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World War II: The Pacific

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Presentation on theme: "World War II: The Pacific"— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II: The Pacific

2 Japan's Ascendancy in Asia and the Pacific War

3 1642 - 1853 Japan follows a policy of isolationism
Did not want to be victimized like China

4 Japan’s Ascendancy in Asia
Feudal society of Japan practiced isolationism until (Commodore Perry) Foreign involvement triggered revolution. New leaders favored industrialization of Japan. Technology was purchased from industrial nations.(i.e. war technology)



7 Japanese Industrialization
Collectivization of Agriculture Creates population to work in industry Western education systems introduced by sending students abroad this helps to establish a knowledgeable workforce

8 Japan’s Ascendancy in Asia
As Japan’s industrial and military strength increased it looked at the Asian mainland as a main source of raw materials. (i.e. Manchuria) Continuously denied equal status as a great power (i.e. Washington Treaties) Japan decided to concentrate on their sphere of influence in Asia. They would be liberators from colonial control.

9 War on the Mainland in 1894 The Japanese capture Formosa and gain economic interests in Korea

10 1900 Boxer Rebellion Japan gains economic power in China and with political power with Britain Open Door Policy (American) Japan gains interest in China by forming an alliance with Britain Japan promises to protect British economic interests in China so that Britain can move her fleet

11 Russo-Japanese War Russia is Japan’s biggest expansion threat
1904 – Japan attack Lushen (Port Arthur) Russian’s are defeated Sign the treaty of Portsmouth Allows for increased economic interest for Japan And creates a new respect for Asian People


13 WWI – British Allies Japan occupies German colonies
Most remain in Japanese control This allows Japan to control major sea lanes linking North America to Australia and the Philippines 1922 Japan withdraws forces in Siberia

14 Washington Naval Agreements 1921-1934
5:3 ratio Japan agrees as it still has dominance in Asia Anglo-Japanese alliance lapses due to large immigration limitations Japanese are insulted 4 Powers Pact – promise to respect spheres of influence (F, B, A, J) Japan changes foreign polices and prepares for battle


16 The Manchurian Incident
1931 – Japan goes to war with the Guomindang for Manchuria Jiang busy with Mao appeals to the League of Nations for help The incident becomes a test case and reason for the L of N’s failure Send Lytton who identifies Japan as the aggressor Japan is insulted; however, L of N does recognize Japan’s economic interests Members due not wish to give money for a war in Asia America is not strong in the Pacific

17 1936 – Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany
Alliance between Germany and Japan

18 The Pacific War 1937 Begins over a foolish incident
Japanese made great advances into China including capturing the City of Nanking Raping of Nanking – 4 week assault on the city Jiang retreated to mountains and asks for foreign aid but he stock piles weapons for civil war 6 year undeclared truce called Japan controlled most of Eastern China by 1939


20 Show Video – Wikispaces: Rape of Nanking - viewer warning graphic

21 Continue US and Britain in the face of Japanese aggression sanction oil, aviation fuel, scrap metal On October 1940 – Tojo comes to power Americans delay negotiations Tojo plans attack on major cities and Pearl Harbor

22 The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (1940)
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. It is remembered today largely as a front for the Japanese control of occupied countries during WWII, in which puppet governments manipulated local populations and economies for the benefit of wartime Japan.


24 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Led by General Tojo a Japanese naval armada launches an airborne attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. See Video Clip Days that Shook the World DVD Set

25 Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 Pre-emptive attack after six months of trying to negotiate a treaty Woke the Sleeping Giant Europe first policy due to German industrial capacity Between Japan has feelings of success in the Pacific (Navy led) Japanese Navy calls for the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere “Asia for Asia” (with Japanese hegemony) 1941 – Japan signs Non-aggression pact with SU




29 Pearl Harbor Most of the Pacific fleet was sunk or heavily damaged.
2400 Americans died

30 Pearl Harbor Although 18 ships were destroyed, none of America’s aircraft carriers were in the harbor at the time.

31 War in the Pacific

32 The Doolittle Raid (April 18, 1942)
In an attempt to strike back as soon as possible Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads a flight of heavy bombers off a carrier in an air attack over Tokyo.


34 Battle of Coral Sea May 7, 1942 American and Japanese carrier fleets engage in battle off the coast of Australia. Though the Japanese inflict more damage than they suffer their plans for the invasion of Australia are ruined.

35 Battle of Midway June 4, 1942 American intelligence determined that the Japanese intended to strike the U.S. base at Midway Island. American crews caught the Japanese by surprise and crippled their navy. See Video Clip

36 Battle of Midway Japan attacks Alaska to divert attention from Midway Island – not fallen for 1943 Japan is driven off Fight against Japan was boosted by the Americans luck – caught airplanes refueling Battle had high death tolls due to the belief that suicide was an honorable death Hand to hand guerilla warfare Yamamoto loses the Battle of Midway




40 Pacific Theatre of War Following the battle of Midway the Allies went on the offensive in Asia. (island hopping) Some of the fiercest battles took place along the Guadalcanal “island of death”.

41 Iwo Jima (February, 1945) One of the most famous battles in the Pacific Fighting lasted one month American casualties Japanese casualties

42 Okinawa (April, 1945) Marines attacked Okinawa
Kamakaze raids proved difficult for Americans soldiers (1900 attacks) 40, 000 American casualties resulted. Despite victory by the Americans, Japan still had 2 million troops 5000 kamakaze aircraft still stationed in Japan

43 Assault by Air As American planes ran bombing missions over Japanese cities plans were made for the assault on Japan by American forces. Assault would cost more than 1,000,000 American lives. Roosevelt passed away in April, 1945. New president Harry Truman did not want to risk this many lives.

44 Hiroshima August 6, 1945 a bomber named the Enola Gay dropped Little Boy (atomic bomb) on an industrial city in Japan named Hiroshima. 77,000 people died No response by Japan

45 Atomic Bomb War weary the Americans decide to use the Atomic Bomb
Causalities of invading Japan were estimated high Roosevelt dies – Truman replaces him and is struggling to work with Stalin August 6/45 bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 9/45 bomb dropped on Nagasaki Soviets march into Manchuria

46 See Video Clip


48 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 The USA drops a second bomb “Fat Boy”
74,000 people died This coupled with Soviet forces attacking Manchuria and Korea force Emperor Hirohito to surrender.

49 Japan Surrenders (VJ Day) September 2, 1945

50 Wartime Conferences

51 Casablanca Conference January, 1943
Roosevelt and Churchill decided to accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany. Plan to postpone D-Day and plan more immediate targets in Italy.

52 Teheran Conference November, 1943
Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met and decided on creating a second front in France to be launched June 1944.

53 Yalta Conference February, 1945
To put an end to German militarism and Nazism To punish war criminals and to exact reparations To divide Germany into occupation zones Confirmed Soviet possession of Eastern Poland compensating Poland with German territory To assist countries under Allied occupation in forming democratically elected interim governments. Announced a “conference of United Nations” to be held in San Francisco in April 1945

54 Potsdam July, 1945 Roosevelt had passed away so new U.S. president Truman represented the USA. Established four power occupation zones for postwar Germany. Established plans for the reordering of the German economy and German institutions. Issued an ultimatum to Japan either to surrender or risk total destruction.

55 The decisions made at these conferences resulted in the establishment of Soviet and Western Blocs that would form the basis of a tense rivalry following the war.

56 Deaths in World War II

57 Total Dead: approximately 61 million
Deaths in World War II Total Dead: approximately 61 million

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