1642 - 1853 Japan follows a policy of isolationism Did not want to be victimized like China
Japans Ascendancy in Asia Feudal society of Japan practiced isolationism until 1853. (Commodore Perry) Foreign involvement triggered revolution. New leaders favored industrialization of Japan. Technology was purchased from industrial nations.(i.e. war technology)
Japanese Industrialization Collectivization of Agriculture Creates population to work in industry Western education systems introduced by sending students abroad this helps to establish a knowledgeable workforce
As Japans industrial and military strength increased it looked at the Asian mainland as a main source of raw materials. (i.e. Manchuria) Continuously denied equal status as a great power (i.e. Washington Treaties) Japan decided to concentrate on their sphere of influence in Asia. –They would be liberators from colonial control. Japans Ascendancy in Asia
War on the Mainland in 1894 The Japanese capture Formosa and gain economic interests in Korea
1900 Boxer Rebellion Japan gains economic power in China and with political power with Britain –Open Door Policy (American) –Japan gains interest in China by forming an alliance with Britain –Japan promises to protect British economic interests in China so that Britain can move her fleet
Russo-Japanese War Russia is Japans biggest expansion threat 1904 – Japan attack Lushen (Port Arthur) Russians are defeated Sign the treaty of Portsmouth Allows for increased economic interest for Japan And creates a new respect for Asian People
WWI – British Allies Japan occupies German colonies Most remain in Japanese control This allows Japan to control major sea lanes linking North America to Australia and the Philippines 1922 Japan withdraws forces in Siberia
Washington Naval Agreements 1921-1934 5:3 ratio Japan agrees as it still has dominance in Asia Anglo-Japanese alliance lapses due to large immigration limitations –Japanese are insulted 4 Powers Pact – promise to respect spheres of influence (F, B, A, J) Japan changes foreign polices and prepares for battle
The Manchurian Incident 1931 – Japan goes to war with the Guomindang for Manchuria Jiang busy with Mao appeals to the League of Nations for help The incident becomes a test case and reason for the L of Ns failure Send Lytton who identifies Japan as the aggressor Japan is insulted; however, L of N does recognize Japans economic interests Members due not wish to give money for a war in Asia America is not strong in the Pacific
1936 – Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany Alliance between Germany and Japan
The Pacific War 1937 Begins over a foolish incident Japanese made great advances into China including capturing the City of Nanking Raping of Nanking – 4 week assault on the city Jiang retreated to mountains and asks for foreign aid but he stock piles weapons for civil war 6 year undeclared truce called Japan controlled most of Eastern China by 1939
Show Video – Wikispaces: Rape of Nanking - viewer warning graphic
Continue US and Britain in the face of Japanese aggression sanction oil, aviation fuel, scrap metal On October 1940 – Tojo comes to power –Americans delay negotiations –Tojo plans attack on major cities and Pearl Harbor
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (1940) The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. It is remembered today largely as a front for the Japanese control of occupied countries during WWII, in which puppet governments manipulated local populations and economies for the benefit of wartime Japan.
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Led by General Tojo a Japanese naval armada launches an airborne attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. See Video Clip 1941- Days that Shook the World DVD Set
Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 Pre-emptive attack after six months of trying to negotiate a treaty Woke the Sleeping Giant Europe first policy due to German industrial capacity Between 1941-42 Japan has feelings of success in the Pacific (Navy led) Japanese Navy calls for the Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere Asia for Asia (with Japanese hegemony) 1941 – Japan signs Non-aggression pact with SU
Battle of Coral Sea May 7, 1942 American and Japanese carrier fleets engage in battle off the coast of Australia. Though the Japanese inflict more damage than they suffer their plans for the invasion of Australia are ruined.
Battle of Midway June 4, 1942 American intelligence determined that the Japanese intended to strike the U.S. base at Midway Island. American crews caught the Japanese by surprise and crippled their navy. See Video Clip
Battle of Midway Japan attacks Alaska to divert attention from Midway Island – not fallen for 1943 Japan is driven off Fight against Japan was boosted by the Americans luck – caught airplanes refueling Battle had high death tolls due to the belief that suicide was an honorable death Hand to hand guerilla warfare Yamamoto loses the Battle of Midway
Pacific Theatre of War Following the battle of Midway the Allies went on the offensive in Asia. (island hopping) Some of the fiercest battles took place along the Guadalcanal island of death.
Iwo Jima (February, 1945) One of the most famous battles in the Pacific Fighting lasted one month –20 000 American casualties –23 000 Japanese casualties
Okinawa (April, 1945) Marines attacked Okinawa Kamakaze raids proved difficult for Americans soldiers (1900 attacks) 40, 000 American casualties resulted. Despite victory by the Americans, Japan still had –2 million troops –5000 kamakaze aircraft still stationed in Japan
Assault by Air As American planes ran bombing missions over Japanese cities plans were made for the assault on Japan by American forces. Assault would cost more than 1,000,000 American lives. Roosevelt passed away in April, 1945. New president Harry Truman did not want to risk this many lives.
Hiroshima August 6, 1945 a bomber named the Enola Gay dropped Little Boy (atomic bomb) on an industrial city in Japan named Hiroshima. 77,000 people died No response by Japan
Atomic Bomb War weary the Americans decide to use the Atomic Bomb Causalities of invading Japan were estimated high Roosevelt dies – Truman replaces him and is struggling to work with Stalin August 6/45 bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 9/45 bomb dropped on Nagasaki Soviets march into Manchuria
Casablanca Conference January, 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill decided to accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany. Plan to postpone D- Day and plan more immediate targets in Italy.
Teheran Conference November, 1943 Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met and decided on creating a second front in France to be launched June 1944.
Yalta Conference February, 1945 To put an end to German militarism and Nazism To punish war criminals and to exact reparations To divide Germany into occupation zones Confirmed Soviet possession of Eastern Poland compensating Poland with German territory To assist countries under Allied occupation in forming democratically elected interim governments. Announced a conference of United Nations to be held in San Francisco in April 1945
Potsdam July, 1945 Roosevelt had passed away so new U.S. president Truman represented the USA. Established four power occupation zones for postwar Germany. Established plans for the reordering of the German economy and German institutions. Issued an ultimatum to Japan either to surrender or risk total destruction.
The decisions made at these conferences resulted in the establishment of Soviet and Western Blocs that would form the basis of a tense rivalry following the war.