31642 - 1853 Japan follows a policy of isolationism Did not want to be victimized like China
4Japan’s Ascendancy in Asia Feudal society of Japan practiced isolationism until (Commodore Perry)Foreign involvement triggered revolution.New leaders favored industrialization of Japan.Technology was purchased from industrial nations.(i.e. war technology)
7Japanese Industrialization Collectivization of AgricultureCreates population to work in industryWestern education systems introduced by sending students abroad this helps to establish a knowledgeable workforce
8Japan’s Ascendancy in Asia As Japan’s industrial and military strength increased it looked at the Asian mainland as a main source of raw materials. (i.e. Manchuria)Continuously denied equal status as a great power (i.e. Washington Treaties) Japan decided to concentrate on their sphere of influence in Asia.They would be liberators from colonial control.
9War on the Mainland in 1894The Japanese capture Formosa and gain economic interests in Korea
101900 Boxer RebellionJapan gains economic power in China and with political power with BritainOpen Door Policy (American)Japan gains interest in China by forming an alliance with BritainJapan promises to protect British economic interests in China so that Britain can move her fleet
11Russo-Japanese War Russia is Japan’s biggest expansion threat 1904 – Japan attack Lushen (Port Arthur)Russian’s are defeatedSign the treaty of PortsmouthAllows for increased economic interest for JapanAnd creates a new respect for Asian People
13WWI – British Allies Japan occupies German colonies Most remain in Japanese controlThis allows Japan to control major sea lanes linking North America to Australia and the Philippines1922 Japan withdraws forces in Siberia
14Washington Naval Agreements 1921-1934 5:3 ratio Japan agrees as it still has dominance in AsiaAnglo-Japanese alliance lapses due to large immigration limitationsJapanese are insulted4 Powers Pact – promise to respect spheres of influence (F, B, A, J)Japan changes foreign polices and prepares for battle
16The Manchurian Incident 1931 – Japan goes to war with the Guomindang for ManchuriaJiang busy with Mao appeals to the League of Nations for helpThe incident becomes a test case and reason for the L of N’s failureSend Lytton who identifies Japan as the aggressorJapan is insulted; however, L of N does recognize Japan’s economic interestsMembers due not wish to give money for a war in AsiaAmerica is not strong in the Pacific
171936 – Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany Alliance between Germany and Japan
18The Pacific War 1937 Begins over a foolish incident Japanese made great advances into China including capturing the City of NankingRaping of Nanking – 4 week assault on the cityJiang retreated to mountains and asks for foreign aid but he stock piles weapons for civil war6 year undeclared truce calledJapan controlled most of Eastern China by 1939
20Show Video – Wikispaces: Rape of Nanking - viewer warning graphic
21ContinueUS and Britain in the face of Japanese aggression sanction oil, aviation fuel, scrap metalOn October 1940 – Tojo comes to powerAmericans delay negotiationsTojo plans attack on major cities and Pearl Harbor
22The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (1940) The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations.It is remembered today largely as a front for the Japanese control of occupied countries during WWII, in which puppet governments manipulated local populations and economies for the benefit of wartime Japan.
24Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941Led by General Tojo a Japanese naval armada launches an airborne attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.See Video Clip Days that Shook the World DVD Set
25Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941Pre-emptive attack after six months of trying to negotiate a treatyWoke the Sleeping GiantEurope first policy due to German industrial capacityBetween Japan has feelings of success in the Pacific (Navy led)Japanese Navy calls for the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere“Asia for Asia” (with Japanese hegemony)1941 – Japan signs Non-aggression pact with SU
34Battle of Coral Sea May 7, 1942American and Japanese carrier fleets engage in battle off the coast of Australia.Though the Japanese inflict more damage than they suffer their plans for the invasion of Australia are ruined.
35Battle of Midway June 4, 1942American intelligence determined that the Japanese intended to strike the U.S. base at Midway Island.American crews caught the Japanese by surprise and crippled their navy.See Video Clip
36Battle of MidwayJapan attacks Alaska to divert attention from Midway Island – not fallen for1943 Japan is driven offFight against Japan was boosted by the Americans luck – caught airplanes refuelingBattle had high death tolls due to the belief that suicide was an honorable deathHand to hand guerilla warfareYamamoto loses the Battle of Midway
40Pacific Theatre of WarFollowing the battle of Midway the Allies went on the offensive in Asia. (island hopping)Some of the fiercest battles took place along the Guadalcanal “island of death”.
41Iwo Jima (February, 1945)One of the most famous battles in the PacificFighting lasted one monthAmerican casualtiesJapanese casualties
42Okinawa (April, 1945) Marines attacked Okinawa Kamakaze raids proved difficult for Americans soldiers (1900 attacks)40, 000 American casualties resulted.Despite victory by the Americans, Japan still had2 million troops5000 kamakaze aircraft still stationed in Japan
43Assault by AirAs American planes ran bombing missions over Japanese cities plans were made for the assault on Japan by American forces.Assault would cost more than 1,000,000 American lives.Roosevelt passed away in April, 1945.New president Harry Truman did not want to risk this many lives.
44Hiroshima August 6, 1945a bomber named the Enola Gay dropped Little Boy (atomic bomb) on an industrial city in Japan named Hiroshima.77,000 people diedNo response by Japan
45Atomic Bomb War weary the Americans decide to use the Atomic Bomb Causalities of invading Japan were estimated highRoosevelt dies – Truman replaces him and is struggling to work with StalinAugust 6/45 bomb dropped on HiroshimaAugust 9/45 bomb dropped on NagasakiSoviets march into Manchuria
51Casablanca Conference January, 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill decided to accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany.Plan to postpone D-Day and plan more immediate targets in Italy.
52Teheran Conference November, 1943 Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met and decided on creating a second front in France to be launched June 1944.
53Yalta Conference February, 1945 To put an end to German militarism and NazismTo punish war criminals and to exact reparationsTo divide Germany into occupation zonesConfirmed Soviet possession of Eastern Poland compensating Poland with German territoryTo assist countries under Allied occupation in forming democratically elected interim governments.Announced a “conference of United Nations” to be held in San Francisco in April 1945
54Potsdam July, 1945Roosevelt had passed away so new U.S. president Truman represented the USA.Established four power occupation zones for postwar Germany.Established plans for the reordering of the German economy and German institutions.Issued an ultimatum to Japan either to surrender or risk total destruction.
55The decisions made at these conferences resulted in the establishment of Soviet and Western Blocs that would form the basis of a tense rivalry following the war.