2Pearl Harbor U.S. naval base in Hawaii Attacked by Japan unexpectedly on December 7, 1941United States declares war on Japan and enters World War II2
3Japanese-American Internment Camps After Pearl Harbor, the United States racists fears led the country to put 120,000 Japanese Americans in concentration camps
4Lend-Lease ActPassed after Pearl Harbor, the U.S. sends military equipment and supplies to its Allies during World War IIBritain, France, Soviet Union and China all receive aid
5War MobilizationMillions of men volunteered after Pear Harbor to fight World War IIFactories- were converted from consumer goods to military goods
6Rationing for WWIIRationing- everything went to the war, so Americans were only allowed a small portion of key items that were needed for the warAmericans donate metals, newspapers, rubber, clothes, paper to the war effort.
7Women Work for the WarFactories-millions take the place of men and build the machines of war.Equality- first time women are seen as equal to their male counterparts. Will eventually lead to greater rights for women.Rosie the Riveter- symbol of the American women’s war effort.
8D-DayD-Day- codename for Operation Overlord, Allied troops landed in Normandy, FranceThe largest sea invasion in history, German troops were caught off guard an unable to push back the invasionThis was the beginning of the end for Germany in WWII
9Battle of MidwayBattle of Midway- Led by Admiral Nimitz, the U.S. sinks four Japanese Aircraft carriers to the American one.Turning Point in the war against the Japanese who never fully recovered from the loss of the aircraft carriers and aviators from this battle.Mass Production replaces our losses and puts the pressure on Japan.
10Fall of Berlin Ends the War in Europe One of the final battles in the European Theater of WWIIThe Soviet Union storms the city; bloodiest battles of the warHitler and most of his key leaders commit suicide during the battleEnds the War in Europe
11Manhattan ProjectLos Alamos, New Mexico- This is where the United States developed the Atomic BombPresident Truman- orders the dropping of it on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force the surrender of the country
12Impact of the Atomic Bomb The Atomic Bomb was a game changer and for the first time humans could destroy the EarthMade the U.S.A. a superpower in the worldWill lead to Nuclear energy and the Nuclear Arms Race between the U.S. and Soviet Union
13Post WWII and the Cold War Marshall Plan- was America’s program for rebuilding Western Europe to protect it from communism.It was the United States best weapon against the influence of the Soviet Union
14Cold WarThis was a name given to the relations between the U.S. & the Soviet Union in the second half of the 20th century which saw the buildup of nuclear arms.
15Cold War and Containment Containment- the U.S. was determined to stop the spread of communism throughout the world Truman Doctrine- American foreign policy to provide economic and military aid to any country to prevent it from becoming communist The U.S. tried to contain the Soviet Union’s influence
16Communist ChinaMao Zedong is the leader of the Communist Revolution in China after WWII he overthrew the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek in 1949.Chiang Kai-shek will establish the country of Taiwan an island off the coast of China.Americans blame Truman for not stopping the spread of communism16
17Korean WarKorea- In 1950 Communist North Korea invades South Korea The U.S. sends troops in to help protect S. Korea and pushed N. Korea back to the Chinese border Communist China sends in troops to help N. Korea and an armistice is signed in 1954 ending the war, leaving the country divided
18McCarthyismSenator McCarthy led the second Red Scare in America during the 1950s He lied about communist infiltrations in the U.S. government and army, destroying the lives of innocent people He was later found to be lying about all of his accusations
19Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro- led the suc-cessful Cuban revolution in 1959 to overthrow the corrupt government backed by the U.S.A.Castro- established a com-munist government in Cuba, this catches the U.S. off guard and angers it.President Eisenhower places an embargo on Cuba to isolate it
20Baby Boom1945–1965 are the baby boom years; the birth rate in the United States soars when soldiers return from World War II and the Korean War.
21Interstate Highway Act Eisenhower gets Congress to pay for a Federal Highway system, for Defense.The highway connects people to the suburbs, cities, schools, and shopping malls.Whites begin to flee to the suburbs like Levittown.Fast Food restaurants develop to feed the people in the cars of Suburbia
22LevittownThe first large scale suburban development in the United StatesThe cookie cutter home development, it is the inspiration for suburbs everywhere
23SputnikIn 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first ever satellite into spaceThis frightened Americans who felt the U.S. had fallen behind the Soviet UnionThe U.S. devotes millions into Science and Math education to improve our technology
24Jackie RobinsonThe first black to integrate Major League Baseball in 1947 with the Brooklyn DodgersThis leads to Truman desegregating the Military and re-launches the Civil Rights Movement after WWII
25Integration of the U.S. Military President Truman- orders the integration of the U.S. military in 1948One of the first major Civil Rights changes of the 20th century
26Brown v. Board of Education The Supreme Court ended the practice of Separate but Equal in 1954
27Southern reaction to Brown v. Board of Education Little Rock Nine- were 9 African-Americans who integrated Little Rock Central H.S. President Eisenhower had to send in the Air Force to protect them from angry whites White Southerners were angered over the end of Separate but Equal
28Election of 1960 Kennedy Wins!!!!! VS.Televised DebatesVoters fell in love with the physical appearance and charisma possessed by Kennedy. He was confident and organized.Nixon was pale, sweating and tense.This election proved the power of T.V. in politics
29Bay of Pigs InvasionKennedy’s biggest mistake, he gives approval to a plan by the C.I.A. to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles.The exiles are captured by Castro on the beaches of CubaEmbarrassment- Kennedy is forced to pay a ransom (food/medicine) to free the exiles.Castro- uses this to get more support from the Soviet Union and strengthen his grip on power.
30Cuban Missile CrisisCrisis- the closest the world ever came to all out nuclear war. Spy planes discover that Cuba was building underground missile sites for nuclear weapons that could reach the U.S. in minutes
31Cuban Missile CrisisKennedy Reacts- orders a naval blockade of Cuba until all weapons are removed. The U.S.S.R. is told that any ship that tries to run the blockade will start a full scale war with the U.S. Khrushchev Reacts- turns the Soviet ships around and removes the missiles if Kennedy promises not to invade Cuba
32Fallout of the Cuban Missile Crisis Hotline- direct line between D.C. and Moscow to allow for peaceful talksKhrushchev- reputation is damaged in the U.S.S.R.Nuclear Test Ban Treaty-100 nations agree to stop open air testing of nuclear weaponsCriticism- Kennedy seen as soft for not ousting Castro, brinkmanship policy
33Kennedy Assassination November 23,1963 President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Stunned Americans- were devastated by the Kennedy assassination, remember where they were. Civil Rights Agenda- gets a boost with his death as Vice President Johnson is a better politician, Johnson will get several landmark laws passed.
34Vietnam WarMilitary conflict between the Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States.
35Tet OffensiveVietcong troops take advantage of a cease fire between the North and South and launch a sneak attack U.S. military defeats the Vietcong but Americans turn on the war President Johnson losses American support for the war, the media attacks the war.
36Opposition to the Vietnam War Begins on college campuses but spreads to all walks of life as the war drags on for years and deaths mount Television shows the graphic nature of the war, turning Americans against it People protest the ability of the wealthy and middle class to “buy” their way out of the war, leading to bigger protests by the poor against the war
37Opposition to the Vietnam War Protesters- calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad, antiwar demonstrations, protests increase, some become violentSome men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada
38Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society The Great Society- Johnson’s program to end poverty and racism in the U.S.1. Medicare- medical insurance program for those 65 and older.2. Medicaid- government paid healthcare for poor and disabled
39Civil Rights and Television For the first time Southern tactics to maintain segregation are shown on T.V. horrifying white liberalsThe beatings, killings, and attacks on African-Americans force White America to confront segregation and inequality
40Letter from Birmingham Jail Written by Martin Luther King Jr. it is his attempt to explain to White America why victims of segregation, violent attacks, and murder found it difficult to wait for injustices to end in the South I Have a Dream- King’s most famous speech given in Washington D.C., it calls for a future of racial harmony and peace
41Civil Rights Act of 1964This law signed by President Johnson banned discrimination of any kind in any park, restroom, library, theater, and public building in AmericaThis was inspired by King’s “I have a dream” speech
42Voting Rights Act of 1965Outlawed the Jim Crow restrictions on African Americans right to vote declaring it unconstitutional Banned the use of literacy tests, poll taxes, jelly bean counting Let the Federal government to overlook voting rights violations and register millions of minorities in the 1960’s
43SNCC and SCLCSNCC- Student non-violent Coordinated Committee was made up of young people who were the front line soldiers of the Civil Rights Movement SCLC- Southern Christian Leadership Committee were the “leaders” of the movement. They were the organizers and speech makers
44Warren Court 1953-1969 Key Cases: The Supreme Court under Justice Warren will protect the rights of individuals and minoritiesKey Cases:Brown vs. Board of Ed 1954-ends separate but equal2. Miranda v. Arizona- criminals must have their rights read, lawyer present during questioning
45National Organization of Women NOW- founded to promote equal rights for women of all races in AmericaNOW fights for political, social, and economic equality in America
46Environmental Movement Silent Spring- written by Rachel Carson it set off the Environmental Movement in America It led to the Water Quality Act of 1965 and the Earth Day Environmental Protection Agency- established to limit pollution, protect the environment and clean up polluted sites in America
47United Farm WorkersLed by Cesar Chavez he fights for the rights of migrant farm workersImproved the working conditions and wages of migrant workersUsed non-violent protests to achieve their goals
48Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated April 4th, Martin Luther King Jr. is shot on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tenn., by James Earl Ray.Riots break out in African American communities revealing the anger and frustration still felt in the North and South.
49Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated Robert F. Kennedy- is run-ning for the office of President.June 5, RFK is shot by an assassin after winning the presidential primary in California.Reaction- many counter culture supporters, African Americans and democrats are devastated. He was the last liberal “60’s” politicians.
50Democratic National Convention 1968 Protesters are marching out of anger at the conventionChicago police attack and beat protesters who were marching to the conventionT.V.- Conservative White America sees this as an attack against their country and vote Republican to restore order in the country
51The Conservative Movement Barry Goldwater(1964) runs for President, this is the beginning of the conservative movementPresident Richard Nixon (1968)wins office, elected by the “silent majority” who want America restored to the good old days51
52Conservative Movement The "Solid South" angry with Democratic party support of Civil Rights for African-Americans and Women Opposition to "Liberal" Supreme Court's Judicial Activism Beliefs- they opposed civil rights, gun control, liberals, Feminism, Affirmative Action, Sexual Revolution, Hippies, Gay Rights, Great Society, big government, Social Security, and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).
53Nixon PresidencyVisits China to open up relations, only a staunch anti-communist could repair relations, recognizes Communist ChinaWatergate Scandal:Centered on Nixon’s attempt to cover up a burglary at the offices of the Democratic PartyCrime committed by Nixon’s reelection team- Nixon forced to resign due to his attempts to cover up the break-ins
54Americans turn on the government Americans no longer trust the government after the disastrous Vietnam War and Nixon Presidency American become very cynical about their political leaders Americans want President Nixon arrested to stand trial54
55President Gerald FordHe becomes president after Nixon resigns Ford grants Nixon a Presidential pardon on Watergate; people are angry Ford is president during a recession and can’t deal with the high unemployment and gas prices
56Key Supreme Court Decisions Roe v. Wade this case legalized abortion in the United StatesBakke v. California A white male sues the University of California for reverse discrimination.The Supreme Court bans the use of race in college admission applications
57Camp David AccordsNegotiated by President Carter it is a peace settlement between Egypt and Israel.First step in the peace process between Israel and Arab nationsEgypt recognizes Israel, the 1st Arab nation in the world to do so.
58Iranian Revolt 19791979 Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the U.S. backed Shah of Iran and established a Islamic fundamentalist governmentPresident Carter was unable to deal with the situation, which led to another oil shortage when Iran stopped producing oil
59Iran Hostage Crisis50 members of the U.S. Embassy in Iran are held hostage when Iranian students overwhelm the guards.For 444 days President Carter can not get the hostages freed.Led to Carter’s defeat in the Presidential election of 1980
60President Ronald Reagan His election is seen as a victory for the Conservative MovementDuring his presidency he will appoint conservative judges to overturn the decisions of the Warren Court
61ReaganomicsAn economic policy followed by President Reagan it wanted to:Give the wealthy huge tax cuts, the wealthy are then suppose to help the poor by starting businesses and creating jobsBudget Cuts, reduced government spending on all domestic programsBuild up the armed force
62Iran-Contra ScandalThe Reagan administration agreed to sell billions in weapons to Iran for help in freeing American hostages in the Middle East.President Reagan was dealing in illegal weapon sales beyond his powers, upsets the system of checks and balances in America.Conservative America does not care sees him as a great president
63Collapse of the Soviet Union Reagan’s plan was to force the U.S.S.R. to keep up in an arm’s race, this bankrupts the Soviet UnionThe leader of the Soviet Union Gorbachev establishes better relations with the U.S.The collapse of the Soviet Union marks the end of the Cold War in 1991
64President ClintonNorth American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)- this created a free trade zone between the U.S., Canada and Mexico Impeached in 1998 by the Republican House of Representatives, Clinton becomes the second U.S. President to be impeached Clinton is acquitted by the Senate
652000 Presidential Election Highly controversial election in which Vice President Gore wins the popular vote but loses the electoral vote to President BushSupreme Court- selects Bush as President when it refuses to allow Gore to continue arguing the election in Florida
66War on TerrorismSeptember 11, America is attacked beginning the “war”Operation Enduring Freedom: invasion of Afghanistan in 2001Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in Iraq in 2003