2Nucleus The “brain” of the cell Controls all of the cellular activitiesDNA is inside the nucleus
3Nucleus are found inside the nucleus CHROMOSOMES- carry the information that determines what traits a living thing will haveChromosomes –
4NUCLEOLUS The dark area in the nucleus Like a tiny nucleus inside the nucleus.
5Example: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it CELL MEMBRANEholds the cell togetherkeeps all of the pieces (like the organelles and the cytoplasm) inside the cellcontrols what goes in and out of the cellExample: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it
7Mitochondria Mito = Mighty / Power The Power-House of the cell They break down food molecules and combine them with oxygen so the cell has the energy to liveIf a cell needs a lot of energy…it will have more mitochondriavilenski.org/science/safari/ cellstructure/mito.html
8The Mitochondria structure has three main parts: OUTER MEMBRANE: covers the mitochondriaINNER MEMBRANE: folds many times to increase the surface area because chemical reactionsoccur hereSo…the more space it has the more energy it can create
9Endoplasmic Reticulum also known as the “ER”it is an organelle inside the cell that ismade up of membranes that are in the CYTOPLASM of the cell. TRANSPORTS materials.
10CYTOPLASM Cytoplasm- Is a jelly-like material, made mostly of water Moves in a circle continuously: CYCLOSISHolds everything inside the cell membrane & outside of the nucleus
12VACUOLE Vacuoles are “bubbles” that float in the cell Vacuoles are more important to the survival of plant cells than they are to animal cells
13VACUOLE: STORAGE IN PLANT CELLS Vacuoles in plants support structureVacuoles hold onto things that the cell might need…like a backpackThere are some vacuoles that hold onto waste products, similar to having a big septic tankStoring waste products protects the cell from contamination
14VACUOLE CONT’DSo, when there is no water…the vacuole shrinks and the cell wall is the only thing holding the plant together.
15You will know that a plant's vacuoles are shrinking when you see the plant begin to droop over HOLDING UP THE WALLS
17Chloroplast the site of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells disk-like structures
18SOLAR energy radiated from the sun is captured by plants(chloroplast) Then packaged as CHEMICAL energyChloroplast
19Chloroplast photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make foodPhotosynthesis-
20Ribosomessmall dot-like structures in cellsRibosomes are the site of protein synthesis in cellsthey are made in the nucleus of the cellA ribosome can make the average protein in about one minute
21Assignment Part A (slides 1-11) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. Which organelle is known as the “Brain” of the cell?2. If you look at a picture of a cell, how would you recognize the nucleolus?3. List the 3 main jobs of the cell membrane4. Explain why the cell membrane has tiny holes made of protein in it.5. The term hydro means _________.A. If something is hydrophobic it is _________B. If something is hydrophilic it is __________
22Assignment Part B (slides 11-23) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. Which organelle is known as the Power House” of the cell?2. The mitochondria of a cell share the same job as the __________ (hint- an organ) in the human body.3. Explain how you could distinguish the rough ER from the smooth ER.4. What is the main job of the smooth ER?5. What type of reactions occur on the inner membrane of the mitochondria? (produces energy)6. The process of H2O moving across the cell membrane is called?
23Assignment Part C (slides 23-) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. What is the main function of a lysosome?2. What happens if a lysosome breaks open?3. Explain the difference between cytoplasm and protoplasm. (draw a diagram if it will help you)4. Why are vacuoles important to PLANTS?5. Which organelle is the site of photosynthesis?6. What are the three main ingredients for photosynthesis?
24Assignment Part D (slides 23-) Directions: Write-out and highlight the following questions. Then use your notes to answer them.1. Centrioles are usually found in __________ cells.2. What is the main function of a centriole?3. List the two places you can find a ribosome in an animal cell.4. What do ribosomes make?