)  Assess risks/opportunities to sustainable development of certain sectors (agriculture, livestock, water resources, forestry, human health, energy and transport sectors) due to the increased number and intensity of extremes events as result of climate change 18 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

19  The results obtained will be used in the preparation of National Communication: LEAP Model, Data collected, Gaps and Needs observed, AMS Method, etc.;  The list of research needs and gaps identified would help the national experts to promote new studies and works, in order to ensure pragmatic platform for more accurate outcomes on GHG emissions calculation in the future;  The data based compiled will be useful in the process of restructuring of national official statistical system, in order the last be in compliance with the EU one 19 Future opportunities 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece

20 Thank you for your attention 20

21 Status of renewable electricity promotion Wind Farms (WF) in the world and Moldova: ■ 24GW în GW în 2010; 37,6 GW in GW in 2011 ■ In Moldova no WF electricity generated to the grid is recorded until now WF promotion in Moldova: To reach 10% renewable electricity by 2020, i.e. around 200MW Renewable electricity produced is mandatory for buying on the market Renewable electricity tariff calculation is regulated by the appropriate Tariff Methodology published in 2009 Until now WF investors have requested access to the grid for around 800MW Wind technical reserves are around MW

22 Wind Farm promotion challenges WF main challenges in Moldova: ■ May the consumers support the WF electricity price? (See: Ion Comendant. The identification of solutions to cover energy demand from renewables. Regional Energy Problems, no. 2(16), 2011, IPE ASM, pages 39-52) ■ What is the impact of WF promotion for National Power Sector Development and Operation? Is WF contributing to fuel consumption reduction when operating in the power system? If yes, how much? If fuel reduction is recorded how it influences the price for electricity produced? How much WF contributes to energy security increase?

23 WF main features WFs are distinguished by: ■ very low credit power for the conditions of the R. of Moldova, where the territory is small and spaces for feasible wind is limited ■ limited interval of working wind speed : m/s. If the speed is higher than 25 m/s WF is disconnected from the grid, producing power imbalance in the system ■ for one WF the error for wind forecast is 10-20% for a forecast horizon of 48 hours and reach up to 100% if the horizon is higher than 48 h ■ when the wind is lack, another PP should replace WF power, so that the implementation of WF in Moldova require to ensure such compensation: In short term In medium and long term

24 WF operation in time horizon Short term impact: WF power Imbalance provoked can be covered by balancing power, that is mainly from import or, partially, from MGRES; The price for balancing power is very expensive: in 2011 the balancing power higher than 50 MW cost twice more than predicted power. CONCLUTION: in short term WFs neither contribute to electricity price decreasing nor to energy security increase. Even more, WFs construction leads to decreasing of existing small level of country energy security Medium and Long term impact: The impact depends on how power sources development will follow: Two way: 1. Energy strategy way: it establish CHP mainly be built. Lack of heat demand and practical difficulties to implement cogeneration PPs impede to realize Energy Strategy option 2. IPE ASM scenario: it combines the construction of diverse PPs (See: I. Comendant, A. Sula. Impactul factorilor de influenţă asupra scenariilor de dezvoltarea a surselor de energie electrică. Analele Institutului de Energetică al AŞM. Fascicola 2. Ch.: TAŞM, ISSN

25 What the PPs should be built to cover WF imbalance? Gas turbines and combine cycle – the most appropriate PPs: PPs prioritization to overcome WFs imbalance challenge Type of fuel Tehnol ogy Start up time parametresStart up costs Ramp rateMinimum stable generation Hot start up time Cold start up time Relativ e flexibilit y** (% of total capacity/ minute) Relative flexibility ** ValueRelative flexibility** Natural gas Gas turbine s minute ++ 20%- 30% ++25%-30% ++ Combin ed cycle minute* ++ +5%-10% +40% + CoalSteam boilers minute 1-10 hours - -1%-5% -40%-50% - NuclearSteam boilers minute hours - - 1%-5% -50%-60% - - * After this period a CCGT only has its turbine capacity available. **The symbols show the relative flexibility of the different technologies; the ++ shows the most flexible least flexible unit technology, the ‐‐ shows the least flexible unit

26 Combined Cycle in tandem with WFs Itemsunits CCPP 200 MW WF 200MW 1 CCPP+WF, 400MW Efficiency% Natural gas reductionmil. M Price of electricity produced US$ c/kWh 12,2013, ,75 Investmentsmil. US$ CO2 reductionmii CO Energy Security -Ensure Not ensure 3 Ensure Notes 1)Examined without taking into consideration balancing power for WF capacity variation 2) At a PP with 52% efficiency 3) For the Republic of Moldova WF crediting power is taken equal to zero The results obtained:

27 WF+CCPP verses Coal PP The results obtained: ■ Investment effort: from 1500 US$/kW (WF) to 2150 US$/kW +650 US$/kW (CCPP) Performant Coal PP of 200MW ■ Coal PP has higher CO2 emissions then WF+CCPP tandem, But it: leads to diversification of the fuel used in the country Diminish significantly natural gas consumption, coming from one source Ensure a price for electricity 24% lower than tandem WF+CCPP Increase country energy security, as coal can be bought around the world and the reserves are enough for the following 200 years

28 WF+CCPP verses Coal PP (CPP) Coal PP CO2 emission problem ■ CPP emits 1304 th. tone CO2 versus 507 th. tone CO2 of CCPP+SE ■ Moldova has the obligation to diminish by 25% CO2 emissions in 2020 in comparison with In order to be in compliance with the engagement: To Build capturing CO2 installation at CPP To Buy CO2 on the world market ■ Question: At what price for CO2 the price of CPP=price WF+CCPP Answer: 57 US$/tCO2 while on the world market it is 8,6 US$/tCO2

29 Conclusions For Moldova actual conditions it is much reasonable to develop Coal PP than to promote Wind Farms or Photovoltaic Power Plant Only when own electricity production will reach around 100% of demand capacity WF promotion should become a goal for country energy strategy

30 BAUOPTPES Total primary energy consumption compared to that of year 2009 Increases by 43%Reduced by 4% Increases by 13% The share of RES in the total energy mix by 20205%13%2% The GHG emissions in 2020, MtCO 2 eq Conclusions (2) 30 6 th International Scientific Conference October, 2013, Athens, Greece In the OPT scenario the total primary energy consumption is reduced only by 4%. This low percentage is attributed to the following reasons:  there is limited information within the country regarding energy efficient technologies and practices that does not allow the achievement of the required amount of energy savings;  aged equipment and infrastructure are responsible for losses and without the necessary amount of investments there will be gradually higher losses;  there are not yet official reports concerning the estimation of the potential in energy savings per sector and activity. The GHG emissions in 2020 are 8,7MtCO 2 eq, which is less compared to those of the BAU scenario.


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