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Continuous Planning and Execution Dr. Karen Myers (PI) Mr. David Blei Mr. Thomas J. Lee Dr. Charlie Ortiz Dr. David E. Wilkins Artificial Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "Continuous Planning and Execution Dr. Karen Myers (PI) Mr. David Blei Mr. Thomas J. Lee Dr. Charlie Ortiz Dr. David E. Wilkins Artificial Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Continuous Planning and Execution Dr. Karen Myers (PI) Mr. David Blei Mr. Thomas J. Lee Dr. Charlie Ortiz Dr. David E. Wilkins Artificial Intelligence Center SRI International 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, CA Project URL SRI International

2 Domain Characteristics Tasks are complex and open-ended Operating environments are dynamic and possibly hostile Complete and accurate knowledge of the world can never be attained Full automation is neither possible nor desirable  Successful operation requires a mix of »user involvement and control »continuous planning »rapid response to unexpected events »dynamic adaptation of activities

3 SRI International CPEF Foundations leverage several mature SRI technologies –Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) »Knowledge-based Reactive Control system –SIPE-2: Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planner –Advisable Planner (AP) –Multiagent Planning Architecture (MPA)  Functional integration: more than just interfaces...

4 SRI International Technical Thrusts A. Flexible Process Management –provide intelligent management of planning and execution that is responsive to the dynamics of the operating environment B. Dynamic Plan Adaptation –provide situation monitoring, execution monitoring, and plan repair that enable reactive, timely adaptation of plans C. Robust Plans –generate plans that are sensitive to the execution environment, knowledge limitations D. User Guidance –enable users to direct and manage key aspects of the planning and execution processes

5 SRI International CPEF Architecture MPA Messages

6 SRI International Infrastructure: Multiagent Planning Architecture (MPA) Builds on components from the Multiagent Planning Architecture (MPA) –Agent-based framework for addressing large-scale planning problems –distributed operations –modularity via plug-and-play paradigm –Protocols related to plans and planning activities »layered on top of KQML –Plan Server for storage/retrieval of plans and plan fragments Extensions to MPA for plan execution –class of Executor agents –protocols for plan execution, repair, updates, advice

7 SRI International Plan Manager: Responsibilities Execution Tracking –Supervise progress through execution of plans Knowledge Management –Situation monitoring –Perform information-gathering tasks Process Management –Control generation of plans and options for outstanding tasks –Provide timely response to user requests, unexpected events »Reactive response to unexpected events EX: downed pilot in Area of Operations »Runtime adaptation of plans in response to failures, events EX: pop-up targets, change in weather

8 SRI International Plan Manager Design PRS reactive control technology –Multi-threaded, highly responsive –Mixture of goal-directed and event-directed activity Execution tracking via Flow Model –Await outcomes in accordance with sequencing info in plans Outcomes: success, failure, unknown, time-out –More opportunistic models would be preferable

9 SRI International PRS Reactive Control Architecture Plan: partial order of goals Controller: manages procedure application in accordance with Plan and New Events Monitors: checking for critical events Database: dynamically maintained knowledge of the real world Procedures: –goal refinement –reactive responses Controller Plan Procedures MonitorsDatabase User World

10 SRI International Monitors Event change in the world state –action completes, new info, time passes Response several possibilities: 1. Invoke standard operating procedures 2. Perform plan transformations (e.g., plan repair, plan extension) 3. Record changed world model Monitor Classes Failure Monitors respond to failures that occur during plan execution Knowledge Monitors test for availability of info needed for decision- making Assumption Monitors respond to situation changes that violate key plan assumptions

11 SRI International Automated Monitor Generation Create assumption monitors with a range of possible responses from formal plan representation –alerts, plan repairs, standard operating procedures Traversal of causal links within plan derivation structure to collect conditions/assumptions that are: –Dynamic –Not established by earlier actions in the plans (ie, in initial world) –Declared as significant »Certain violations can be disregarded until entry into a critical time window (Ex: weather) PLAN = Actions + Monitors

12 SRI International Plan Repair Perform minimal-perturbation replanning for impacted portions of current plan –wedge beneath ‘failure nodes’ –minimal changes provide plan continuity, understandability »can be computationally expensive Planning-time –Adaptation of plan in response to information updates Asynchronous Execution-time –Adaptation of active plan during execution »world continues to change, unaffected actions are executed –Plan Manager must synchronize new plan with continued progress along previous plan

13 SRI International ACP Knowledge Bases Support Packages Targets Strikes Air Objectives CTEM Planner Strategy-to-Task refinement of selected Air objectives Final plans at the level of targets, CAPS (with several thousand nodes) Key Components –strategic knowledge for objective refinement –hierarchical target network models –threat models –geographic knowledge –force and equipment knowledge Assumes key intel info: COGs, threats Scope of TIE-97-1 Air Campaign Planning (ACP) Knowledge Base

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15 SRI International CPEF Demo: Technical Highlights Rapid generation of alternative courses of action –Strategy-to-task refinement of Air Superiority objectives Incremental generation of qualitatively different options by user (via advice) Application of automatically- and user-created monitors Realtime Execution Tracking in a simulated environment Asynchronous adaptation of activity in response to realtime monitoring of –situation changes (Ex: Downed Pilot) – plan execution results (Ex: failure to neutralize critical targets) Advised Plan Repair

16 SRI International Conclusions CPEF Prototype demonstrates flexible process management for living plans in Air Campaigns –Full Spectrum: plan generation, execution, repair Several Notable Technical Accomplishments –Models for Plan Management, Execution Tracking –Generalized Failure Models, Repair Methods –Promising preliminary work on Open-ended Planning Major Contributor within the JFACC Program Process Management Plans Air Campaigns CPEF

17 SRI International Backup Slides

18 SRI International Execution Models Direct Execution (Do it!) –actions are dispatched directly by the system »EX: controller for a mobile robot Indirect Execution (Supervisory) –plan is executed by diverse, distributed agents –agents are pre-assigned execution tasks –status of action execution is not directly available –delays in redirecting agents that perform planned actions –time lag on receipt of information about the world

19 SRI International Generalized Failure Models Limited scope of current models: Precondition Failure action precondition not satisfied Action Failure intended effects not achieve Maintenance Failure established condition no longer maintained New directions --- beyond plan dependency structures Unattributable Failure no individual action has failed or assumption violated yet plan is deemed inadequate »Ex: CA indicates failure to establish sufficiently strong breach of IADS Aggregate Failure require collections of failures, possibly with key relationships among them (eg, A fails then B fails) »Ex: key subset of a target network

20 SRI International PRS Control Loop Execution Cycle 1. New information arrives that updates facts and goals 2. Acts are triggered by new facts or goals 3. A triggered Act is intended 4. An intended Act is selected 5. That intention is activated 6. An action is performed 7. New facts or goals are posted 8. Intentions are updated Goal2 ACT8 sleeping Fact1 ACT2 normal Goal3 ACT3 sleeping Intention Graph Cue: (TEST (overpressurized tank.1)) ACT2 Act Library Act Execution (overpressurized fuel-tank) (ACHIEVE (position ox-valve closed)) New Facts & Goals External World Cue: (ACHIEVE (position valve.1 closed)) ACT1 Facts & Goals (ACHIEVE (position ox-valve closed)) ACT1 current

21 SRI International CPEF: Continuous Planning and Execution Framework process management technology for living plans –plan creation, execution, repair vertical slice of the JFACC system Process Management Living Plans Air Campaigns Workflow Management Plan Gen Specialized Components JFACC System CPEFCPEF Layered View of CPEF

22 SRI International Process Management: Generality and Ubiquity CPEF (JFACC, SUO) Process Management Process Management Plans Air Campaigns Process Management Info Needs ISR SWIM (AIM) TRAC (CoABS) Agents

23 SRI International Accomplishments: Technical Process Management for plan generation, indirect execution, monitoring, repair Automated extraction of monitors from plans Generalized models of failure and execution monitoring Mixed-initiative options generation and plan repair (using advice) Preliminary models for open-ended planning “Towards a Framework for Continuous Planning and Execution”, AAAI 1998 Fall Symposium on Distributed, Continual Planning (Special Issue of AI Magazine)


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